Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the secular territory ruled by the archbishops of Salzburg, as distinguished from the much larger Catholic diocese founded in 739 by Saint Boniface in the German stem duchy of Bavaria; the capital of the archbishopric was the former Roman city of Iuvavum. From the late 13th century onwards, the archbishops reached the status of Imperial immediacy and independence from the Bavarian dukes. Salzburg remained an ecclesiastical principality until its secularisation to the short-lived Electorate of Salzburg in 1803. Members of the Bavarian Circle from 1500, the prince-archbishops bore the title of Primas Germaniae, though they never obtained electoral dignity; the last prince-archbishop exercising secular authority was Count Hieronymus von Colloredo, an early patron of Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The prince-archbishopric's territory was congruent with the present-day Austrian state of Salzburg.
It stretched along the Salzach river from the High Tauern range—Mt. Großvenediger at 3,666 m —at the main chain of the Alps in the south down to the Alpine foothills in the north. Here it comprised the present-day Rupertiwinkel on the western shore of the Salzach, which today is part of Bavaria; the former archepiscopal lands are traditionally subdivided into five historic parts: Flachgau with the Salzburg capital and Tennengau around Hallein are both located in the broad Salzach valley at the rim of the Northern Limestone Alps. In the north and east, the prince-archbishopric bordered on the Duchy of Austria, a former Bavarian margraviate, which had become independent in 1156 and, raised to an archduchy in 1457, developed as the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy; the Salzkammergut border region, today a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as an important salt trade region was seized by the mighty House of Habsburg and incorporated into the Upper Austrian lands. In the southeast, Salzburg adjoined the Duchy of Styria ruled by the Habsburg dukes in personal union since 1192.
By 1335, the Austrian regents had acquired the old Duchy of Carinthia in the south, the Styrian and Carinthian territories were incorporated into Inner Austria in 1379. The Habsburg encirclement was nearly completed, when in 1363 the archdukes attained the County of Tyrol in the west. Only in the northwest did Salzburg bordered on the Duchy of Bavaria, the tiny Berchtesgaden Provostry, able to retain its independence until the Mediatisation in 1803; the Vita Sancti Severini biography by the Early Christian chronicler Eugippius reported that during the Decline of the Roman Empire about 450 AD the local capital Iuvavum in the Noricum ripense province was home to two churches and a monastery. Little is known of the early bishopric during the Migration Period, the legendary Saint Maximus of Salzburg is the only abbot-bishop known by name. A disciple of Saint Severinus, he was martyred in the retreat from Noricum, after the Germanic Western Roman officer Odoacer had deposed the last Emperor Romulus Augustulus and declared himself King of Italy in 476.
In his conflict with the Rugii tribes, Odoacer had his brother Onoulphus evacuate the Noricum ripense province in 487/88, whereby Iuvavum was abandoned and with it the bishopric. Saint Severinus had died in 482 in the castrum of Favianis, six years before the departure of the Roman legions from the region. From the 6th century onwards, the northern areas of the archbishopric were resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes, who established themselves among the remaining Romance population, while Slavic tribes moved into the southern Pongau and Lungau parts. About 696 Saint Rupert Bishop of Worms in Frankish Austrasia and called the apostle of Bavaria and Carinthia, came to the region from the Bavarian town Regensburg and laid the foundations for the re-establishment of the Salzburg diocese. After erecting a church at nearby Seekirchen he discovered the ruins of Iuvavum overgrown with brambles and remnants of the Romance population, who had maintained Christian traditions; the former theory that he arrived in c. 543 during the time of the unsourced early Bavarian dukes appears less than that he worked during the reign of the Agilolfing duke Theodo II, when the Bavarian stem duchy came under Frankish supremacy.
