Crème caramel, flan, or caramel dessert is a custard dessert with a layer of clear caramel sauce, as opposed to crème brûlée, custard with an added hard clear caramel layer on top. Crème caramel used to be ubiquitous in European restaurants; this was due to the convenience, for restaurateurs, of being able to prepare a lot in advance and keep them until needed. Both crème caramel and flan are French names, but flan has come to have different meanings in different regions. In Spanish-speaking countries and in The United States of America, flan refers to crème caramel; this was a Spanish usage, but the dish is now best known in the United States in a Latin American context. Elsewhere, including in Britain, a flan is a type of tart somewhat like a quiche; the Modern English word flan comes from French flan, from Old French flaon, in turn from Medieval Latin fladonem, derived from the Old High German flado, a sort of flat cake from an Indo-European root for'flat' or'broad'. The North American sense of flan as crème caramel was borrowed from Latin American Spanish.
Crème caramel is a variant of plain custard where sugar syrup cooked to caramel stage is poured into the mold before adding the custard base. It is cooked in a bain-marie on a stove top or in the oven in a water bath, it is turned and served with the caramel sauce on top, hence the alternate French name crème caramel renversée. Turning out larger dishes requires care, as the custard splits. Larger dishes require more care to avoid undercooking the interior or overcooking the exterior. Thus, crème caramel is cooked and served in ramekins; the objective being to obtain a homogeneous and smooth cream on the surface of the crème caramel, that the base, being the caramel, remains liquid after being cooked in a bain-marie. Therefore, the importance of cooking it in a bain-marie to avoid that the caramel gets burned which would bring a taste of carbonization to the dessert. An imitation of crème caramel may be prepared from "instant flan powder", thickened with agar or carrageenan rather than eggs. In some Latin American countries, the true custard version is known as "milk flan" or "milk cheese", the substitute version is known as just "flan".
Caramel custard is popular in the larger coastal cities, in former Portuguese colonies such as Goa and Diu. Sometimes, masala chai is added, it is a staple on restaurant menus in the beach resorts along India's coasts and prepared in the home kitchens of the Anglo-Indian Goan, Malayali and Parsi communities. Packaged crème caramel is ubiquitous in Japanese convenience stores under the name purin, or custard pudding; the same kind of dessert are sold in convenience stores in Taiwan. Caramel custard is a popular dessert in Malaysia. First introduced by the Portuguese in the 1500s and sold year-round today, this dessert is popular served in restaurants, cafes and Ramadan bazaars for breaking the fast. In the Philippines, flan is known as leche flan, a heavier version of the Spanish dish, made with condensed milk and more egg yolks. Leche flan is steamed over an open flame or stove top in an oval-shaped tin mold known as llanera, although it can be baked. Leche flan is a staple dessert in celebratory feasts.
An heavier version, called tocino de cielo or tocino del cielo, is similar, but has more egg yolks and sugar. Crème caramel is common in Vietnam, it is known as bánh caramel, caramen or kem caramel in northern Vietnam or bánh flan or kem flan in southern Vietnam. Variations include serving with black coffee poured on top, or browning the caramel past typical caramelization point to make a darker, more bitter "burnt caramel". Most notably in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, crème caramel is eaten with dulce de leche, whipped cream, or both. In Chile, it is eaten with dulce de membrillo or condensed milk. At most equatorial and Caribbean countries the inclusion of coconut, condensed milk and evaporated milk is widespread. In Venezuela and Brazil, it is made with condensed milk, milk and sugar caramelized on top; the Venezuelan version is known as quesillo and in Brazil, it is known as pudim de leite condensado. Flan in Costa Rica features coconut or coffee. Cuban flan "Flan de Cuba" is made with the addition of the whites of a cinnamon stick.
A similar Cuban dish is "Copa Lolita", a small caramel flan served with one or two scoops of vanilla ice-cream. Other variations include rum raisin topping. In the Dominican Republic, only egg yolks are used and mixed with vanilla, evaporated milk and condensed milk. Coconut flan is known as quesillo. In Mexico, a variation of flan called Flan Napolitano is made, where cream cheese is added to the recipe to create a creamier version. Most Puerto Rican flans are milk based; some are coconut-based and called flan de coco, made with both condensed milk and coconut milk or with cream of coconut, condensed milk and evaporated milk. Beaten egg white foam is used to lighten the mixture. Coconut flan is seasoned with cinnamon and vanilla. Around the Thanksgiving holiday it is popular to add pumpkin, ñame purée, or breadfruit along with spices like ginger, cinnamon
Chè is any traditional Vietnamese sweet beverage, dessert soup or pudding. Varieties of Chè are made with mung beans, black-eyed peas, kidney beans, jelly and coconut cream. Other types are made with ingredients such as salt, aloe vera, lotus seed, sesame seed, sugar palm seeds, taro and pandan leaf extract; some varieties, such as chè trôi nước, may include dumplings. Chè are prepared with one of a number of varieties of beans, and/or glutinous rice, cooked in water and sweetened with sugar. In southern Vietnam, chè are garnished with coconut creme; the preparations are named with the addition of qualifying adjectives referring to a wide variety of distinct soups or puddings which may be served either hot or cold. Each variety of chè is designated by a descriptive word or phrase that follows the word chè, such as chè đậu đỏ. Chè may be made at home, but are commonly sold in plastic cups at Vietnamese grocery stores. In northern Vietnam, chè is the word for the tea plant. Tea is known as nước chè in the North or more trà in both regions.
