Fisher & Paykel
Fisher & Paykel is a major appliance manufacturing company based in East Tamaki, New Zealand. An importer of domestic refrigerators, Fisher & Paykel now holds over 420 patents and bases its identity on innovative design in the areas of usability and environmental awareness; the company's trademarked appliances include Active Smart refrigerators, AeroTech ovens, DishDrawer dishwashers, Smart Drive washing machines and Smartload top loading dryers. The company manufactures gas and electric cooktops. In 2004, Fisher & Paykel Appliances purchased the United States-based cookware manufacturer Dynamic Cooking Systems, Italian cookware company Elba in 2006. Fisher & Paykel had grown into a global company operating in 50 countries and manufacturing in Thailand, China and Mexico; the company had a manufacturing base in Australia for 20 years and nearly 70 years in New Zealand, but stated it can no longer compete with low cost labour countries and had to close them. In 2012, Haier, a major Chinese appliance manufacturer, purchased over 90% of Fisher & Paykel Appliance shares.
Fisher & Paykel Appliances Ltd was listed publicly in 2001, following the separation of Fisher & Paykel Industries Ltd into Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Ltd and Fisher & Paykel Appliances Ltd that same year. Fisher & Paykel Industries Ltd was founded in 1934 by Sir Woolf Maurice Paykel; the company publicly listed in 1979 with authorised capital of NZ$40 million. The company was an importer of Crosley appliances and Pilot products; this followed the introduction of tariffs by the First Labour Government of New Zealand. In 1956, manufacturing was moved to a purpose-built factory in Auckland; this facility included flexible machinery manufacturing techniques developed in tandem with the raw material suppliers, enabling Fisher & Paykel Industries to increase production. In 1955, Fisher and Paykel acquired Dunedin electric oven manufacturer H. E. Shacklock Ltd, which dominated the New Zealand domestic appliance market through the era of Government protectionism. Subsequently, the Shacklock brand was withdrawn from the Fisher and Paykel product range.
The company began exporting within Australasia and East Asia around 1968. At this time the company manufactured cabinets and televisions. During the 1980s the company became more focussed on research and development, resulting in the development of the ECS direct drive mechanism washing machine and automated production lines. In 1989, the company opened its first overseas manufacturing facility in Australia; the company entered the European market in 1992, by 1994 was exporting to over 80 countries. On 12 November 2001, Fisher & Paykel Industries split into Fisher & Paykel Appliances Holdings Ltd and Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Corporation Ltd. In October 2004, Fisher & Paykel Appliances acquired Dynamic Cooking Systems Inc, a United States manufacturer and distributor of cooking appliances. Dynamic Cooking Systems was acquired for US$33 million in a debt-free state, allowing the company to leverage market presence while maintaining its quality of engineering. In June 2006, the Italian cookware business Elba was acquired from DeLonghi for €78 million.
Elba has been since renamed as Fisher & Paykel Appliances Italy S.p. A. and exports to over 54 countries, focusing on the UK market. Fisher & Paykel makes a broad range of mid to high end dishwashers, its notable drawcard to the Fisher & Paykel brand is the DishDrawer range. Most dishwasher brands don’t offer drawer-style dishwashers, so Fisher & Paykel is the leader for this niche design. In 2018, Australian customers gave Fisher & Paykel 4 out of 5 stars for overall customer satisfaction for dishwashers. Fisher & Paykel Appliances manufactures cooking and whiteware appliances; the company's flagship product is the DishDrawer double drawer dishwasher, claimed to wash dishes more efficiently than standard dishwashers or hand washing. The current Fisher & Paykel-branded product range includes built-in ovens, electric cooktops, dryers, ranges, rangehoods and washing machines. A large number of Fisher & Paykel products utilise microprocessor and brushless DC electric motor technology from production line equipment to improve efficiency.
