click links in text for more info


A Diplom is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany and Switzerland and a named degree in some other European countries including Albania, Belarus and Herzegovina, Estonia, Poland and Ukraine and only for engineers in France, Hungary, North Macedonia, Serbia and Brazil. The Diplom originates from the French Diplôme describing a certificate devised during the Second French Empire to bestow honours upon outstanding citizens and soldiers of the imperial French army to promote them into the Legion of Honour since 1862; the Magister degree was the original graduate degree at German-speaking universities. In Germany the Diplom dates back to the pre-republican period: In October 1899 the engineering degree Diplom was announced by a supreme decree of the German emperor Wilhelm II in his function as the King of Prussia on the advent of the Centenary of the Prussian Technical College in Berlin; the Diplom was subsequently adopted by the Technische Hochschulen which had received university status following this Prussian decree.

All German universities adopted the Diplom as their degree in Science or Engineering. In East Germany, the Diplom was the only first degree and was granted in disciplines such as medicine or law, which at West German universities were completed with a Staatsexamen. Nowadays such diploms are still granted to students of such disciplines, although most universities only grant the diplom status on request; some universities grant a master's degree to such students on request. With the implementation of the Bologna process, awarding new Diplom and Magister degrees has become rare, since they are replaced by bachelor's or master's degrees. Awarded degrees remain valid.'Diplôme' is the French word for degree or diploma. The French engineering diploma is called Diplôme d'Ingénieur; the French government grants to all holders of a Diplôme d'Ingénieur the academic title of Ingénieur Diplômé, official and protected in France. Before the introduction of the bachelor's and master's degrees in Germany, the standard Science, Engineering or Business degree was the Diplom and could be, in several variations, obtained at several types of institutes of higher education.

Obtained at a university, the degree was called a Diplom or a Diplom and took between four and six years, depending on subject and curriculum. When obtained at a so-called University of Applied Sciences, the diploma degree is called a Diplom and took four years; the Diplom was awarded in the natural sciences and engineering, while students of humanities and languages finished with a Magister. All kinds of Diplom degrees were first degrees. However, the Diplom / Diplom was the highest non-doctoral degree in science, business or engineering in Germany; the duration of the Diplom degree programmes differed depending on university. An official average duration was set by law in each German state being four years for a Diplom and 4, 4.5 or 5 years for a Diplom / Diplom. In exceptional cases, universities were allowed to set longer average durations for certain subjects. However, due to the curriculum set by most universities in Germany, the 4, 4.5 or 5 years for a Diplom / Diplom were exceeded. Although being a first degree, because of its actual duration, the Diplom / Diplom was and is in Germany not considered as an equivalent to a bachelor's but rather to a master's degree, as expressed by the equivalent ECTS credits for the Diplom / Diplom.

A holder of a Diplom obtained at a university is, depending on subject, for example referred to as "Diplom-Ingenieur", "Diplom-Kaufmann", "Diplom-Biologe" and so on. In Bavaria, sometimes the postfix "" is added. If the Diplom has been obtained at a University of Applied Sciences the postfix "" has to be added. There are a few rare exceptions where the postfix need not be added due to older laws, small differences in the laws of the German states or transition rules. Transition rules, for example in engineering, or European Union directives like directive 2005/36/EC grant certain limited groups with other kinds of related qualifications to use the designation Diplom. To obtain a Diplom at a university, students had to complete two separate periods of study; the first one was a two-year period of coursework in courses of introductory nature, the Grundstudium. After this period, in addition to exams for passing the modules, students attained a series of four intermediate exams to obtain the Vordiplom.

The second period, the Hauptstudium, consisted of two years of coursework in courses of advanced level, an additional period of several months in which a thesis had to be written and a series of four final exams. It was not unusual for students to need more than two years for the coursework of the Hauptstudium. An obtained Vordiplom and the completion of the coursework of the Hauptstudium were the requirements to register for working

Participatory 3D modelling

Participatory 3D modelling is a community-based mapping method which integrates local spatial knowledge with data on elevation of the land and depth of the sea to produce stand-alone and geo-referenced relief models. Based on local spatial knowledge, land use and cover, other features are depicted by informants on the model by the use of pushpins and paints. On completion, a scaled and geo-referenced grid is applied to facilitate data extraction or importation. Data depicted on the model are extracted and plotted. On completion of the exercise the model remains with the community. On November 5, 2007 at a ceremony which took place during the Global Forum 2007 at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice, the CTA-supported project Participatory 3D Modelling for Resource Use, Development Planning and Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in Fiji was granted the World Summit Award 2007 in the category e-culture; the product, based on the use of P3DM, has been considered as one of the 40 best practice examples of quality e-Content in the world.