The Chinese category of sweet soups called tong sui are similar to chè. There is a nearly endless variety of named dishes with the prefix chè, thus it is impossible to produce a complete list. What follows is a list of the most typical traditional varieties of chè. Chè ba màu - including green mung beans, white black-eyed peas, red azuki beans, although people can cook with any ingredients making any three colours they like. Chè đậu đen - made from black beans. Chè đậu huyết - made from red beans. Chè đậu ngự - made from Phaseolus lunatus - specialty in Huế, an imperial dish Chè đậu phụng - made from peanuts Chè đậu trắng - made from black-eyed peas. Oftentimes, this dessert is just referred to as chè đậu as it is one of the most common bean dessert for southern Vietnamese. Chè đậu ván Huế - made from Dolichos lablab. Chè bắp or chè ngô - made from corn and tapioca rice pudding Chè bột sắn - made from cassava flour Chè sắn lắt - made from sliced cassava Chè cốm - made from young rice. Chè lam - made from ground glutinous rice Chè củ mài - made from Dioscorea persimilis Chè củ súng - made from water lily bulbs Chè củ từ - made from Dioscorea esculenta Chè hột lựu - in this dish, rice paste are cut into pomegranate seed-shaped pieces.
Chè hột éo - basil seed drink Chè khoai lang - made from sweet potato Chè khoai môn - made from taro Chè môn sáp vàng - made from a variety of taro grown in Huế Chè kê - made from millet Chè khoai tây - made from potato Chè mè đen - made from black sesame seeds Chè sen - made from thin vermicelli and jasmine flavoured syrup Chè hạt sen - made from lotus seeds Chè sen trần Chè sen dừa - made from lotus seeds and coconut water Chè củ sen - made from lotus tubers Chè mã thầy - made from water chestnuts Cơm rượu - mildly alcoholic chè. Chè thạch or chè rau câu - made from agar agar Chè thạch lựu - made from seaweed and other pomegranate seed-shaped tapioca pearls. Chè thạch sen - made from seaweed and lotus seeds Sương sâm - jelly with Tiliacora triandra extract Sương sáo - Grass jelly Chè thạch sen - thin, vermicelli-like jellies. Chè bột lọc from small cassava and rice flour dumplings Chè con ong - made from glutinous rice, ginger root and molasses– this is a northern dish cooked to offer to the ancestors at Tết.
Chè bánh xếp - green bean wrapped in a tapioca skin dumpling eaten in a coconut milk base with smaller pieces of tapioca. Translated to English, the dish is "folded cake dessert". Chè trôi nước - balls made from mung bean paste in a shell made of glutinous rice flour. Chè hoa quả or chè trái cây - mixture of different fruits including pineapple, apple, mango, dried banana and dried coconut with milk and syrup Chè nhãn - made from longanChè xoài - made from mango Chè trái vải - lychee and jelly Chè bưởi - made from pomelo oil and slivered rind Chè chuối - made from bananas and tapioca Chè sầu riêng - made from durian Chè thốt nốt - made from sugar palm seeds Chè mít - made from jackfruit Chè lô hội - made from Aloe vera Hột é - made from Sterculia lychnophora extract and basil seeds Chè đậu đỏ bánh lọt - red beans and bánh lọt. Chè thập cẩm meaning ten-ingredient sweet soup or mixed sweet soup is a mixture of various kinds of ingredients such as black-eyed peas, azuki beans, lotus seeds, mung beans, coconut, s
A kirschwasser or kirsch is a clear, colorless fruit brandy traditionally made from double distillation of morello cherries, a dark-colored cultivar of the sour cherry. However, it is now made from other kinds of cherries; the cherries are fermented including their stones. Unlike cherry liqueurs and cherry brandies, kirschwasser is not sweet. Kirsch is sometimes produced via the distillation of fermented cherry juice; the best kirschwassers have a refined taste with subtle flavors of cherry and a slight bitter-almond taste that derives from the cherry seeds. Kirschwasser is imbibed neat, it is traditionally served cold in a small glass and is taken as an apéritif. However, people in the German-speaking region where kirschwasser originated serve it after dinner, as a digestif. Kirschwasser is used in some cocktails, such as the Ladyfinger, the Florida, the Rose. High-quality kirschwasser may be served at room temperature, warmed by the hands as with brandy; because morellos were grown in the Black Forest regions of Germany, kirschwasser is believed to have originated there.