In either case, it was not until after 700 that Christian civilisation re-emerged in the region. Rupert established a monastery dedicated to Saint Peter at the site of a Late Antique church in former Iuvavum. St Peter's Abbey received large estates in the Flachgau and Tennengau regions from the hands of Duke Theodon II, including several brine wells and salt evaporation ponds which earned Iuvavum its German name Salzburg. In 711 Rupert founded the Cella Maximiliana in the Pongau region, the town of Bischofshofen, his niece Erentrude established a Bendictine nunnery at nearby Nonnberg about 713. In 739 Archbishop Boniface, with the blessing of Pope Gregory III, completed the work of Saint Rupert and raised Salzburg to a bishopric, placed under the primatial see of the Archdiocese of Mainz. St. Vergilius, abbot of St. Peter's since about 749, had quarrelled with St. Boniface over the existence of antipodes, he became bishop about 767, had
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. A large part of the town has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region afterwards included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs; the town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle Babenberch which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house; the area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg. In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese; the Emperor's purpose in this was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing in the districts of Franconia, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, Pope John XVIII granted the papal confirmation in the same year.
Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, consecrated 6 May 1012. The church was enriched with gifts from the pope, Henry had it dedicated in honor of him. In 1017 Henry founded Michaelsberg Abbey on the Michaelsberg, near Bamberg, a Benedictine abbey for the training of the clergy; the emperor and his wife Kunigunde gave large temporal possessions to the new diocese, it received many privileges out of which grew the secular power of the bishop. Pope Benedict VIII visited Bamberg in 1020 to meet Henry II for discussions concerning the Holy Roman Empire. While he was here he placed the diocese in direct dependence on the Holy See, he personally consecrated some of Bamberg's churches. For a short time Bamberg was the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry and Kunigunde were both buried in the cathedral. From the middle of the 13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In 1248 and 1260 the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran through purchase and through the appropriation of extinguished fiefs.
The old Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeld in a northeasterly direction to the Franconian Forest, possessed in addition estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau, in Thuringia, on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory of this see was reduced nearly one half in extent. Since 1279 the coat of arms of the city of Bamberg is known in form of a seal; the witch trials of the 17th century claimed about one thousand victims in Bamberg, reaching a climax between 1626 and 1631, under the rule of Prince-Bishop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim. The famous Drudenhaus, built in 1627, is no longer standing today. In 1647, the University of Bamberg was founded as Academia Bambergensis. Bambrzy are German Poles who are descended from settlers from the Bamberg area who settled in villages around Poznań in the years 1719–1753. In 1759, the possessions and jurisdictions of the diocese situated in Austria were sold to that state.
When the secularization of church lands took place the diocese covered 3,305 km2 and had a population of 207,000. Bamberg thus lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803. Bamberg was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, an important part of its infrastructure since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following World War I, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for two years before the Bavarian capital of Munich was retaken by Freikorps units; the first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg, becoming known as the Bamberger Verfassung. In February 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party. Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria. In 1973, the town celebrated the 1,000th anniversary of its founding.
Bamberg is located in Franconia, 63 km north of Nuremberg by railway and 101 km east of Würzburg by rail. It is situated on 3 km before it flows into the Main river, its geography is shaped by the Regnitz and by the foothills of the Steigerwald, part of the German uplands. From northeast to southwest, the town is divided into first the Regnitz plain one large and several small islands formed by two arms of the Regnitz, the part of town on the hills, the "Hill Town". Bamberg extends over seven hills, each crowned by a beautiful church; this has led to Bamberg being called the "Franconian Rome" — although a running joke among Bamberg's tour guides is to refer to Rome instead as the "Italian Bamberg". The hills are Cathedral Hill, Kaulberg/Obere Pfarre, Jakobsberg, Altenburger Hill and Abtsberg. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb", with a certain continental influence as indicated by average winter
Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany. When it was the archbishopric and Electorate of Trier, it was one of the most important states of the Holy Roman Empire, both as an ecclesiastical principality and as a diocese of the church. Unlike the other Rhenish dioceses — Mainz and Cologne, Trier was the former Roman provincial capital of Augusta Treverorum. Given its status, Trier has always been the seat of a bishop since Roman times, one of the oldest dioceses in all of Germany; the diocese was elevated to an Archdiocese in the time of Charlemagne and was the metropolitan for the dioceses of Metz and Verdun. After the victory of Napoleon Bonaparte of France, the archdiocese was lowered to a diocese and is now a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Cologne; the diocesan cathedral is the Cathedral of Saint Peter. The bishops of Trier were virtually independent territorial magnates in Merovingian times.
