The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It was signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928, it was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 7 September 1929. The Geneva Protocol is a protocol to the Convention for the Supervision of the International Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in Implements of War signed on the same date, followed the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, it prohibits the use of "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods of warfare". This is now understood to be a general prohibition on chemical weapons and biological weapons, but has nothing to say about production, storage or transfer. Treaties did cover these aspects — the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention.
A number of countries submitted reservations when becoming parties to the Geneva Protocol, declaring that they only regarded the non-use obligations as applying to other parties and that these obligations would cease to apply if the prohibited weapons were used against them. The main elements of the protocol are now considered by many to be part of customary international law. In the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, the use of dangerous chemical agents were outlawed. In spite of this, the First World War saw large-scale chemical warfare. France used tear gas in 1914, but the first large-scale successful deployment of chemical weapons was by the German Empire in Ypres, Belgium in 1915, when chlorine gas was released as part of a German attack at the Battle of Gravenstafel. Following this, a chemical arms race began, with the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, the United States, Italy joining France and Germany in the use of chemical weapons; this resulted in the development of a range of horrific chemicals affecting skin, or eyes.
Some were intended to be lethal on the battlefield, like hydrogen cyanide, efficient methods of deploying agents were invented. At least 124,000 tons were produced during the war. In 1918, about one grenade out of three was filled with dangerous chemical agents. Around 1.3 million casualties of the conflict were attributed to the use of gas and the psychological effect on troops may have had a much greater effect. As protective equipment developed, the technology to destroy such equipment became a part of the arms race; the use of deadly poison gas was not only limited to combatants in the front but civilians as nearby civilian towns were at risk from winds blowing the poison gases through. Civilians living in towns had any warning systems about the dangers of poison gas as well as not having access to effective gas masks; the use of chemical weapons employed by both sides had inflicted an estimated 100,000-260,000 civilian casualties during the conflict. Tens of thousands of more died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended.
In the year 1920 alone, over 40,000 civilians and 20,000 military personnel died from the chemical weapons effects. The Treaty of Versailles included some provisions that banned Germany from either manufacturing or importing chemical weapons. Similar treaties banned the First Austrian Republic, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Hungary from chemical weapons, all belonging to the losing side, the Central powers. Russian bolsheviks and Britain continued the use of chemical weapons in the Russian Civil War and in the Middle East in 1920. Three years after World War I, the Allies wanted to reaffirm the Treaty of Versailles, in 1922 the United States introduced the Treaty relating to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare at the Washington Naval Conference. Four of the war victors, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan, gave consent for ratification, but it failed to enter into force as the French Third Republic objected to the submarine provisions of the treaty.
At the 1925 Geneva Conference for the Supervision of the International Traffic in Arms the French suggested a protocol for non-use of poisonous gases. The Second Polish Republic suggested the addition of bacteriological weapons, it was signed on 17 June. Several countries have prepared chemical weapons in spite of the treaty. Spain and France did so in the Rif War before the treaty came into effect in 1928, Japan used chemical weapons against Taiwan in 1930 during the Wushe Massacre, Italy used mustard gas against Abyssinia in 1935 and Japan used chemical weapons against China from 1938 to 1941. In the Second World War, the U. S. the UK, Germany prepared the resources to deploy chemical weapons, stockpiling tons of them, but refrained from their use due to the balance of terror: the probability of horrific retaliation. There was an accidental release of mustard gas in Bari, Italy causing many deaths when a U. S. ship carrying CW ammunition was sunk in the harbor during an air raid. After the war, thousands of tons of shells and containers with tabun and other chemical weapons were disposed of at sea by the Allies.
Early in the Cold War, the UK collaborated with the U. S. in the development of chemical weapons. The Soviet Union had the facilities to produce chemical weapons but their development was kept secret. During the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War and the 1991 uprisings in Iraq, Europe gave and funded Saddam Hussein's use of several different chemical agents, including mustard gas, VX, against Iran and against Iraqi civilians in instances such as the Halabja chem
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Johann Conrad Dippel
Johann Conrad Dippel was a German pietist theologian and physician. Dippel was born at Castle Frankenstein near Mühltal and Darmstadt, therefore once at his school the addendum Franckensteinensis and once at his university the addendum Franckensteina-Strataemontanus was used, he studied theology and alchemy at the University of Giessen, obtaining a master's degree in theology in 1693. He published many theological works under the name Christianus Demócritus, most of them are still preserved. Circa 1700 he turned to Hermetic studies and alchemy as a key to nature. Between 1700 and 1702 he engaged in a bitter dispute with the Reformed Court Preacher Conrad Broeske in Offenbach, with whom he shared millenarian hopes for soon-coming renewal in Christendom, he accused Broeske of compromise and collusion with the authorities after Broeske refused to publish Dippel's "The Scourging Papacy of the Protestants" on the Offenbach press. Dippel's reputation as a controversial theologian earned him both defenders and enemies throughout all of Europe.
