The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
George Orson Welles was an American actor, director and producer who worked in theatre and film. He is remembered for his innovative work in all three: in theatre, most notably Caesar, a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. While in his twenties Welles directed a number of high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an African American cast and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937 he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941. Welles found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds performed for his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air, it caused widespread panic because many listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was occurring. Although some contemporary sources say these reports of panic were false and overstated, they rocketed Welles to notoriety.
His first film was Citizen Kane, which he co-wrote, produced and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles followed up Citizen Kane with twelve other feature films, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons, The Lady from Shanghai, Touch of Evil, The Trial, Chimes at Midnight and F for Fake. With a development spanning fifty years, Welles' final film, The Other Side of the Wind, was released in 2018. Welles was an outsider to the studio system and directed only thirteen full-length films in his career, he struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios in Hollywood and in life with a variety of independent financiers across Europe, where he spent most of his career. Many of his films were either edited or remained unreleased, his distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur".
In 2002 Welles was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics. Known for his baritone voice, Welles was an actor in radio and film, a Shakespearean stage actor and magician noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. George Orson Welles was born May 6, 1915, in Kenosha, son of Richard Head Welles and Beatrice Ives Welles, he was named after his paternal great-grandfather, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, his brother George Head. An alternative story of the source of his first and middle names was told by George Ade, who met Welles's parents on a West Indies cruise toward the end of 1914. Ade was traveling with a friend, Orson Wells, the two of them sat at the same table as Mr. and Mrs. Richard Welles. Mrs. Welles was pregnant at the time, when they said good-by, she told them that she had enjoyed their company so much that if the child were a boy, she intended to name it for them: George Orson. Welles's birth announcement and a picture of him as a young boy are among George Ade's papers at Purdue University.
Despite his family's affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood. His parents separated and moved to Chicago in 1919, his father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a popular bicycle lamp, became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles's mother, a pianist, played during lectures by Dudley Crafts Watson at the Art Institute of Chicago to support her son and herself. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital on May 10, 1924, just after Welles's ninth birthday; the Gordon String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrice's funeral. After his mother's death, Welles ceased pursuing music, it was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in Wyoming, New York, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward. There he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, including the 12-year-old Prince Aly Khan. In what Welles described as "a hectic period" in his life, he lived in a Chicago apartment with both his father and Dr. Maurice Bernstein, a Chicago physician, a close friend of both his parents.
Welles attended public school before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East. When they returned they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, owned by his father; when the hotel burned down and his father took to the road again."During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom", wrote biographer Frank Brady."In some ways, he was never a young boy, you know," said Roger Hill, who became Welles's teacher and lifelong friend. Welles attended public school in Madison, enrolled in the fourth grade. On September 15, 1926, he entered the Todd Seminary for Boys, an expensive independent school in Woodstock, that his older brother, Richard Ives Welles, had attended ten years before until he was expelled for misbeha
Monument Valley is a region of the Colorado Plateau characterized by a cluster of vast sandstone buttes, the largest reaching 1,000 ft above the valley floor. It is located near the Four Corners area; the valley lies within the territory of the Navajo Nation Reservation and is accessible from U. S. Highway 163. Monument Valley has been featured in many forms of media since the 1930s. Director John Ford used the location for a number of his best-known films and thus, in the words of critic Keith Phipps, "its five square miles have defined what decades of moviegoers think of when they imagine the American West." The area is part of the Colorado Plateau. The elevation of the valley floor ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level; the floor is siltstone of the Cutler Group, or sand derived from it, deposited by the meandering rivers that carved the valley. The valley's vivid red color comes from iron oxide exposed in the weathered siltstone; the darker, blue-gray rocks in the valley get their color from manganese oxide.