In 772 Charlemagne granted Bishop Wiomad complete immunity from the jurisdiction of the ruling count for all the churches and monasteries, as well as villages and castles that belonged to the Church of St. Peter at Trier. In his will he elevated the diocese to the Archdiocese of Trier, with suffragans on both sides of the Rhine; this arrangement lasted over a thousand years. In Early Modern times, the archdiocese of Trier still encompassed territory along the Moselle River between Trier, near the French border, Koblenz on the Rhine; the Archbishop of Trier, as holder of an imperial office was traditionally an Imperial Elector of the German king. The purely honorary office of Archchancellor of Gaul arose in the 13th century. In this context, taken to mean the Kingdom of Arles, or Burgundy, technically from 1242 and permanently from 1263, nominally until 1803. Arles along with Italy was one of the three component kingdoms of the Empire; the last elector removed to Koblenz in 1786. From 1795, the territories of the Archbishopric on the left bank of the Rhine —, to say all of them — were under French occupation, were annexed in 1801 and a separate bishopric established.
In 1803, what was left of the Archbishopric was secularized and annexed by the Princes of Nassau. Auspicius of Trier c. 130, uncertain Eucharius c. 250 Valerius c. 250 Maternus c. 300 Agricius 327–335 Maximinus II 335–352 Paulinus 353–358 Bonosus of Trier 359–365 Veteranius of Trier 365–384 Britto of Trier Felix II 384–398 Mauritius II of Trier 398–407 Leontius of Trier 407–409 Auctor II 409–427 Severus of Trier 428–455 Cyrillus of Trier 455–457 Iamblichus of Trier 457–458 Evemerus 458–461 Marcus II 461–465 Volusianus of Trier 465–469 Miletius 469–476 Modestus 476–479 Maximianus of Trier 479–499 Fibicius 500–526 Aprunculus 526–527 Nicetius 527–566 Rusticus II 566–573 Magnerich 573–596 Gunderich 596–600 Sibald 600–626 Modoald 626–645 Numerianus 645–665 Hildulf 665–671, d. 707 Basinus 671–697 d. 706? Leudwinus 697–718 Milo 718–758 Wermad 758–791 Richbod 791–804, first archbishop Waso 804–809 Amalhar 809–814 Hetto 814–847 Dietgold 847–868 Bartholf von Wetterau 869–883 Radbod 883–915 Rudgar 915–930 Rotbert 930–956 Henry I 956–964 Dietrich I 965–977 Egbert 977–993 Ludolf 994–1008 Megingod 1008–1015 Poppo von Babenberg 1016–1047 Eberhard 1047–1066 Kuno I von Wetterau 1066–1066 Udo of Nellenburg 1066–1078 Egilbert of Rothenburg, 1079–1101 Bruno 1101–1124 Gottfrid 1124–1127 Meginher 1127–1130 Albero de Montreuil 1131–1152 Hillin of Falmagne 1152–1169 Arnold I of Vaucourt 1169–1183 Folmar of Karden 1183–1189 Rudolf of Wied 1183–1189 John I 1189–1212 Theodoric II 1212–42 Arnold II von Isenburg 1242–59 Heinrich I von Finstingen 1260–86 Bohemond I von Warnesberg 1286–99 Diether von Nassau 1300–07 Heinrich II von Virneburg 1300–06 Baldwin von Luxemburg 1307–54 Bohemond II von Saarbrücken 1354–61 Kuno II von Falkenstein 1362–88 Werner von Falkenstein 1388–1418 Otto von Ziegenhain 1418–30 Rhaban von Helmstadt 1430–38 Jakob von Sierck † Johann Markgraf von Baden † Jakob Markgraf von Baden † Richard von Greiffenclau zu Vollrads † Johann von Metzenhausen † Johann Ludwig von Hagen † Johann von Isenburg † Johann von der Leyen † Jakob von Eltz † Johann von Schönenberg † Lothar von Metternich † Philipp Christoph Reichsritter von Sötern † Karl Kaspar Reichsfreiherr von Leyen-Hohengeroldseck † Johann Hugo von Orsbeck † Karl Joseph Ignaz Herzog von Lothringen † Franz Ludwig Pfalzgraf am Rhein zu Neuburg † Franz Georg Reichsfgraf von Schönborn † Johann Philipp Reichsgraf von Waldendorff † Klemens Wenzeslaus Herzog von Sachsen † Charles Mannay † Josef von Hommer † Wilhelm Arnoldi † Leopold Pelldram † Matthias Eberhard † Michael Felix Korum
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. The name of Capua comes from the Etruscan Capeva; the meaning is'City of Marshes'. Its foundation is attributed by Cato the Elder to the Etruscans, the date given as about 260 years before it was "taken" by Rome. If this is true it refers not to its capture in the Second Punic War but to its submission to Rome in 338 BC, placing the date of foundation at about 600 BC, while Etruscan power was at its highest. In the area several settlements of the Villanovian civilization were present in prehistoric times, these were enlarged by the Oscans and subsequently by the Etruscans. Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the Samnite invasion in the latter half of the 5th century BC. About 424 BC it was captured by the Samnites and in 343 BC besought Roman help against its conquerors. Capua entered into alliance with Rome for protection against the Samnite mountain tribes, along with its dependent communities Casilinum, Atella, so that the greater part of Campania now fell under Roman supremacy.
