In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles, An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, a permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a loop of wire with some constant current through it. Dipoles can be characterized by their moment, a vector quantity. For the current loop, the dipole moment points through the loop. In addition to current loops, the electron, among other fundamental particles, has a dipole moment. That is because it generates a field that is identical to that generated by a very small current loop. However, the magnetic moment is not due to a current loop. It is also possible that the electron has a dipole moment although it has not yet been observed. A permanent magnet, such as a bar magnet, owes its magnetism to the magnetic dipole moment of the electron. The two ends of a bar magnet are referred to as poles, and may be labeled north and south, the dipole moment of the bar magnet points from its magnetic south to its magnetic north pole. The north pole of a bar magnet in a compass points north, however, that means that Earths geomagnetic north pole is the south pole of its dipole moment and vice versa. The only known mechanisms for the creation of magnetic dipoles are by current loops or quantum-mechanical spin since the existence of magnetic monopoles has never been experimentally demonstrated, the term comes from the Greek δίς, twice and πόλος, axis. A physical dipole consists of two equal and opposite point charges, in the sense, two poles. Its field at large distances depends almost entirely on the moment as defined above. A point dipole is the limit obtained by letting the separation tend to 0 while keeping the dipole moment fixed, the field of a point dipole has a particularly simple form, and the order-1 term in the multipole expansion is precisely the point dipole field. Although there are no magnetic monopoles in nature, there are magnetic dipoles in the form of the quantum-mechanical spin associated with particles such as electrons
Resonance Lewis structures of the ozone molecule
Cis isomer, dipole moment 1.90 D
Trans isomer, dipole moment zero
The magnetic field of a sphere with a north magnetic pole at the top and a south magnetic pole at the bottom. By comparison, Earth has a south magnetic pole near its north geographic pole and a north magnetic pole near its south pole.