The product has been delivered by the following organizations: Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area Network, WWF South Pacific Programme, Native Lands Trust Board, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, National Trust of Fiji, Lomaiviti Provincial Council and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU. Geographic information system Neogeography Participatory GIS Public participation GIS Raised-relief map Traditional knowledge GIS Rambaldi G. Muchemi J. Crawhall N. and Monaci L. 2007. Through the Eyes of Hunter-gatherers: Participatory 3D Modelling among Ogiek Indigenous Peoples in Kenya. Information Development, Vol. 23, No. 2-3, 113–128 Rambaldi G. Kwaku Kyem A. P.. Participatory Spatial Information Management and Communication in Developing Countries. EJISDC 25, 1, 1–9. Chambers R. 2006. Participatory Mapping and Geographic Information Systems: Whose Map? Who is Empowered and Who Disempowered? Who Gains and Who Loses? EJISDC 25, 2, 1–11 Rambaldi G, Chambers R. McCall M, And Fox J. 2006.

Practical ethics for PGIS practitioners, technology intermediaries and researchers. PLA 54:106–113, IIED, London, UK Corbett J, Rambaldi G. Kyem P. Weiner D. Olson R. Muchemi J. McCall M And Chambers R. 2006. Mapping for Change: The emergence of a new practice. PLA 54:13–19 IIED, London, UK Rambaldi G. Bugna S. Tiangco A. and de Vera D. 2002 Bringing the Vertical Dimension to the Negotiating Table. Preliminary Assessment of a Conflict Resolution Case in the Philippines. ASEAN Biodiversity, Vol. 2 No. 1, 17–26. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Los Baños, Philippines. Puginier O. 2002. “Participation” in a conflicting policy framework: Lessons learned from a Thai experience. ASEAN Biodiversity, Vol. 2 No. 1, 35–42. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Los Baños, Philippines. Rambaldi G. and Le Van Lanh. 2002. The Seventh Helper: the Vertical Dimension. Feedback from a training exercise in Vietnam. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Los Baños, Philippines. Martin C. Eguienta Y. Castella, J.

C. T. T. Hieu and Lecompte P. 2001. Combination of participatory landscape analysis and spatial graphic models as a common language between researchers and local stakeholders. SAM Paper Series. IRRI-IRD. Networks Open Forum on Participatory Geographic Information Systems and Technologies – a global network of PGIS/PPGIS practitioners with Spanish and French-speaking chapters. Indigenous Peoples of Africa Coordinating Committee Organizations Integrated Approaches to Participatory Development – Provides information and case studies on Participatory 3-Dimensional Modelling practice; the Philippine Association for Inter-Cultural Development uses Participatory 3D Modelling, GPS and GIS applications to support Indigenous Cultural Communities throughout the Philippines in claiming for their rights over ancestral domains. ERMIS Africa builds capacities among local communities and development practitioners in using Participatory Geo-spatial Information Management Technologies; the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU supports the dissemination of good PGIS practice, including P3DM in ACP countries.

Bibliography Community Mapping, PGIS, PPGIS and P3DM Virtual LibraryMultimedia Collection of community mapping and participatory GIS multimedia Giving Voice to the Unspoken a 20-minute video production showing the hands-on aspects of Participatory 3D Modelling. PGIS Channel on Vimeo, including several documentaries on P3DM in English, French and Portuguese

Greek Cypriots in Northern Cyprus

Enclaved Greek Cypriots are the Greek Cypriots who have remained in enclaved villages in Northern Cyprus after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. In 2014, the population of Greek Cypriots was 343; the Greek Cypriots in Rizokarpaso elects their muhtar in the elections organized in the south by Republic of Cyprus. The Greek Cypriots have no right to vote or run in elections in Turkish Cypriot villages according to 1960 constitution. In 2011's census, the population of Turkish Cypriots in Rizakarpaso is 2349. Suphi Coşkun was elected in 2014 local elections as the mayor of Rizakarpaso. Eleni Foka was one of three Greek Cypriot primary school teachers in Karpasia, whose safety was called into question, she was a teacher at the Greek-Cypriot elementary school in Ayia Triada, Yialousa, in the Northern Cyprus' Karpas region. She took her issue to the European Court of Human Rights. On 5 May 1994, her case was mentioned in a report submitted by the Republic of Cyprus to the United Nations International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination.