The citizens of Capua received the civitas sine suffragio. In the second Samnite War with Rome, Capua proved an untrustworthy Roman ally, so that after the defeat of the Samnites, the Ager Falernus on the right bank of the Volturnus was confiscated. In 318 BC the powers of the native officials were limited by the appointment of officials with the title praefecti Capuam Cumas, it was the capital of Campania Felix. In 312 BC, Capua was connected with Rome by the construction of the Via Appia, the most important of the military highways of Italy; the gate by which it left the Servian walls of Rome bore the name Porta Capena. At what time the Via Latina was stretched to Casilinum is doubtful; the importance of Capua increased during the 3rd century BC, at the beginning of the Second Punic War it was considered to be only behind Rome and Carthage themselves, was able to furnish 30,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. Until after the defeat of Cannae it remained faithful to Rome, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be selected from it or in order to secure regional supremacy in the event of a Carthaginian victory, it defected to Hannibal, who made it his winter quarters: he and his army were voluntarily received by Capua.
Livy and others have suggested that the luxurious conditions were Hannibal's "Cannae" because his troops became soft and demoralized by luxurious living. Historians from Bosworth Smith onwards have been skeptical of this, observing that his troops gave as good an account of themselves in battle after that winter as before. After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and punished. Parts of it were sold in 205 BC and 199 BC, another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of Volturnum and Liternum, established near the coast in 194 BC, but the greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state. Considerable difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private persons, it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 BC, it was, after that period, not to large but to small proprietors. Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to divide the land among new settlers. Brutus in 83 BC succeeded in establishing a colony, but it was soon dissolved.
In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of this thickly populated district was in a measure supplied by grouping them round important shrines that of Diana Tifatina, in connection with which a pagus Dianae existed, as we learn from many inscriptions. The town of Capua belonged to none of these organizations, was dependent on the praefecti, it enjoyed great prosperity, due to their growing of spelt, a grain, put into groats, roses, unguents etc. and owing to its manufacture of bronze objects, of which both the elder Cato and the elder Pliny speak in the highest terms. Its luxury remained proverbial. From the gladiatorial schools of Campania came Spartacus and his followers in 73 BC. Julius Caesar as consul in 59 BC succeeded in carrying out the establishment of a Roman colony under the name Julia Felix in connection with his agrarian law, 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in this territory; the number of colonists was increased by Mark Antony and Nero. In the war of 69 it took the side
History of papal primacy
The doctrines of Petrine primacy and papal primacy are the most contentiously disputed in the history of Christianity. Theologians regard the doctrine of papal primacy as having developed in the West due to the convergence of a number of factors, e.g. the dignity of Rome as the only apostolic see in the West. The doctrine of the primacy of the Roman Bishops, like other Catholic Church teachings and instructions, has gone through a development, thus the establishment of the Primacy recorded in the Gospels has been more recognized and its implications developed. Clear recognition of the consciousness of the Primacy of the Roman Bishops, of the recognition of the Primacy by the other churches appear at the end of the 1st century…St. Ignatius elevated the Roman community over all the communities using in his epistle a solemn form of address. Twice he says of it that it is the presiding community, which expresses a relationship of superiority and inferiority; the Didache, dating from AD 70 to 140, states "Appoint for yourselves therefore bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord".