The company's trademarked brushless motor-based performance features include Smart Drive washing machines, SmartLoad Dryers and DishDrawer dishwashers. Microprocessor-based control systems form the basis of Active Smart refrigerators and AeroTech ovens. Fisher & Paykel US Fisher & Paykel CA Fisher & Paykel NZ Fisher & Paykel AU Dynamic Cooking Systems
The rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor's axis. An early example of electromagnetic rotation was the first rotary machine built by Ányos Jedlik with electromagnets and a commutator, in 1826-27. Other pioneers in the field of electricity include Hippolyte Pixii who built an alternating current generator in 1832, William Ritchie's construction of an electromagnetic generator with four rotor coils, a commutator and brushes in 1832. Development included more useful applications such as Moritz Hermann Jacobi's motor that could lift 10 to 12 pounds with a speed of one foot per second, about 15 watts of mechanical power in 1834. In 1835, Francis Watkins describes an electrical "toy". Induction motors and alternators have an electromagnetic system consisting of a stator and rotor. There wound. In generators and alternators, the rotor designs are salient cylindrical.
The squirrel-cage rotor consists of laminated steel in the core with evenly spaced bars of copper or aluminum placed axially around the periphery, permanently shorted at the ends by the end rings. This simple and rugged construction makes it the favorite for most applications; the assembly has a twist: the bars are slanted, or skewed, to reduce magnetic hum and slot harmonics and to reduce the tendency of locking. Housed in the stator, the rotor and stator teeth can lock when they are in equal number and the magnets position themselves apart, opposing rotation in both directions. Bearings at each end mount the rotor in its housing, with one end of the shaft protruding to allow the attachment of the load. In some motors, there is an extension at the non-driving end for speed sensors or other electronic controls; the generated torque forces motion through the rotor to the load. The rotor is a cylindrical core made of steel lamination with slots to hold the wires for its 3-phase windings which are evenly spaced at 120 electrical degrees apart and connected in a'Y' configuration.
The rotor winding terminals are brought out and attached to the three slips rings with brushes, on the shaft of the rotor. Brushes on the slip rings allow for external three-phase resistors to be connected in series to the rotor windings for providing speed control; the external resistances become a part of the rotor circuit to produce a large torque when starting the motor. As the motor speeds up, the resistances can be reduced to zero; the rotor is a large magnet with poles constructed of steel lamination projecting out of the rotor’s core. The poles are magnetized by permanent magnets; the armature with a three-phase winding is attached to three slip rings with brushes riding on them and mounted on the shaft. The field winding is wound on the rotor which produces the magnetic field and the armature winding is on the stator where voltage is induced. Direct current, from an external exciter or from a diode bridge mounted on the rotor shaft, produces a magnetic field and energizes the rotating field windings and alternating current energizes the armature windings simultaneously.
The cylindrical shaped rotor is made of a solid steel shaft with slots running along the outside length of the cylinder for holding the field windings of the rotor which are laminated copper bars inserted into the slots and is secured by wedges. The slots are held at the end of the rotor by slip rings. An external direct current source is connected to the concentrically mounted slip rings with brushes running along the rings; the brushes make electrical contact with the rotating slip rings. DC current is supplied through brushless excitation from a rectifier mounted on the machine shaft that converts alternating current to direct current. In a three-phase induction machine, alternating current supplied to the stator windings energizes it to create a rotating magnetic flux; the flux generates a magnetic field in the air gap between the stator and the rotor and induces a voltage which produces current through the rotor bars. The rotor circuit is current flows in the rotor conductors; the action of the rotating flux and the current produces a force that generates a torque to start the motor.
An alternator rotor is made up of a wire coil enveloped around an iron core. The magnetic component of the rotor is made from steel laminations to aid stamping conductor slots to specific shapes and sizes; as currents travel through the wire coil a magnetic field is created around the core, referred to as field current. The field current strength controls the power level of the magnetic field. Direct current drives the field current in one direction, is delivered to the wire coil by a set of brushes and slip rings. Like any magnet, the magnetic field produced has a south pole; the normal clockwise direction of the motor that the rotor is powering can be manipulated by using the magnets and magnetic fields installed in the design of the rotor, allowing the motor to run in reverse or counterclockwise. Squirrel cage rotorThis rotor rotates at a speed less than the stator rotating magnetic field or synchronous speed. Rotor slip provides necessary induction of rotor currents for motor torque, in proportion to slip.