It stated that: "At the beginning of March 1994, the Greek Cypriot teacher of the enclaved school in Ayia Triada, Ms. Eleni Foka, was nearly expelled after making a public statement to the effect that she felt threatened, it was only after repeated protests. In February 2011, it was announced that Eleni Foka has joined the participants of the Greek Cypriots, et al. v. TRNC and HSBC Bank USA class action. In September 2014, United States Federal Court rejected the case of Greek Cypriots. In the 1996/7 school year the primary school in Ayia Triada had to close down "due to the denial of the Turkish occupational forces to allow the school teacher Mrs Eleni Foka to return to her village, regardless of the intense efforts of the Cyprus government for her return." The Cypriot Financial Mirror newspaper has recorded that as as September 2008, the government of Northern Cyprus has prevented schoolteachers from returning to the primary school in Rizokarpaso. Turkish Cypriot enclaves, between 1963 and 1974 Rizokarpaso Rizokarpaso Primary School Kormakitis

Ronn Moss

Ronald Montague Moss is an American actor and singer/songwriter, a member of the band Player, best known for portraying Ridge Forrester, the dynamic fashion magnate on the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful from 1987 to 2012. Moss was raised in Los Angeles, he grew up surrounded by the theatre and rock & roll music world. At age 11, he started learning to play the drums and electric bass. In 1976, Moss joined creative forces with fellow singer/guitarist Peter Beckett, guitarist/keyboardist J. C Crowley, drummer John Friesen to form the band Player as bassist and singer. In a garage in the Hollywood Hills, they wrote and rehearsed the music that would soon attract the attention of music impresario Robert Stigwood, who signed them to his RSO Records. In the first three weeks of 1978, their single "Baby Come Back" occupied the #1 position on the national pop charts & Player was voted to the Billboard magazine honor roll of Top New Singles artist of 1978, their follow-up single, "This Time I'm in It for Love," peaked at No. 10 the same year.

"Baby Come Back" was next to "Sara Smile" by Hall & Oates as well as "How Much I Feel" by Ambrosia as one of the few songs by a white artist to be played on predominantly black radio stations. This enabled them to contribute to a musical genre known as "Blue-Eyed Soul", where white artists sing with a strong R & B Influence; the Australian edition of his 2002 solo CD I’m Your Man includes a fresh duet of the original hit "Baby Come Back" and two bonus tracks: "That's When I'll Be Gone" and "Mountain". Moss along with his band toured Australia between August and September 2006. In 2007, he released Uncovered. Player went on tour in 2015, with Moss and Peter Beckett playing dates with Orleans and Ambrosia as well as a few "Yacht Rock" shows with Little River Band. After a lawsuit against former PLAYER bandmate, Peter Beckett for the use of the trademark name, Ronn will debut his band as Ronn Moss' PLAYER for future PLAYER concerts. Ronn is now solo and toured Australia again in March 2019 and is touring Italy for the first time in the summer of 2019.

Moss played the Saracen hero Ruggero who fell in love with Bradamante in the 1983 Italian film Paladini-storia d'armi e d'amori – a film based on the legends surrounding the Peers of Charlemagne. In 1987, Moss was offered the role of "Ridge Forrester" on a new soap opera, The Bold and the Beautiful, he accepted the part, the show was broadcast in many nations across the globe and his role has attracted millions of fans worldwide. To this day, Moss is best known for this role and he travels overseas to visit other countries, make appearances, promote his music. 1987 marks the year of Moss' most critically acclaimed theatrical role as Rowdy Abilene in the Andy Sidaris classic Hard Ticket to Hawaii. Moss has a large fan base in Australia. In 2006, a campaign surfaced to vote Moss as Australian of the Year. Moss was featured in a popular television commercial for Berri, an Australian orange juice producer; the punchline of the advertisement was "you can tell when it's not all Aussie"— a line intended to show that, while Moss has longstanding connections with Australia, his Hollywood career has resulted in his persona differing from that of the cliché Australian male.