Emanuel Swedenborg was both his most notable supporter and staunch critic: Swedenborg began as a disciple of Dippel, but dismissed him as a "most vile devil... who attempted wicked things." Swedenborg clarified that he was at first enamored by Dippel's charged writings and agreed with his attempts to dissolve traditional churches for a more personal faith and rejection of the Bible as the literal Word of God. Swedenborg went so far as to suggest that Dippel was a cultish opportunist who used his theological charisma for his own financial gain and social influence leading people away from traditional faith in order to "take away all their intelligence of truth and good, leaving them in a kind of delirium."Dippel led an adventurous life getting into trouble because of his disputed opinions and his problems with managing money. He was imprisoned for heresy, where he served a seven-year sentence, he created an animal oil known as Dippel's Oil, supposed to be the equivalent to the alchemists' dream of the "elixir of life."
At one point, Dippel attempted to purchase Castle Frankenstein in exchange for his elixir formula, which he claimed he had discovered. According to Stahl and the pigment maker Diesbach used potassium carbonate contaminated with this oil in producing red dyes. To their surprise, they obtained a blue pigment "Berliner Blau" called "Preussisch Blau" or "Prussian blue". There are claims that during his stay at Castle Frankenstein, he practiced anatomy, he was working with nitroglycerin, which led to the destruction of a tower at the Castle Frankenstein. But this seems to be a modern myth. Nitroglycerin hadn't been discovered in Dippel's time, and although the history of the castle during Dippel's lifetime is well documented, the destruction of a tower – though a remarkable event – is nowhere mentioned. Other rumours about Dippel appear to be modern inventions too. For example, that which said he performed gruesome experiments with cadavers in which he attempted to transfer the soul of one cadaver into another.
Soul-transference with cadavers was a common experiment among alchemists at the time and was a theory that Dippel supported in his writings, thus making it possible that Dippel pursued similar objectives, but there is no direct evidence to link him to these specific acts. There is no evidence to the rumor that he was driven out of town when word of his activities reached the ears of the townspeople — though he was banned from countries, notably Sweden and Russia, for his controversial theological positions, he eventually had to flee to Giessen after killing a man in a duel. Dippel did, experiment quite with dead animals, of which he was an "avid dissector". In his dissertation Maladies and Remedies of the Life of the Flesh, Dippel claims to have discovered both the Elixir of Life and the means to exorcize demons through potions he concocted from boiled animal bones and flesh; this is the same essay in which Dippel claimed to believe that souls could be transferred from one corpse to another by using a funnel.
Some of Dippel's contemporaries, notably Johann Heinrich Jung, believed that toward the end of his life, Dippel lost his faith altogether after years of bitter disputes with other Christian leaders. Calling Christ "an indifferent being", Dippel shifted all of his energy on his alchemical experiments, he set up a lab near Wittgenstein, at this point in his life historical records are vague on his activities and thus grew folkloric in nature. During this time, at least one local minister accused Dippel of grave robbing, experimenting on cadavers, keeping company with the Devil. For the most part, Dippel kept to his work, he died at Wittgenstein Castle near Bad Laasphe from a stroke, though some contemporaries suspected poisoning. A year before his death, he wrote a pamphlet in which he claimed to have discovered an elixir that would keep him alive until the age of 135. Dippel's connection to the Castle Frankenstein gave rise t
Bone char is a porous, granular material produced by charring animal bones. Its composition varies depending on, it is used for filtration and decolorisation. Bone char is made from cattle and pork bones; the bones are heated in a sealed vessel at up to 700 °C. Most of the organic material in the bones is driven off by heat, was collected as Dippel's oil. Heating bones in an oxygen-rich atmosphere gives bone ash, chemically quite different. Used bone char can be regenerated by washing with hot water to remove impurities, followed by heating to 500 °C in a kiln with a controlled amount of air; the tricalcium phosphate in bone char can be used to remove fluoride and metal ions from water, making it useful for the treatment of drinking supplies. Bone charcoal is the oldest known water defluoridation agent and was used in the United States from the 1940s through to the 1960s; as it can be generated cheaply and locally it is still used in certain developing countries, such as Tanzania. Bone chars have lower surface areas than activated carbons, but present high adsorptive capacities for certain metals those from group 12.