The buttes are stratified, with three principal layers. The lowest layer is the Organ Rock Shale, the middle is de Chelly Sandstone, the top layer is the Moenkopi Formation capped by Shinarump Conglomerate; the valley includes large stone structures including the famed "Eye of the Sun". Between 1945 and 1967, the southern extent of the Monument Upwarp was mined for uranium, which occurs in scattered areas of the Shinarump Conglomerate. Monument Valley is a large area that includes much of the area surrounding Monument Valley Navajo Tribal Park, a Navajo Nation equivalent to a national park. Oljato, for example, is within the area designated as Monument Valley. Visitors may drive through the park on a 17-mile dirt road. Parts of Monument Valley, such as Mystery Valley and Hunts Mesa, are accessible only by guided tour. Monument Valley experiences a desert climate with hot summers. While the summers may be hot, the heat is tempered by the region's high altitude. Although the valley experiences an average of 54 days above 90 °F annually, summer highs exceed 100 °F.
Summer nights are comfortably cool, temperatures drop after sunset. Winters are cold, but daytime highs are above freezing. In the winter, temperatures below 0 °F are uncommon, though possible. Monument Valley receives an occasional light snowfall in the winter. Monument Valley has been featured in numerous computer games, in print, in motion pictures, including multiple Westerns directed by John Ford that influenced audiences' view of the American West, such as: Stagecoach, My Darling Clementine, Fort Apache, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon. Many more recent movies, with other directors, were filmed in Monument Valley, including Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West, the first spaghetti western to be filmed outside Europe, The Lone Ranger. Valley of the Gods Harvey, Thomas J.. Rainbow Bridge to Monument Valley: Making the Modern Old West. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806141909. "Complete Monument Valley Guide: Drive, Camping, Seasons". When To Go. 2017-11-12. "List of movies and television shows with scenes in Monument Valley".
IMDb. "Monument Valley". American Southwest Guide. "Monument Valley". Navajo Nation Parks. "Photographs and documents of pre-automobile access Monument Valley from the Monument Highway Digital Collection". Utah State University. "Uranium mining in Monument Valley and its decommissioning". Energy Information Administration
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
Howard Johnson's, or Howard Johnson by Wyndham, is an American chain of hotels and motels located throughout the United States and Canada. It had once been a chain of restaurants for over 90 years and its name was known for that alone. Founded by Howard Deering Johnson, it was the largest restaurant chain in the U. S. throughout the 1960s and 1970s, with more than 1,000 combined company-owned and franchised outlets. Howard Johnson hotels and motels are now part of Wyndham Worldwide. Howard Johnson's restaurants were franchised separately from the hotel brand beginning in 1986, but in the years that followed dwindled in number and all but disappeared by the turn of the century; as of 2018, only one Howard Johnson's restaurant remains: in Lake George, New York. The food and beverage rights to the restaurant are owned by Wyndham Worldwide; the line of branded supermarket frozen foods, including ice cream, is no longer manufactured. In 1925, Howard Deering Johnson borrowed $2,000 to buy and operate a small corner pharmacy in Wollaston, a neighborhood in Quincy, Massachusetts.
Johnson was surprised to find it easy to pay back the money lent to him, after discovering his installed soda fountain had become the busiest part of his drugstore. Eager to ensure that his store would remain successful, Johnson decided to come up with a new ice cream recipe; some sources say the recipe was based on his mother's homemade ice creams and desserts, while others say that it was from a local German immigrant, who either sold or gave Johnson the ice cream recipe. Regardless, the new recipe made the ice cream more flavorful due to an increased content of butterfat. Johnson came up with 28 flavors of ice cream. Johnson is quoted as saying, "I thought. That'28' became my trademark."Throughout the summers of the late 1920s, Johnson opened up concession stands on beachfront property along the coast of Massachusetts. The stands sold soft drinks, hot dogs, ice cream; each stand proved to be successful. With his success becoming more noticeable every year, Johnson convinced local bankers to lend him enough money to operate a sit-down restaurant.