He has appeared on the former program Rove Live when in Australia. He takes part in sketches; the Bold and the Beautiful was a popular prime-time show in much of Europe. On August 11, 2012, it was announced that Moss would exit The Bold and the Beautiful, after having played the character of Ridge Forrester for 25 years. On May 12, 2014, along with his band Player, appeared on the ABC daytime soap opera General Hospital as part of the 2014 Nurses' Ball, where they performed their hit single "Baby Come Back". In 2015, he played the character of Ian in the Flemish soap Familie. Ronn played the role of John Blackwell on the digital soap "The Bay," and as one of its producers shared in the four Daytime Emmys it received for "Outstanding Daytime Digital Drama Series". I'm Your Man Uncovered Player Danger Zone Room with a View Spies of Life Electric Shadow / Lost in Reality Too Many Reasons Ronn Moss on IMDb Ronn Moss' Player Official Ronn Moss Website

Russky Arkhiv

Russky Arkhiv was a Russian historical and literary monthly magazine, published in Moscow in 1863–1917. Conceived by Alexey Khomyakov, it was launched and edited by Pyotr Bartenev, with a view to giving its readership the full and objective account of Russian history. In the course of its history the magazine published a host of important historical documents, including the unreleased archive materials, concerning correspondences, diaries, travel notes or memoirs of renowned historical figures, focusing on the history of Russian nobility of the 18th and the early 19th centuries. Topical for Russian Archive became the documentary analysis of the life and the work of Alexander Pushkin. Among the historians and critics who contributed to Russky Arkhiv were Yakov Grot, Mikhail Yuzefovich, Alexander Vasilchikov, Dmitry Ilovaysky, Mikhail Longinov, Leonid Maykov, Sergey Sobolevsky, Nikolai Barsukov. Among its most valued publications were letters and diaries by numerous Decembrists, the notes of Count Henning Friedrich von Bassewitz, as well as Just Juel, the Danish ambassador at the Court of Peter the Great, the diaries of Pyotr Tolstoy on his 1697–1699 foreign trip, Friedrich Christian Weber's notes on Peter I's reforms, as well as the assorted diaries and notes by Mikhail Antonovsky, Count Alexander de Ribaupierre, Nikolai Ilyinsky, Countess Edling, Count de Rochechouart, Hippolyte Auger, Nikolay Muravyov-Karsky, Count Mikhail Tolstoy, the poet Alexander Andreyev, Countess Antonina Bludova, general Grigory Filipson, the Saratov Governor Andrey Fadeyev, Baron Alexander von Nicolai, Nikolai Berg, Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky.

The extensive memoirs by general Pavel Grabbe and playwright Stepan Zhikharev came out separately, as supplements. Russky Arkhiv was a respectable but not massively popular publication. «Российский архив» online The Tsarskoye Selo Library. Assorted issues of Russky Arkiv

Bobby Coy

Robert Antony Coy is an English former footballer who played as a defender in the Football League for three clubs in the 1980s. Coy began his career as an apprentice with Wolverhampton Wanderers, signing professional forms in November 1979, he had to wait until the 1981–82 season for his league debut, which he made on 12 September 1981 in a 0-1 defeat to Tottenham Hotspur. He went on to make 21 top-flight appearances during his first season. Although Wolves were relegated at the end of the season, Coy was involved in them winning promotion in 1982–83. However, he only played five times the following season and in March 1984 he joined Division Four's bottom side Chester City in a joint loan deal with David Wintersgill. Coy's loan was made permanent, he played including a spell at centre forward. Coy became an established figure in a defence including future England international Lee Dixon, Andy Holden, Martin Lane and Peter Zelem and he went on to make 35 league appearances in 1984–85; this increased to 44 in 1985–86, when Chester were Division Four runners-up and Coy was named as player of the season.

But Coy was surprisingly released by manager Harry McNally and he joined Northampton Town. He enjoyed another promotion as the Cobblers won Division Four in 1986–87, but he made just 17 appearances for them and did not play again after promotion. After a spell on loan with Altrincham, Coy joined Southern League side Aylesbury. Once more there was promotion joy for Coy, he played in their solitary season in the GM Vauxhall Conference. Coy played lower down the non-league pyramid for Moor Green and Boldmere St Michaels, before he retired at the end of the 1996–97 season. Away from football he has worked in insurance and as a sales rep. Wolverhampton Wanderers Football League Division Two runners-up: 1982–83 Chester City Football League Division Four runners-up: 1985–86 Player of the Season: 1985–86. Northampton Town Football League Division Four champions: 1986–87 Aylesbury United Southern League champions: 1987–88 Bobby Coy's Aylesbury United career stats List of Chester City player of the season winners