Other toxic metal ions, such as those of arsenic and lead may be removed. The practical example of the use of bone char in water purification is demonstrated in Nanofilter invention in Tanzania Historically, bone char was used in sugar refining as a decolorizing and deashing agent in cane sugar as this contains more colored impurities. Bone char possesses a low decoloration capacity and must be used in large quantities, however, it is able to remove various inorganic impurities; the removal of these is beneficial, as it reduces the level of scaling in the refining process, when the sugar solution is concentrated. Modern alternatives to bone char include activated ion-exchange resins. Bone char is used as a black pigment for artist's paint, printmaking and drawing inks as well as other artistic applications because of its deepness of color and excellent tinting strength. Bone black and ivory black are artists' pigments which have been in use since historic times--both by old masters like Rembrandt and Velázquez, more modern painters such as Manet and Picasso.
The black dresses and high hats of the gentlemen in Manet's Music in the Tuileries are painted in ivory black. Ivory black was made by grinding charred ivory in oil. Nowadays ivory black is considered a synonym for bone black. Actual ivory is no longer used because of the expense and because animals who are natural sources of ivory are subject to international control as endangered species, it is used to refine crude oil in the production of petroleum jelly. In the 18th and 19th century, bone char mixed with tallow or wax were used by soldiers in the field to impregnate military leather equipment, both to increase its lifespan and as the simplest way to obtain pigment for black leatherwares. Military and civilians used it as shoe polish and preservative, including on shoes with the "rough" side out. In period reference materials, it is referred to as "black ball"; the ESA-NASA Solar Orbiter satellite uses a refined form of bone char, applied to its titanium heatshield. This protects it against the heat of the sun.
The coating was developed by Irish company Enbio and uses its'CoBlast' technique developed to coat titanium medical implants. The production of bone char was featured on the Discovery Channel's TV series Dirty Jobs, on episode 24 of season 4, "Bone Black" broadcast on 9 February 2010. Human bone char, referred to as "bone charcoal," is mentioned in Thomas Pynchon's novel The Crying of Lot 49; the bones come from US soldiers who died in combat during WWII and were buried in a lake in Italy, the char is used for filters in cigarettes. Potash Carbon black Activated carbon "Blacks". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. Ivory black, ColourLex Bone black, ColourLex
Neatsfoot oil is a yellow oil rendered and purified from the shin bones and feet of cattle. "Neat" in the oil's name comes from an Old English word for cattle. Neatsfoot oil is used as a conditioning and preservative agent for leather. In the 18th century, it was used medicinally as a topical application for dry scaly skin conditions. "Prime neatsfoot oil" or "neatsfoot oil compound" are terms used for a blend of pure neatsfoot oil and non-animal oils mineral or other petroleum-based oils. Fat from warm-blooded animals has a high melting point, becoming hard when cool – but neatsfoot oil remains liquid at room temperature; this is because the slender legs and feet of animals such as cattle are adapted to tolerate and maintain much lower temperatures than those of the body core, using countercurrent heat exchange in the legs between warm arterial and cooler venous blood – other body fat would become stiff at these temperatures. This characteristic of neatsfoot oil allows it to soak into leather.
Modern neatsfoot oil is still made from cattle-based products, is sometimes criticized for a tendency to speed oxidation of leather. This formulation does darken leather, which means that use on light-colored leather is to change its color. If mineral oil or other petroleum-based material is added, the product may be called "neatsfoot oil compound"; some brands have been shown to be adulterated with rapeseed oil, soya oil, other oils. The addition of mineral oils may lead to more rapid decay of non-synthetic stitching or speed breakdown of the leather itself. After cattle are slaughtered, the feet and lower leg bones, including the skin but not the hooves are boiled; the oil, released is skimmed off and pressed. The first pressing is the highest grade, the second pressing produces a lower grade oil and a solid press cake or stearin product. Neatsfoot oil is used on a number of leather products, although it has been replaced by synthetic products for certain applications. Items such as baseball gloves, horse harnesses and other horse tack can be softened and conditioned with neatsfoot oil.