Kirschwasser is colourless because it is aged in barrels made of ash. It may have been aged in paraffin-lined wood barrels or in earthenware vessels.' In France and in English-speaking countries, clear fruit brandies are known as eaux de vie. The European Union sets a minimum of 37.5% ABV for products of this kind. About 10 kilograms of cherries go into the making of a 750 ml bottle of kirschwasser. Kirsch is sometimes used in some cakes, such as the Zuger Kirschtorte, it is commonly used in the dessert cherries jubilee. It is used in traditional German Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte and in other cakes—for example in Gugelhupf cake. Kirsch can be used in the filling of chocolates. A typical kirsch chocolate consists of no more than one milliliter of kirsch, surrounded by milk or dark chocolate with a film of hard sugar between the two parts; the hard sugar acts as an impermeable casing for the liquid content and compensates for the lack of sweetness, typical of kirsch. Swiss chocolatiers Lindt & Sprüngli and Camille Bloch, among others, manufacture these kirsch chocolates.
In the Steely Dan song "Babylon Sisters", the narrator suggests that he and his companion will go to San Francisco and "drink Kirschwasser from a shell". In 1943's "The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp," English officer Clive Candy and his former dueling opponent Theo Kretschmar-Schuldorff of the German army bond over glasses of kirschwasser while recuperating from their respective injuries. In Agatha Christie's Hercule Poirot novel "Elephants Can Remember" it is observed that the recurring character Ariadne Oliver prefers to drink Kirsch. Black Forest cake Cherries Jubilee Distilled beverage Eau-de-vie Fruit brandy Himbeergeist Liqueur Schnapps Culinary Heritage of Switzerland Kirsch in the online Culinary Heritage of Switzerland database
Ladyfingers, sometimes known by their original Italian name savoiardi, or as sponge fingers in British English, are low density, egg-based, sweet sponge biscuits shaped like a large finger. They are a principal ingredient in many dessert recipes, such as trifles and charlottes, are used as fruit or chocolate gateau linings, sometimes for the sponge element of tiramisu, they are soaked in a sugar syrup or liqueur, or in coffee or espresso for the dessert tiramisu. Plain ladyfingers are given to infants, being soft enough for teething mouths, but easy to grasp and firm enough not to fall apart. Ladyfingers originated in the late 15th century at the court of the Duchy of Savoy and were created to mark the occasion of a visit by the King of France, they were given the name Savoiardi and recognized as an "official" court biscuit. They were appreciated by the young members of the court and offered to visitors as a symbol of the local cuisine, they have gained many regional names: In Argentina: vainillas In Australia: "sponge fingers" In Austria: biskotte In Bosnia and Serbia: piškote/i In Brazil: bolacha/biscoito champagne In Bulgaria: bishkoti In Canada: "ladyfingers" In Catalonia: melindro In Chile: galletas de champaña In Colombia these biscuits are known as by its form In Cuba: bizcocho In the Czech Republic: Dlouhé piškoty or Cukrářské piškoty In France: boudoirs or biscuits à la cuillère or biscuits champagne In Germany: Löffelbiskuits In Greece: Σαβουαγιάρ In Hungary: babapiskóta In Indonesia: kue lidah kucing In Iran: latifeh In Italian: savoiardi In Macedonia: Biskviti In Mexico: soletas "little soles" In the Netherlands: lange vingers In the Philippines: broas or broa.
However, some brands contain ammonium bicarbonate. The egg whites and egg yolks mixed with sugar are beaten separately and folded together with flour, they contain more flour than the average sponge cake. The mixture is piped through a pastry bag in short lines onto sheets, giving the biscuits their notable shape. Before baking, powdered sugar is sifted over the top to give a soft crust; the finished ladyfingers are layered into a dessert such as tiramisu or trifle. Media related to Ladyfingers at Wikimedia Commons
Black pudding is a type of blood sausage originating in Great Britain and Ireland. It is made from pork blood, with pork fat or beef suet, a cereal oatmeal, oat groats or barley groats; the high proportion of cereal, along with the use of certain herbs such as pennyroyal, serves to distinguish black pudding from blood sausages eaten in other parts of the world. The word pudding is believed to come from the French boudin from the Latin botellus, meaning "small sausage", referring to encased meats used in medieval European puddings. Blood puddings are supposed to be one of the oldest forms of sausage. Animals are bled at slaughter, as blood does not keep unless prepared in some way, making a pudding with it is one of the easiest ways of ensuring it does not go to waste. While the majority of modern black pudding recipes involve pork blood, this has not always been the case; until at least the 19th century, cow or sheep blood was the usual basis for black puddings in Scotland. As a product of the slaughtering process, eating black puddings was associated with Martinmas, when the annual slaughter of livestock took place.
By the 19th century black pudding manufacture was linked with towns known for their large markets for pork, such as Stretford in Lancashire, or Cork, Ireland. By this time, black puddings were omitted from recipe books aimed at urban housewives, as they no longer had access to home-killed pork, although recipes appeared in Scottish books until the 20th century. Most traditional recipes from the United Kingdom involve stirring the fresh blood, adding fat and some form of rusk, seasoning, before filling the mixture into a casing and boiling it. Natural casings of beef intestine were used, though modern commercially made puddings use synthetic cellulose skins, are produced from imported dried blood; the limited range of ingredients and use of oats or barley to thicken and absorb the blood is typical of black pudding in comparison to Continental blood sausages. Despite this, black pudding recipes still show more regional variation across the country than other sausages, with many butchers having their own individual versions.
Breadcrumbs or flour are sometimes used to supplement the oats or barley, the proportion and texture of the fat or suet used can vary widely. Pennyroyal, marjoram and mint are all traditional flavourings: pennyroyal was known as "pudding-yerb" in the North Riding of Yorkshire for its use in black puddings. Other herbs and spices sometimes used in traditional black puddings include cumin and parsley. While the dish has been known as "black pudding" for centuries, "blak podyngs" having been recorded in c.1450, a number of dialect names have been used for the dish, such as "black pot", "bloody pot" in reference to versions cooked in an earthenware pot rather than in a sausage casing. In the United Kingdom, black pudding is associated with the Black Country, the West Midlands and the North West of England: it is considered a particular delicacy in Stornoway and in Lancashire, notably in towns such as Bury, where it is traditionally boiled and served with malt vinegar out of paper wrapping, it was found in Yorkshire, where black puddings were flavoured with lemon thyme and savory: Barnsley black puddings were well-known.
The Stornoway black pudding, made in the Western Isles of Scotland, has been granted Protected Geographical Indicator of Origin status. In the wake of this designation, butchers in Bury sought to demonstrate their history of manufacturing and selling the product. One such claim dates back to 1810. Having been brought there by emigrants, black pudding is now part of the local cuisine of the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador. Black pudding is widely available in supermarkets and butchers' shops in Australia and New Zealand, although is not as popular as in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In Ireland, in addition to the more general type of black pudding, there is a distinct regional variety called drisheen, associated with Cork. Drisheen is made from cow's blood, although until the recent past it was also made with sheep blood, was sometimes flavoured with tansy. Black pudding can be grilled, baked or boiled in its skin, it can be eaten cold, as it is cooked in production.
In parts of north-western England and in the Black Country it was usual to serve a whole black pudding boiled as a complete meal, with bread or potatoes, but elsewhere in the UK and Ireland slices of fried or grilled black puddings are more served as part of a traditional full breakfast, a tradition that followed British and Irish emigrants around the world. In Scotland and the north of England some chip shops sell battered black pudding. Novel culinary uses for black pudding include black pudding ice cream, while a more conventional modern recipe is using it as an accompaniment to scallops. Scotch eggs made. Black pudding is a good source of protein, is low in carbohydrate and high in iron, it has been described as a "superfood" because of these nutritional qualities, although many recipes are very high in saturated fat and salt. Since the 1980s, the World Black Pudding Throwing Championships has been held in Ramsbottom; the humorous competition invokes the traditional Lancashire – Yorkshire rivalry, with participants throwing th
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Hog's pudding is a type of sausage produced in Cornwall and parts of Devon. Some versions of the recipe comprise pork meat and fat, suet and oatmeal or pearl barley formed into the shape of a large sausage - known as'groats pudding' and are similar to a white pudding, whereas others versions of the recipe contain a high percentage of offal such as lung and liver and can more be described as a sort of West Country haggis, it is much spicier than white pudding as it contains black pepper, cumin and garlic. The sausage is around two inches in diameter. Black pudding Boudin Faggot Scrapple