Negotiations were made and, toward the end of the decade, the first Howard Johnson's restaurant opened in Quincy. The first Howard Johnson's restaurant featured fried clams, baked beans, chicken pot pies, ice cream, soft drinks; the first Howard Johnson's restaurant and Howard Johnson's company received an incredible break in 1929, owing to an unusual set of circumstances: The mayor of nearby Boston, Malcolm Nichols, banned the planned production of Eugene O'Neill's play, Strange Interlude, in the city of Boston. Rather than fight the mayor, the Theatre Guild moved the production to Quincy; the five-hour play was presented in two parts with a dinner break. The first Howard Johnson's restaurant was near the theater. Through word of mouth, more Americans became familiar with the Howard Johnson's company. Johnson wanted to expand his company, but the stock market crash of 1929 prevented him from doing so. After waiting a few years and maintaining his business, Johnson was able to persuade an acquaintance in 1932 to open a second Howard Johnson's restaurant in Orleans, Massachusetts.
The second restaurant was not company-owned. This was one of America's first franchising agreements. By the end of 1936, there were 39 more franchised restaurants, creating a total of 41 Howard Johnson's restaurants. By 1939, there were 107 Howard Johnson's restaurants along various American East Coast highways, generating revenues of $10.5 million. In less than 14 years, Johnson directed a franchise network of over 10,000 employees with 170 restaurants, many serving 1.5 million people a year. The unique icons of orange roofs and weather vanes on Howard Johnson properties helped patrons identify the chain's restaurants and motels; the restaurant's trademark Simple Simon and the Pieman logo was created by artist John Alcott in the 1930s. There were 200 Howard Johnson's restaurants when America entered World War II. By 1944, only 12 Howard Johnson's restaurants remained in business; the effects of war rationing had crippled the company. Johnson managed to maintain his business by serving commissary food to war workers and U.
S. Army recruits; when the Pennsylvania Turnpike, the Ohio Turnpike, New Jersey Turnpike and Connecticut Turnpike were built, Johnson bid for and won exclusive rights to serve drivers at service station turnoffs through the turnpike systems. In the process of recovering from these losses, in 1947 the Howard Johnson's company began construction of 200 new restaurants throughout the American Southeast and Midwest. By 1951, the sales of the Howard Johnson's company totaled $115 million. By 1954, there were 400 Howard Johnson's restaurants in 32 states, about 10% of which were profitable company-owned turnpike restaurants; this was one of the first nationwide restaurant chains. While many places sold "fried clams", they were whole, not universally accepted by the American dining public. Howard Johnson popularized Soffron Brothers Clam Company's fried clam strips, the "foot" of hard-shelled sea clams, they became popular to eat in this fashion throughout the country. In 1954, the company opened the first Howard Johnson's motor lodge in Georgia.
The company employed architects Rufus Nims and Karl Koch to oversee the design of the rooms and gate lodge. Nims had worked with the company, designing restaurants; the restaurant's trademark Simple Simon and the Pieman was now joined by a lamplighter character in the firm's marketing of its motels. According to cultural historians, the chain bec
Henry Jaynes Fonda was an American film and stage actor with a career spanning five decades. Fonda made his mark early as a Broadway actor, he appeared in 1938 in plays performed in White Plains, New York, with Joan Tompkins. He made his Hollywood debut in 1935, his career gained momentum after his Academy Award-nominated performance as Tom Joad in The Grapes of Wrath, a 1940 adaptation of John Steinbeck's novel about an Oklahoma family who moved west during the Dust Bowl. Throughout five decades in Hollywood, Fonda cultivated a strong, appealing screen image in such classics as The Ox-Bow Incident, Mister Roberts, 12 Angry Men. Fonda moved both toward darker epics such as Sergio Leone's Once Upon a Time in the West and lighter roles in family comedies such as Yours and Ours with Lucille Ball, winning the Academy Award for Best Actor at the 54th Academy Awards for the movie On Golden Pond, his final film role. Fonda was the patriarch of a family of famous actors, including daughter Jane Fonda, son Peter Fonda, granddaughter Bridget Fonda, grandson Troy Garity.