If used on important historical objects, neatsfoot oil can oxidize with time and contribute to embrittling. It may leave an oily residue that can attract dust. On newer leather, it may cause darkening, thus may not be a desirable product to use when the maintenance of a lighter shade is desired. Neatsfoot oil is more useful for routine use on working equipment. Neatsfoot oil is used to oil sign-writers' brushes that have been used in oil-based paint, as this oil is non drying and can be washed out with solvent at any time. Oiling the brushes reduces the buildup of pigment in the ferrule, the metal part that many brushes have to hold the hairs in place. Neatsfoot oil of the highest grade is used as a lubricant, it is used in metalworking industries as a cutting fluid for aluminium. For machining and drilling aluminium, it is superior to kerosene and various water-based cutting fluids; the fat left over from the second pressing process, a solid stearin, is used for making soap. Dippel's oil, another oil, derived from bone Mink oil, alternative leather treatment Saddle soap, leather cleaning and conditioning
Western Desert Campaign
The Western Desert Campaign, took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War. The campaign began in September 1940 with the Italian invasion of Egypt. Benito Mussolini sought help from Adolf Hitler, who responded with a small German force sent to Tripoli under Directive 22; the German Afrika Korps was under nominal Italian command but Italian dependency on Nazi Germany made it the dominant partner. In the spring of 1941, Axis forces under Rommel pushed the British back to Egypt except for the port of Tobruk, where the Siege of Tobruk took place until it was relieved during Operation Crusader; the Axis forces were forced to retire to. In 1942 Axis forces drove the British back again and captured Tobruk after the Battle of Gazala but failed to gain a decisive victory. On the final Axis push to Egypt, the British retreated to El Alamein, where at the Second Battle of El Alamein the Eighth Army defeated the Axis forces.
They were driven out of Libya to Tunisia. For Hitler the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union dwarfed the desert war, a holding action of secondary importance; the Axis never had the means to deliver them, to defeat the British. The British missed several opportunities to finish the campaign when they diverted resources to Greece and the Levant in 1941 and the Far East in 1942. Cyrenaica had been an Italian colony since the Italo-Turkish War. With Tunisia, a part of French North Africa to the west and Egypt to the east, the Italians prepared to defend both frontiers through a North Africa Supreme Headquarters, under the command of the Governor-General of Italian Libya, Marshal of the Air Force, Italo Balbo. Supreme Headquarters had the 5th Army and the 10th Army which in mid-1940 had nine metropolitan divisions of about 13,000 men each, three Blackshirt and two Libyan divisions with 8,000 men each. Italian army divisions had been reorganised in the late 1930s, from three regiments each to two and reservists were recalled in 1939, along with the usual call-up of conscripts.
Morale was considered to be high and the army had recent experience of military operations. The Italian navy had prospered under the Fascist regime, which had paid for fast, well-built and well-armed ships and a large submarine fleet but the navy lacked experience and training; the air force had been ready for war in 1936 but had stagnated by 1939 and was not considered by the British to be capable of maintaining a high rate of operations. The 5th Army with eight divisions was based in Tripolitania, the western half of Libya opposite Tunisia and the 10th Army with six infantry divisions, held Cyrenaica in the east; when war was declared, the 10th Army deployed the 1st Libyan Division Sibelle on the frontier from Giarabub to Sidi Omar and XXI Corps from Sidi Omar to the coast and Tobruk. The XXII Corps moved south-west of Tobruk; the British had based forces in Egypt since 1882 but these were reduced by the terms of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The small British and Commonwealth force garrisoned the Red Sea route.
The canal was vital to British communications with its Far Indian Ocean territories. In mid-1939, Lieutenant-General Archibald Wavell was appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the new Middle East Command, over the Mediterranean and Middle East theatres; until the Franco-Axis armistice, the French divisions in Tunisia faced the Italian 5th Army on the western Libyan border. In Libya, the Royal Army had about 215,000 men and in Egypt, the British had about 36,000 troops, with another 27,500 men training in Palestine. British forces included the Mobile Division, one of only two British armoured training formations, which in mid-1939 was renamed Armoured Division; the Egypt–Libya border was defended by the Egyptian Frontier Force and in June 1940, the headquarters of the 6th Infantry Division took over command in the Western Desert, with instructions to drive back the Italians from their frontier posts and dominate the hinterland if war began. The 7th Armoured Division less the 7th Armoured Brigade, assembled at Mersa Matruh and sent the 7th Support Group forward towards the frontier as a covering force, where the RAF moved most of its bombers.
The HQ of the 6th Infantry Division, which lacked complete and trained units, was renamed the Western Desert Force on 17 June. In Tunisia, the French had eight divisions, capable only of limited operations and in Syria were three poorly armed and trained divisions, about 40,000 troops and border guards, on occupation duties against the civilian population. Italian land and air forces in Libya outnumbered the British in Egypt but suffered from poor morale and were handicapped by some inferior equipment. In Italian East Africa were another 130,000 Italian and African troops with 400 guns, 200 light tanks and 20,000 lorries; the war was fought in the area known as the Western Desert, about 240 mi wide, from Mersa Matruh in Egypt to Gazala on the Libyan coast, along Litoranea Balbo, the only paved road. The Sand Sea, 150 mi inland, marked the southern limit of the desert at its widest points at Giarabub and Siwa. In British parlance, the term "Western De