When rotor speed increases, the slip decreases. Increasing the slip increases induced motor current, which in turn increases rotor current, resulting in a higher torque for increase load demands. Wound rotorThis
A unicycle is a vehicle that touches the ground with only one wheel. The most common variation has a frame with a saddle, has a pedal-driven direct drive. A two speed hub is commercially available for faster unicycling. Unicycling is practiced professionally in circuses, by street performers, in festivals, as a hobby. Unicycles have been used to create new sports such as unicycle hockey. In recent years, unicycles have been used in mountain unicycling, an activity similar to mountain biking or trials. US patents for single-wheeled'velocipedes' were published in 1869 by Frederick Myers and in 1881 by Battista Scuri. Unicycle design has developed since the Penny Farthing and the advent of the first unicycle into many variations including: the seatless unicycle and the tall unicycle. During the late 1980s some extreme sportsmen took an interest in the unicycle and modified unicycles to enable them to engage in off-road or mountain unicycling, trials unicycling and street unicycling. Bicycles and quadracycles share several basic parts including wheels, cranks and the saddle with unicycles.
Without a rider, unicycles lack stability – however, a proficient unicyclist is more stable than a proficient rider on a bicycle as the wheel is not constrained by the linear axis of a frame. Unicycles but not always, lack brakes and the ability to freewheel. Unicycles have a few key parts: The wheel The cranks The hub Pedals Fork-style frame Seatpost Saddle The wheel is similar to a bicycle wheel with a special hub designed so the axle is a fixed part of the hub; this means. The frame sits on top of the axle bearings, while the cranks attach to the ends of the axle, the seatpost slides into the frame to allow the saddle to be height adjusted. Types of unicycle include: Freestyle unicycles Trials unicycles Mountain unicycles Giraffe unicycles Commuter unicycles Street unicycles Cruiser unicycles Road unicyclesEach type has various combinations of frame strength, wheel diameter, crank length. Used for flatland skills and freestyle routines, freestyle unicycles have a high seatpost, a narrow saddle, a squared fork.
These unicycles are used to flatland bicycles. Wheel size is 20 inches, but smaller riders may use 16-or-12-inch unicycles; some people prefer 24-inch wheels. Designed for unicycle trials, these unicycles are stronger than standard unicycles in order to withstand the stresses caused by jumping and supporting the weight of the unicycle and rider on components such as the pedals and cranks. Many trials unicycles have wide, 19- or 20-inch knobby tires to absorb some of the impact on drops. Mountain unicycling consists of riding specialized unicycles on mountain bike trails or otherwise off-roading. Mountain unicycles have wider tires for shock absorption. Many riders choose to use long cranks to increase power when riding up over rough terrain. A disk brake is sometimes used for descents, the brake handle is attached to the underside of the handle on the front of the saddle Used for long distances, these unicycles are specially made to cover distances, they have a large wheel diameter, between 36 in.
So more distance is covered in less pedal rotation. A 36" unicycle made by the Coker Tire company started the big wheel trend; some variations on the traditional touring unicycle include the Schlumpf "GUni", which uses a two-speed internal fixed-geared hub. Larger direct-drive wheels tend to have shorter cranks to allow for more speed. Geared wheels, with an effective diameter larger than the wheel itself, tend to use longer cranks to increase torque as they are not required to achieve such high cadences as direct-drive wheels, but demand greater force per pedal stroke. A 36" Commuter unicycle was used by Bob Mueller to complete a cross-country unicycle trek from Cape Elizabeth, ME to Westport, WA on August 8, 2011. Giraffe, a chain-driven unicycle. Use of a chain or multiple wheels in a gear-like configuration can make the unicycle much taller than standard unicycles. Standard unicycles don't have a chain, which limits the seat height based on how long the rider's legs are, because there the crank is attached directly to the wheel axle.
Giraffe unicycles can range in heights from 3 feet to over 10 feet high. Geared unicycle, or GUni, a unicycle whose wheel rotates faster than the pedal cadence, they are used for distance racing. Multi-wheeled unicycle, a unicycle with more than one wheel, stacked on top of each other so that only one wheel touches the ground; the wheels are linked together by direct contact with each other. These unicycles can be called Giraffes. Kangaroo unicycle, a unicycle that has both the cranks facing in the same direction, they are so named due to the hopping motion of the rider's legs resembling the jumping of a kangaroo. Eccentric unicycle, a unicycle that has the hub off-center in the wheel. Putting an eccentric wheel on a kangaroo unicycle can make riding easier, the rider's motion appear more kangaroo-like. Ultimate wheel, a unicycle with no frame or seat, just a wheel and pedals. Impossible wheel, or BC wheel, a wheel with pegs or metal plates connect
A flywheel is a mechanical device designed to efficiently store rotational energy. Flywheels resist changes in rotational speed by their moment of inertia; the amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed. The way to change a flywheel's stored energy is by increasing or decreasing its rotational speed by applying a torque aligned with its axis of symmetry, Common uses of a flywheel include: Smoothing the power output of an energy source. For example, flywheels are used in reciprocating engines because the active torque from the individual pistons is intermittent. Energy storage systems Delivering energy at rates beyond the ability of an energy source; this is achieved by collecting energy in a flywheel over time and releasing it at rates that exceed the abilities of the energy source. Controlling the orientation of a mechanical system and reaction wheelFlywheels are made of steel and rotate on conventional bearings. High energy density flywheels can be made of carbon fiber composites and employ magnetic bearings, enabling them to revolve at speeds up to 60,000 RPM.
Carbon-composite flywheel batteries have been manufactured and are proving to be viable in real-world tests on mainstream cars. Additionally, their disposal is more eco-friendly than traditional lithium ion batteries. Flywheels are used to provide continuous power output in systems where the energy source is not continuous. For example, a flywheel is used to smooth fast angular velocity fluctuations of the crankshaft in a reciprocating engine. In this case, a crankshaft flywheel stores energy when torque is exerted on it by a firing piston, returns it to the piston to compress a fresh charge of air and fuel. Another example is the friction motor. In unstressed and inexpensive cases, to save on cost, the bulk of the mass of the flywheel is toward the rim of the wheel. Pushing the mass away from the axis of rotation heightens rotational inertia for a given total mass. A flywheel may be used to supply intermittent pulses of energy at power levels that exceed the abilities of its energy source; this is achieved by accumulating energy in the flywheel over a period of time, at a rate, compatible with the energy source, releasing energy at a much higher rate over a short time when it is needed.
For example, flywheels are used in riveting machines. Flywheels oppose unwanted motions, see gyroscope. Flywheels in this context have a wide range of applications from gyroscopes for instrumentation to ship stability and satellite stabilization, to keep a toy spin spinning, to stabilize magnetically levitated objects The principle of the flywheel is found in the Neolithic spindle and the potter's wheel, as well as circular sharpening stones in antiquity; the mechanical flywheel, used to smooth out the delivery of power from a driving device to a driven machine and to allow lifting water from far greater depths, was first employed by Ibn Bassal, of Al-Andalus. The use of the flywheel as a general mechanical device to equalize the speed of rotation is, according to the American medievalist Lynn White, recorded in the De diversibus artibus of the German artisan Theophilus Presbyter who records applying the device in several of his machines. In the Industrial Revolution, James Watt contributed to the development of the flywheel in the steam engine, his contemporary James Pickard used a flywheel combined with a crank to transform reciprocating motion into rotary motion.
A flywheel is rotor, rotating around its symmetry axis. Energy is stored as kinetic energy, more rotational energy, of the rotor: E k = 1 2 I ω 2 where: E k is the stored kinetic energy, ω is the angular velocity, I is the moment of inertia of the flywheel about its axis of symmetry; the moment of inertia is a measure of resistance to torque applied on a spinning object. The moment of inertia for a solid cylinder is I = 1 2 m r 2, for a thin-walled empty cylinder is I = m r 2, for a thick-walled empty cylinder is I = 1 2 m,where m denotes mass, r denotes a radius; when calculating with SI units, the units would be for kilograms. Increasing amounts of rotation energy can be stored in the flywheel until the rotor
A centreless wheel is a wheel with no center. More the axle is hollow and follows the wheel at close tolerances; the hubless wheel was invented by Franco Sbarro, patented by Globeholding of Geneva. Although hubless wheels are striking in appearance, their numerous practical disadvantages have precluded their widespread use as an alternative to conventional wheels, they are difficult and expensive to manufacture, requiring a great deal of precision machining, the design leaves the bearings and other critical parts exposed to the elements. The drive system is problematic since a conventional axle and constant-velocity joint cannot be used. One real-life example of hubless wheels are those used in the replica Tron: Legacy light cycle; the illuminated, street-legal motorcycle was sold through Hammacher Schlemmer, inspired by the computer-animated vehicle from the 2010 film Tron: Legacy. Designed for casual cruising and slow ride-bys at shows, it is made from a steel frame covered by a fiberglass cowling that replicates the sleek look of its computer-generated imagery counterpart.
Electroluminescent wire strips built into the tire cowlings, wheel rims, body illuminate the cycle. It is powered by a fuel-injected Suzuki 996 cc 4-stroke engine. Riders lie at a near-horizontal position astride the padded leather seat, with feet on foot pegs that control its 6-speed constant-mesh manual transmission and hands on the handlebars for throttle and braking; the hubless wheels are former truck tires built up custom-shaped to fit onto one of two counter-rotating rims spinning within each other, providing the broad-tired authenticity of the computer cycles from the movie. The Skatecycle is a device similar to a caster board but with 9" hubless wheels and a 2-axis twisting axle replacing the function of the casters; the central axle connects the two standing platforms surrounded by 9" polyurethane hubless wheels, giving them the appearance of stirrups. In order to move the unit, the rider rotates their feet inwards and outwards, creating a wave-like motion in the hinged frame and providing propulsion.
In recognition of the novel design, the Skatecycle received the Bronze 2010 IDSA IDEA award in the transportation category. Another example of a hubless vehicle is the Zero Bike, a lightweight hubless bicycle whose non-functional prototype won an Industrial Design Excellence Award in 1991. Designed by then-ArtCenter College of Design students Makota Makita and Hiroshi Tsuzaki, it is based on the principle of magnetic superconductivity used in high-speed trains that are suspended above rails. Ujet electric scooter is mass produced in Luxembourg since 2018, featuring front and rear orbital wheels connected to a frame with torsion suspension system, in-wheel electric motor; such setup is communicated to benefit from minimal energy loss in transmission. In 2019 Ujet won both iF Red Dot awards for its design; the orbital wheel was designed in 1990 by Dominique Mottas of the French Osmos company in an attempt to reduce the number of moving parts by removing the center shaft and hub of the wheel and relying upon a circular or star-shaped framework inside the wheel to support it instead.
The orbital wheel was created by using two circular bearings inserted inside of each other. The inner bearing provides steering and attachment to the frame; the outer bearing consists of a tire with a brake ring fixed in. Some of the advantages seen by this design are more accurate steering, less weight, enhanced braking. In 2011, final-year Mechanical Engineering students Shabin S. Asif Shereef, Abhijith Mohan, Bibin Salim of P. A. Aziz College of Engineering and Technology in Thiruvananthapuram succeeded in designing and introducing a hubless wheel in a motorcycle as part of their college project; the project, under the guidance of Professor Azeem Hafiz, was completed in four months. The "Hubless Ryder" was built from a Yamaha Enticer with modifications made to the wheel assembly and rear sprocket; the model employed a custom built sprocket. A disc brake was integrated into the rear wheel; the new wheel system is said to have increased steering efficiency, providing a high degree of resistance during tilt.
Direct drive mechanism Monocycle Motorcycle wheel