His family and close friends called him "Hank". In 1999, he was named the sixth-Greatest Male Star of All Time by the American Film Institute. Born in Grand Island, Nebraska on May 16, 1905, Henry Jaynes Fonda was the son of printer William Brace Fonda, his wife, Herberta; the family moved to Omaha, Nebraska in 1906. Fonda's patrilineal line originates with an ancestor from Genoa, who migrated to the Netherlands in the 15th century. In 1642, a branch of the Fonda family immigrated to the Dutch colony of New Netherland on the East Coast of North America, they were among the first Dutch population to settle in what is now upstate New York, establishing the town of Fonda, New York. By 1888, many of their descendants had relocated to Nebraska. Fonda was brought up as a Christian Scientist, though he was baptized an Episcopalian at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in Grand Island, he said, "My whole damn family was nice." They were a close family and supportive in health matters, as they avoided doctors due to their religion.
Despite having a religious background, he became an agnostic. Fonda was a bashful, short boy who tended to avoid girls, except his sisters, was a good skater and runner, he imagined a possible career as a journalist. He worked after school for the phone company, he enjoyed drawing. Fonda was active in the Boy Scouts of America. However, this is denied elsewhere; when he was about 14, his father took him to observe the brutal lynching of Will Brown during the Omaha race riot of 1919. This enraged the young Fonda and he kept a keen awareness of prejudice for the rest of his life. By his senior year in high school, Fonda had grown to more than six feet tall, but remained shy, he attended the University of Minnesota, where he majored in journalism. He took a job with the Retail Credit Company. At age 20, Fonda started his acting career at the Omaha Community Playhouse, when his mother's friend Dodie Brando recommended that he try out for a juvenile part in You and I, in which he was cast as Ricky, he was fascinated by the stage, learning everything from set construction to stage production, embarrassed by his acting ability.
When he received the lead in Merton of the Movies, he realized the beauty of acting as a profession, as it allowed him to deflect attention from his own tongue-tied personality and create stage characters relying on someone else's scripted words. Fonda decided to go east in 1928 to seek his fortune, he played a minor role at the Cape Playhouse in Dennis, Massachusetts. A friend took him to Falmouth, MA where he joined and became a valued member of the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company. There he worked with his future wife. James Stewart joined the Players a few months after Fonda left, though they were soon to become lifelong friends. Fonda left the Players at the end of their 1931-1932 season after appearing in his first professional role in The Jest, by Sem Benelli. Joshua Logan, a young sophomore at Princeton, double-cast in the show, gave Fonda the part of Tornaquinci, "an elderly Italian man with a long white beard and longer hair." In the cast of The Jest with Fonda and Logan were Bretaigne Windust, Kent Smith, Eleanor Phelps.
The tall (6 ft 1.5 in Fonda headed for New York City, to be with his wife, Margaret Sullavan. The marriage was brief. Getting contact information from Joshua Logan, Jimmy, as he was called, found Hank Fonda and these small town boys found they had a lot in common, as long as they didn't discuss politics; the two men honed their skills on Broadway. Fonda appeared in theatrical productions from 1926 to 1934, they fared no better than many Americans in and out of work during the Great Depression, sometimes lacking enough money to take the subway. Fonda got his first break in films when he was hired in 1935 as Janet Gaynor's leading man in 20th Century Fox's screen adaptation of The Farmer Takes a Wife. Fonda was making $3,000 a week and dining with Hollywood stars such as Carole Lombard. Stewart soon followed him to Hollywood, they roomed together again, in lodgings next door to Greta Garbo. In 1935, Fonda starred in the RKO film; the New York Times announced him as "Henry Fonda, the most likable
Telluride Film Festival
The Telluride Film Festival is a film festival held annually in Telluride, Colorado during Labor Day weekend. The festival was started in 1974 by Scott Brown, the Chairman of the Telluride Council for the Arts and Humanities and Stella Pence, Tom Luddy, James Card of Eastman-Kodak Film Preserve, it is operated by the National Film Preserve. In 2007 the Pences retired. Julie Huntsinger and Gary Meyer were hired to run the festival with Tom Luddy. Huntsinger is Executive Director. In 2010, Telluride Film festival partnered with UCLA TFT; this partnership created FilmLab, a program that focuses on the art and industry of filmmaking. This program is destined to ten selected filmmaker graduates from UCLA; the partnership was further extended in 2012, the two partners created a mutually curated film program on UCLA's Westwood campus. In 2013 the festival celebrated its 40th Anniversary with the addition of a new venue, the Werner Herzog Theatre and an extra day of programming; the bulk of the program is made up of new films, there is an informal tradition that new films must be shown for the first time in North America to be eligible for the festival.