St. Ignatius of Antioch spoke in "praise of unity" in a Letter to the Ephesians, saying "He, that does not assemble with the Church, has by this manifested his pride, condemned himself. For it is written,'God resisteth the proud.' Let us be careful not to set ourselves in opposition to the bishop, in order that we may be subject to God". Stressing the relationship between the Church initiated by Jesus and the hierarchy set in motion by the apostles, Ignatius writes: "we should look upon the bishop as we would upon the Lord Himself". Ignatius stresses the hierarchical relationship between God and the bishop more to the Magnesians urging them "to yield him all reverence, having respect to the power of God the Father... submitting to him, or rather not to him, but to the Father of Jesus Christ, the bishop of us all". In §6 he exhorts them to harmony, in §13 urges them to "tudy... to be established in the doctrines of the Lord and the apostles... with your most admirable bishop...." Thus Ignatius emphasizes unity and the hierarchical relationship among the faithful and between the bishop and God.
Further elements of the hierarchical relationship are mentioned by St. Clement of Alexandria, referring to advice in the "holy books: some for presbyters, some for bishops and deacons", writing treatises with titles "On the Unity and Excellence of the Church" and "On the Offices of Bishops, Presbyters and Widows." In his Stromateis, Clement of Alexandria writes that "according to my opinion, the grades here in the Church, of bishops, deacons, are imitations of the angelic glory, of that economy which, the Scriptures say, awaits those who, following the footsteps of the apostles, have lived in perfection of righteousness according to the Gospel". Pope Clement I wrote about the order with which Jesus commanded the affairs of the Church be conducted; the liturgies are "to be celebrated, not carelessly nor in disorder," and the selection of persons was "by His supreme will determined". Clement emphasized that the relationship between God, the apostles, the orders given to the apostles, are "made in an orderly way".
Jurgens states that Clement cites Isaiah 60:17 which in some translations includes "I will make thy visitation peace, thy overseers justice". In chapter 43 of the cited "Letter" Clement refers to the way "rivalry... concerning the priesthood" was resolved by or through Moses, in chapter 44, that the apostles "gave instructions, that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry." In Roman Catholic theology, the doctrine of apostolic succession states that Christ gave the full sacramental authority of the church to the Twelve Apostles in the sacrament of Holy Orders, making them the first bishops. By conferring the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders on the apostles, they were given the authority to confer the sacrament of Holy Orders on others, thus consecrating more bishops in a direct lineage that can trace its origin back to the Twelve Apostles and Christ himself; this direct succession of bishops from the apostles to the present day bishops is referred to as apostolic succession.
The Roman Catholic Church holds that within the College of Apostles, Peter was picked out for the unique role of leadership and to serve as the source of unity among the apostles, a role among the bishops and within the church inherited by the pope as Peter's successor today. This passage in Irenaeus illuminates the meaning of his remarks about the Church of Rome: if there are disputes in a local church, that church should have recourse to the Roman Church, for there is contained the Tradition, preserved by all the churches. Rome's vocation consisted in playing the part of arbiter, settling contentious issues by witnessing to the truth or falsity of whatever doctrine was put before them. Rome was the center where all converged if they wanted their doctrine to be accepted by the conscience of the Church, they could not count upon success except on one condition -- that the Church of Rome had received their doctrine -- and refusal from Rome predetermined the attitude the other churches would adopt.
There are numerous cases of this recourse to Rome... Pope Callixtus I reduced the number of mortal sins barring an applicant or member from the congregation, while at the same tim
History of the papacy
The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day. During the Early Church, the bishops of Rome enjoyed no temporal power until the time of Constantine. After the fall of Rome, the papacy was influenced by the temporal rulers of the surrounding Italian Peninsula. Over time, the papacy consolidated its territorial claims to a portion of the peninsula known as the Papal States. Thereafter, the role of neighboring sovereigns was replaced by powerful Roman families during the saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, the Tusculan Papacy. From 1048 to 1257, the papacy experienced increasing conflict with the leaders and churches of the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire; the latter culminated in the East–West Schism, dividing the Western Church and Eastern Church. From 1257–1377, the pope, though the bishop of Rome, resided in Viterbo and Perugia, Avignon; the return of the popes to Rome after the Avignon Papacy was followed by the Western Schism: the division of the western church between two and, for a time, three competing papal claimants.
The Renaissance Papacy is known for its artistic and architectural patronage, forays into European power politics, theological challenges to papal authority. After the start of the Protestant Reformation, the Reformation Papacy and Baroque Papacy led the Catholic Church through the Counter-Reformation; the popes during the Age of Revolution witnessed the largest expropriation of wealth in the church's history, during the French Revolution and those that followed throughout Europe. The Roman Question, arising from Italian unification, resulted in the loss of the Papal States and the creation of Vatican City. Catholics and the Orthodox recognize the pope as the successor to Saint Peter, recognize him as the first bishop of Rome. Official declarations of the Church speak of the popes as holding within the college of the bishops a position analogous to that held by Peter within the "college" of the Apostles, namely Prince of the Apostles, of which the college of the Bishops, a distinct entity, is viewed by some to be the successor.
Many deny that Peter and those claimed to be his immediate successors had universally-recognized supreme authority over all the early churches, citing instead that the Bishop of Rome was, is, "first among equals" as stated by the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church in the 2nd century A. D. and again in the 21st century. However, what that form should take is a matter of debate and contention, to this day, between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, which were one Church for at least the first seven ecumenical councils and until the formal split over Papal primacy in 1054 AD. Many of the bishops of Rome in the first three centuries of the Christian era are obscure figures. Most of Peter's successors in the first three centuries following his life suffered martyrdom along with members of their flock in periods of persecution; the legend surrounding the victory of Constantine I in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge relates his vision of the Chi Rho and the text in hoc signo vinces in the sky, reproducing this symbol on the shields of his troops.
The following year and Licinius proclaimed the toleration of Catholicism with the Edict of Milan, in 325, Constantine convened and presided over the First Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council. None of this, has much to do with the pope, who did not attend the Council. Moreover, between 324 and 330, Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire from Rome to Byzantium, a former Greek city on the Bosporus; the power of Rome was transferred to Byzantium which in 330 became Constantinople and today is Istanbul. The "Donation of Constantine", an 8th-century forgery used to enhance the prestige and authority of popes, places the pope more centrally in the narrative of Constantinian Christianity; the legend of the Donation claims that Constantine offered his crown to Sylvester I, that Sylvester baptized Constantine. In reality, Constantine was baptized by Eusebius of an Arian bishop. Although the "Donation" never occurred, Constantine did hand over the Lateran Palace to the bishop of Rome, around 310 AD began the construction of Basilica of Constantine in Germany, called Aula Palatina.
Emperor Constantine erected the Old St. Peter's Basilica, or Constantinian Basilica, the current location of the current, Renaissance era, St. Peter's Basilica within the Vatican, on the place of St. Peter's burial, as held by the Catholic community of Rome, after his conversion to Catholicism; the Ostrogothic Papacy period ran from 493 to 537. The papal election of March 483 was the first to take place without the existence of a Western Roman emperor; the papacy was influenced by the Ostrogothic Kingdom, if the pope was not outright appointed by the Ostrogothic King. The selection and administration of popes during this period was influenced by Theodoric the Great and his successors Athalaric and Theodahad; this period terminated with Justinian I's conquest of Rome during the Gothic War, inaugurating the Byzantine Papacy. The role of the Ostrogoths became clear in the first schism, when, on November 22, 498, two men were elected pope; the subsequent triumph of Pope Symmachus over Antipope Laurentius is the first recorded example of simony in papal history.
Symmachus instituted the practice of popes naming their own successors
The Papal States the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna, portions of Emilia; these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily.
In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory; the Papal States were known as the Papal State. The territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property. Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of Ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.
Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or by individual members of the Roman churches would be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate "heir" of that property its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop. This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome, thus under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond. This system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, restoring to it any properties, confiscated; the Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. When in the 5th century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths, the Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning in 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy's political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was limited to a diagonal band running from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal enclaves. With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.
The Church's independence, combined with popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor. The pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy; as Byzantine power weakened, the papacy took an ever-larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards through diplomacy. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II; when the Exarchate of