Direct-to-video or straight-to-video refers to the release of a film to the public on home video formats rather than a theatrical release or television broadcast. Because inferior sequels or prequels of larger-budget films may be released direct-to-video, review references to direct-to-video releases are pejorative. Direct-to-video release has become profitable for independent filmmakers and smaller companies, it is not unusual for a direct-to-video genre film to generate well in excess of $50 million revenue worldwide. A production studio may decide not to release a TV show or film for several possible reasons: a low budget, a lack of support from a TV network, negative reviews, its controversial nature, that it may appeal to a small niche market, or a simple lack of general public interest. Studios, limited in the annual number of films to which they grant cinematic releases, may choose to pull the completed film from the theaters, or never exhibit it in theaters at all. Studios generate revenue through video sales and rentals.
Direct-to-video films are marketed through colorful box covers, instead of advertising, are not covered by publications like Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide. Direct-to-video releases have carried a stigma of lower technical or artistic quality than theatrical releases; some films released direct-to-video are films which have been completed but were never released in movie theaters. This delay occurs when a studio doubts a film's commercial prospects justify a full cinema release, or because its release window has closed. In film industry slang, such films are referred to as having been "vaulted". Like B-movies shown in drive-in theaters in the mid-20th century, direct-to-video films employ both former stars and young actors who may become stars later. Direct-to-video releases can be done for films which cannot be shown theatrically due to controversial content, or because the cost involved in a theatrical release is beyond the releasing company. Animated sequels and feature-length episodes of animated series are often released in this fashion.
In 1992, Warner Bros. Animation released Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation, a direct-to-video movie based on the animated television series Tiny Toon Adventures; the Walt Disney Company started planning to make sequels to many of its animated films for video release beginning with The Return of Jafar in 1994 and Aladdin and the King of Thieves in 1996. Universal Studios began their long line of The Land Before Time sequels that same year. By 1994 an average of six new direct-to-video films appeared each week. Erotic thrillers and R-rated action films were the two most successful genres. Family films became more important than such genres in the 1990s, as retailers stocked more copies of blockbuster films instead of more titles. According to the Los Angeles Times: Often, the downfall of live-action family films at the box office is their strength on video, their appeal is to families with young children, who may go to only a couple of movies per year but who will watch many videos multiple times.
The teens and young adults who drive blockbuster box office statistics stay away from family movies. Some horror films that are unsuccessful in theaters, like Witchcraft, begin successful direct-to-video series. Studios may release sequels or spin-offs to a successful live action film straight to DVD, due to a lack of budget in comparison to the original. An example is the Behind Enemy Lines series of films. During the Golden Age of Porn in the 1970s, many pornographic films were released in theatres, some of which became some of the highest-grossing films in their release years, in the pornography industry altogether. Toward the 1980s, porn began to shift to video release, because video allowed the producers to work on low budgets and dispense with some film production elements, like scripts, the increased privacy and convenience of the format change were preferred by the target market. During the late 1990s and onward, pornographers began releasing content through paysites on the Internet.
A studio that makes a movie, prepared as a direct-to-video film will release it theatrically at the last minute due to the success of another film with a similar subject matter or an ultimate studio decision. Batman: Mask of the Phantasm is an example of this. However, despite the movie's critically acclaimed success, its box-office performance was poor, attributed to its last minute decision to be released theatrically; the film had much better commercial success in its subsequent home video releases. Other times, a direct-to-video movie may get a limited theatrical screening in order to build excitement for the actual release of the video such as was done for 2010's Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, Planet Hulk, 2016's Batman: The Killing Joke or 2013's Sharknado; as DVDs replaced VHS videocassettes, the term "direct-to-DVD" replaced "direct-to-video" in some instances. However, the word "video" does not refer to videocassettes. Many publications continue to use the term "direct-to-video" for Blu-ray discs.
Both disc-based release types may be referred to as "direct-to-disc". A new term sometimes used is "DVD premiere"; such films can cost as little as $20 million, about a third of the average cost of a Hollywood release. According to Variety, American Pie: Band Camp sold a million copies in one week, despite retaining only two actors from the original trilogy; some direct-to-DVD releases have tended to feature actors who were bankable stars. In 2005, salaries for some of these direct-to-DVD actors in the multimillion-dollar range from $2 to
The 1911 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship final was a Gaelic football match played at Jones's Road on 14 January 1912 to determine the winners of the 1911 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the 25th season of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, a tournament organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association for the champions of the four provinces of Ireland. The final was contested by Cork of Munster who were represented by Lees and Antrim of Ulster who were represented by Seaghan an Diomáis, with Cork winning by 6-6 to 1-2; the All-Ireland final between Cork and Antrim was notable for a number of firsts. Not only was it the first appearance by an Ulster team in the All-Ireland final but it was the first and to date the only, championship meeting of Cork and Antrim. Antrim started well by scoring the first goal of the game. Charlie Paye replied; the final quarter saw Cork score four goals in all, including two more from Mackessy who recorded the first All-Ireland hat-trick.
Some commentators claimed. Cork's All-Ireland victory was their first since 1890; the win gave them their second All-Ireland title over all and put them joint fourth on the all-time roll of honour along with Limerick. The 19-point winning margin for Cork remains a record for an All-Ireland final
Patricia Ann Keating is an American linguist and noted phonetician. She received her PhD in Linguistics at Brown University in 1980. Since 1980 she has been on the faculty of the Linguistics Department at University of California, Los Angeles, she became a Full Professor and director of the UCLA Phonetics Laboratory in 1991. Keating is best known for two areas of research in phonetics, she is, with Cécile Fougeron, the discoverer of the initial strengthening effect, wherein consonants receive more fortis articulations to the extent that they occur at the beginnings of high-ranking phonological phrases. On the theoretical side, she is the inventor of the "window model" of coarticulation, a theory of phonetic realization that specifies a particular range of legal values for each segment along each phonetic parameter. Keating is a founding member of the Association for Laboratory Phonology and was President of the International Phonetic Association from 2015 to 2019. Keating is married to linguist Bruce Hayes.
Fougeron, Cécile and Keating, Patricia A. Articulatory strengthening at edges of prosodic domains. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101: 3728-3740. Keating, Patricia A; the window model of coarticulation: articulatory evidence. In Papers in laboratory phonology I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 451–470. Homepage at UCLA UCLA Phonetics Laboratory