Telluride is well-situated on the international film festival calendar for this: after the Cannes Film Festival, but just before the Toronto International Film Festival and the New York Film Festival. This insistence on premieres has led to Telluride's being associated with the discovery of a number of important new films and filmmakers; this is true of Michael Moore and Robert Rodriguez. The festival has had the American premiere of films such as My Dinner With Andre, Stranger than Paradise, Blue Velvet, The Civil War, The Crying Game, Mulholland Drive, Brokeback Mountain, The Imitation Game, Sully and Lady Bird. Since 1995 a special medallion has been presented annually to a non-filmmaker who has had a major impact on American or international film culture. Past recipients include Milos Stehlik, HBO, the French film magazine Positif, Ted Turner, Janus Films; each festival features three tributes. Each is awarded the Telluride Film Festival Silver Medallion; the 1974 tributes honored Gloria Swanson and Leni Riefenstahl.
Other tributees have included Lillian Gish, Penélope Cruz, Daniel Day-Lewis, Marion Cotillard, Catherine Deneuve, Gérard Depardieu, Clint Eastwood, Jodie Foster, Harvey Keitel, Ang Lee, David Lynch, Jack Nicholson, Peter O'Toole, Mickey Rooney, John Schlesinger, Meryl Streep. As of 2015 the program is created by executive director Julie Huntsinger and founder and artistic director Tom Luddy, one of the Telluride Film Festival guest directors, who change each year; these have included Errol Morris, Peter Bogdanovich, Bertrand Tavernier, Salman Rushdie, Don DeLillo, Peter Sellars, Stephen Sondheim, Buck Henry, Michael Ondaatje. Each year, an artist is selected to produce the poster art for the festival; those who have accepted the commission include Chuck Jones, David Salle and Mike Starn, Dottie Attie, Jim Dine, Ed Ruscha, Francesco Clemente, Dave McKean, Gary Larson. The sole requirement for the poster is; this is a tribute to a large illuminated sign which says "Show" and sits outside of the Sheridan Opera House, the festival venue where the Silver Medallions are awarded.
After serving guest director in 2001, Salman Rushdie wrote that, "It is extraordinarily exciting, in this age of the triumph of capitalism, to discover an event dedicated not to commerce but to love". Conversely, Susan Sontag, in her 1974 essay "Fascinating Fascism", lamented that, "The purification of Leni Riefenstahl's reputation of its Nazi dross has been gathering momentum for some time, but it has reached some kind of climax this year, with Riefenstahl the guest of honor at a new cinéphile-controlled film festival held in the summer in Colorado…." Kenneth Turan, film critic of the Los Angeles Times, wrote in 2002 that "the hothouse filmocentric universe Telluride creates over a Labor Day weekend has always been more a religion than anything as ordinary as a festival, complete with messianic believers and agnostic scoffers." Jeffrey Ruoff, a film historian at Dartmouth College, noted in 2015 that "Early buzz at Telluride opens the fall season of North American award speculation that climaxes with the Oscars."
The Academy Film Archive houses the Telluride Film Festival Collection, which consists of conversations with iconic filmmakers, tributes and seminars dating back to 1978. Official website Telluride Film Festival records, Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences