Hôtel de Blossac
The Hôtel de Blossac is an 18th-century hôtel particulier in the historic center of Rennes, Brittany. The building, which has two main wings, was constructed in 1728; the architect is said to have been Jacques Gabriel. The building has a unique classical architecture for Brittany, including its size, the assembly of several architectural components, its grand staircase. Property of the La Bourdonnaye family, earls of Blossac, for nearly two centuries, it was leased by the city as the residence of the commander in chief of the province of Brittany, with a pomp reminiscent of the court of France. At the French Revolution, it was divided into apartments and became a residential building, where the author Paul Féval was born; the building was designated as a historic monument in 1947, underwent a complete exterior restoration spread over three decades, while the apartments give way to offices. It has been wholly owned by the state since 1982 and houses, in refurbished and restored rooms, the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles and in service quarters, the service territorial de l’architecture et du patrimoine.
The hôtel de Blossac is located in the northwest in the secteur sauvegardé of the historic city center. Its address and the main entrance, a porch, are at rue du Chapitre, it is surrounded on the rue Saint-Sauveur. Two doors, one condemned and the other for use by staff, are arranged in the garden wall; the western part is adjacent to other courses leading to deprivation. The hôtel garden offers views of Blossac the south side of the basilica of the Saint Sauveur, whereas since the floors of the hôtel it is possible to see, at the west, the nearby Rennes Cathedral; the hôtel de Blossac consists of a main body, from the streets of rue du Chapitre to rue Saint-Sauveur. This building is divided into two parts: the side yard on the north and the garden side yard on the south; the side garden has a perron and an elaborate façade, while the courtyard side is more austere, but contains, in the south, the grand staircase. Facing the courtyard are the old stables, with perpendicular, the gallery overlooking the garden.
On the back side of the body court is the court service, accessible through the passage of the staircase. It gives a windowless wall to the east, the hôtel de Brie in the south; this hôtel is older than the hôtel de Blossac, was reused in the building of the building. As the hotel is a public building, it is possible, during office hours, visiting the external and the staircase, including access to the documentation library; those outside are open to the European Heritage Days. The hôtel de Brie is, in 1720, a composition from several buildings parts of the prior petit Fontenay manor; the hôtel de Brie is itself built in 1624 on the rue du Chapitre by the family Loysel de Briz. This construction replaces wooden houses, for which it had to pass through to enter the petit Fontenay; this hôtel is allocated in 1692 at the residence of the intendant of the King in Brittany, this until 1725. The hôtel de Brie goes from Loysel de Brie family to the de Cahideuc family, who sell in exchange the building to Louis Gabriel de la Bourdonnaye of Blossac in 1727.
Its configuration is classical compared to others constructions in Rennes: two buildings separated by a courtyard, one of them overlooking the street. They still exist today. A passage under the house give access to the courtyard, both for cars and pedestrians, passing houses the staircase to the floor. One common gallery and service quarters link the two buildings on the east side of the court. Stables, east of service quarters complement the set. Apart from the wooden stables, Hôtel de Brie by its stone construction, thanks to the will of his owner not to build in wood, stop the burning of Rennes in 1720, protecting the western part of the city. Hôtel de Brie communicated with the adjoining house, so called the Psalette, on the Rue Saint-Sauveur through the petit Fontenay. Nowadays, it remains no trace of these passages, except for a construction in the service yard of the Psalette. Hôtel de Brie is the only white stone facade of the 16th century in Rennes; the hôtel de Blossac was built in 1728 on the initiative of Louis Gabriel Labourdonnaye, Earl of Blossac, President of the Parliament of Brittany, to make it his residence.
Jean-François Huguet supervise the construction. The construction is done on a bare area resulting from the Rennes fire in 1720 by taking the old Hotel de Brie in the west and enjoying the place left by the fire in the east; the new parcel is bounded by the street south of the Chapitre and the Saint-Sauveur to the north, while the limit on the street is becoming the rue de la Mitterie, traced in a straight line and called Montfort Street. The southeast corner is the only occupied by other buildings rebuilt in 1723 on style adopted for the new city; the plan prepared in 1722 by engineer Isaac Robelin in charge of rebuilding the city, leaving the family to a surface Labourdonnaye strangely arranged, which will start construction of the “Hôtel de La Bourdonnaye de Blossac” in 1728. The hôtel de Blossac will therefore occupy the entire width of the plot, vested in maximizing the potential of this surface: the main body separated into two distinct parts, rooms distributed in length; the distribution on the first floor is identical to the ground floor.
This separation may have been conceived from the start of constr
Ministry of Culture (France)
The Ministry of Culture is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques. Its goal is to maintain the French identity through the promotion and protection of the arts on national soil and abroad, its budget is dedicated to the management of the Archives Nationales and the regional Maisons de la culture. Its main office is in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement of Paris on the Rue de Valois, it is headed by the Minister of a cabinet member. The current position holder is Franck Riester, since 16 October 2018. Deriving from the Italian and Burgundian courts of the Renaissance, the notion that the state had a key role to play in the sponsoring of artistic production and that the arts were linked to national prestige was found in France from at least the 16th century on. During the pre-revolutionary period, these ideas are apparent in such things as the creation of the Académie française, the Académie de peinture et de sculpture and other state-sponsored institutions of artistic production, through the cultural policies of Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
The modern post of Minister of Culture was created by Charles de Gaulle in 1959 and the first Minister was the writer André Malraux. Malraux was responsible for realizing the goals of the droit à la culture, an idea, incorporated in the Constitution of France and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by democratising access to culture, while achieving the Gaullist aim of elevating the "grandeur" of post-war France. To this end, he created numerous regional cultural centres throughout France and sponsored the arts. Malraux's artistic tastes included the modern arts and the avant-garde, but on the whole he remained conservative. Under president François Mitterrand the Minister of Culture was Jack Lang who showed himself to be far more open to popular cultural production, including jazz and roll, rap music, graffiti art, comic books and food, his famous phrase "économie et culture, même combat" is representative of his commitment to cultural democracy and to active national sponsorship and participation in cultural production.
In addition to the creation of the Fête de la Musique and overseeing the French Revolution bicentennial, he was in charge of the massive architectural program of the François Mitterrand years that gave permission for the building of the Bibliothèque nationale, the new Louvre, the Arab World Institute, the Musée d'Orsay, the Opéra-Bastille, the "Grande Arche" of La Défense, the new seat of the French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, the Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie and Cité de la Musique, both in the Parc de la Villette. The Ministry of Jacques Toubon was notable for a number of laws enacted for the preservation of the French language, both in advertisements and on the radio, ostensibly in reaction to the presence of English; the following people were appointed as Minister of Culture of France: Since the French constitution does not identify specific ministers, each government may label each ministry as they wish, or have a broader ministry in charge of several governmental sectors.
Hence, the ministry has gone through a number of different names: The Ministry of Culture is made up of a variety of internal divisions, including: Direction de l'administration générale Direction de l'architecture et du patrimoine - in charge of national monuments and heritage Inventaire général du patrimoine culturel - maintains extensive databases of historical sites and objects. See Base Mérimée, Base Palissy and Monument historique. Direction des archives de France - in charge of the National Archives Direction du livre et de la lecture - in charge of French literature and the book trade Direction de la musique, de la danse, du théâtre et des spectacles - in charge of music and theater Direction des Musées de France - in charge of the National museumsThe Ministry has access to one inter-ministerial division: Direction du développement des médias in charge of developing and expanding the French media The Ministry runs three "delegations": Délégation aux arts plastiques - in charge of the visual and sculptural arts Délégation au développement et aux affaires internationales - in charge of international affairs and French art Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France - in charge of the French language and languages of FranceFinally, the Ministry shares in the management of the National Centre of Cinema, a public institution.
The Alliance française is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. For more on the organization of the Ministry, see Ministry of Culture. On the national level, the Ministry runs: Regional Cultural Affairs Departmental Architecture and Monuments Departmental Archives under the direction of the depart
Georges André Malraux DSO was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs. Malraux's novel La Condition Humaine won the Prix Goncourt, he was appointed by President Charles de Gaulle as Minister of Information and subsequently as France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs during de Gaulle's presidency. Malraux was born in Paris in the son of Fernand-Georges Malraux and Berthe Félicie Lamy, his parents separated in 1905 and divorced. There are suggestions that Malraux's paternal grandfather committed suicide in 1909. Malraux was raised by his mother, maternal aunt Marie Lamy and maternal grandmother, Adrienne Lamy, who had a grocery store in the small town of Bondy, his father, a stockbroker, committed suicide in 1930 after the international crash of the stock market and onset of the Great Depression. From his childhood, associates noticed that André had marked vocal tics; the recent biographer Olivier Todd, who published a book on Malraux in 2005, suggests that he had Tourette syndrome, although that has not been confirmed.
Either way, most critics have not seen this as a significant factor in Malraux's life or literary works. The young Malraux left formal education early, but he followed his curiosity through the booksellers and museums in Paris, explored its rich libraries as well. Malraux's first published work, an article entitled "The Origins of Cubist Poetry", appeared in the magazine Action in 1920; this was followed in 1921 by three semi-surrealist tales, one of which, "Paper Moons", was illustrated by Fernand Léger. Malraux frequented the Parisian artistic and literary milieux of the period, meeting figures such as Demetrios Galanis, Max Jacob, François Mauriac, Guy de Pourtalès, André Salmon, Jean Cocteau, Raymond Radiguet, Florent Fels, Pascal Pia, Marcel Arland, Edmond Jaloux, Pierre Mac Orlan. In 1922, Malraux married Clara Goldschmidt. Malraux and his first wife separated in 1938 but didn't divorce until 1947, his daughter from this marriage, married the filmmaker Alain Resnais. By the age of twenty, Malraux was reading the work of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, to remain a major influence on him for the rest of his life.
Malraux was impressed with Nietzsche's theory of a world in continuous turmoil and his statement "that the individual himself is still the most recent creation", responsible for all of his actions. Most of all, Malraux embraced Nietzsche's theory of the Übermensch, the heroic, exalted man who would create great works of art and whose will would allow him to triumph over anything; the British Colonel T. E. Lawrence, aka "Lawrence of Arabia", holds a sinister reputation in France as the man, responsible for France's troubles in Syria in the 1920s. An exception was Malraux who regarded Lawrence as a role model, the intellectual-cum-man of action and the romantic, enigmatic hero. Malraux admitted to having a "certain fascination" with Lawrence, it has been suggested that Malraux's sudden decision to abandon the Surrealist literary scene in Paris for adventure in the Far East was prompted by a desire to emulate Lawrence who began his career as an archaeologist in the Ottoman Empire excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Carchemish in the vilayet of Aleppo in what is now modern Syria.
As Lawrence had first made his reputation in the Near East digging up the ruins of an ancient civilization, it was only natural that Malraux should go to the Far East to make his reputation in Asia digging up ancient ruins. Lawrence considered himself a writer first and foremost while presenting himself as a man of action, the Nietzschean hero who triumphs over both the environment and men through the force of his will, a persona that Malraux consciously imitated. Malraux wrote about Lawrence, whom he described admiringly as a man with a need for "the absolute", for whom no compromises were possible and for whom going all the way was the only way. Along the same lines, Malraux argued that Lawrence should not be remembered as a guerrilla leader in the Arab Revolt and the British liaison officer with the Emir Faisal, but rather as a romantic, lyrical writer as writing was Lawrence's first passion, which described Malraux well. Although Malraux courted fame through his novels and essays on art in combination with his adventures and political activism, he was an intensely shy and private man who kept to himself, maintaining a distance between himself and others.
Malraux's reticence led his first wife Clara to say she knew him during their marriage. In 1923, aged 22, Malraux and Clara left for the French Protectorate of Cambodia. Angkor Wat is a huge 12th century Hindu temple situated in the old capital of the Khmer empire. Angkor was "the world's largest urban settlement" in the 11th and 12th centuries supported by an elaborate network of canals and roads across mainland Southeast Asia before decaying and falling into the jungle; the rediscovery of the ruins of Angkor Wat in the jungle by the French explorer Henri Mouhot in 1861 had given Cambodia a romantic reputation in France, as the home of the vast, mysterious ruins of the Khmer empire. Upon reaching Cambodia, Malraux and friend Louis Chevasson undertook an expedition into unexplored areas of the former imperial settlements in search of hidden temples, hoping to find artifacts and items that could be sold to art collectors and museums. At about the same time archaeologists, with the approval of the French government, were removing large numbers of items from Angkor - many of which
Brittany (administrative region)
Brittany is one of the 18 regions of France. It is named after the historic and geographic region of Brittany, of which it constitutes 80%; the capital is Rennes. Bathed by the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south, it is located in the West of France, bordering the Normandy and Pays de la Loire regions. Bro Gozh ma Zadoù is the anthem of Brittany, it is sung to the same tune as that of the national anthem of Wales, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, has similar words. As a region of France, Brittany has a Regional Council, most elected in 2015; the region of Brittany was created in 1941 on 80% of the territory of traditional Brittany. The remaining 20% is now called the department of Loire-Atlantique, included in the region of Pays de la Loire, whose capital, was the historical capital of the Duchy of Brittany. Part of the reason Brittany was split between two present-day regions was to avoid the rivalry between Rennes and Nantes. Although Nantes was the principal capital of the Duchy of Brittany until the sixteenth century, Rennes had been the seat of the Duchy's supreme court of justice between 1560 and 1789.
Rennes had been the administrative capital of the Intendant of Brittany between 1689 and 1789, Intendances were the most important administrative units of the kingdom of France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As for the provincial States of Brittany, a legislative body which had met every two years in a different city of Brittany, that had met in Rennes only between 1728 and 1789, although not in the years 1730, 1758, 1760. Despite that, the Chambre des comptes had remained in Nantes until 1789. However, from 1381 until the end of the fifteenth century Vannes had served as the administrative capital of the Duchy, remaining the seat of its Chambre des comptes until the 1490s, the seat of the its Parlement until 1553 and again between 1675 and 1689. Although there were previous plans to create regions out of the departments, like the Clémentel plan or the Vichy regionalisation programme, these plans had no effect or else were abolished in 1945; the current French regions were created by gathering departments together.
In Brittany, this led to the creation of the new region of Brittany, which included only four out of the five historical Breton departments. The term région was created by the Law of Decentralisation, which gave regions their legal status; the first direct elections for regional representatives took place on 16 March 1986. A majority of the population in administrative Brittany and in Nantes continue to protest against the division of the traditional territory of Brittany, hoping to see the department of Loire-Atlantique reunited with the administrative region of Brittany. However, such a reunification raises other questions: first, what to do with the remainder of the present region of Pays de la Loire, second, which city should be chosen as the capital of such a reunified Brittany. See History of BrittanyBrittany, lying in the northwest corner of France, is one of the great historic provinces of France; the most Atlantic of France's regions, Brittany is proud of its Celtic heritage, that sets it apart from the rest of France.
It enjoys a mild climate somewhat warmer though not drier than the climate of the southwest of England. The name "Brittany" derives from the Britons who, back in the Dark Ages, came south across the English Channel to seek refuge from the Anglo Saxon invaders who were pushing them out of a large part of the island of Great Britain. In this historic past, other Britons fled to the west and south west of their own island, to Wales and Cornwall. Today, the French administrative region of Brittany covers four "departments", the Côtes d'Armor in the north, Finistère in the far west, Morbihan in the south, Ille et Vilaine in the east, bordering on Normandy and the Loire valley area. Another department used to belong to the historic province of Brittany, this was the Loire Atlantique, the area round the city of Nantes which used once to be the Breton capital, but is today no longer in the region; the capital city of the modern Brittany region is Rennes, located in the central eastern part of the region.
Other important cities in the region are Brest, one of the two most important French naval ports, St Malo, an imposing walled city on the north coast, Vannes, the capital of the Morbihan, with an attractive old town centre. Quimper, the capital of the Finistère, St. Brieuc, the capital of the Côtes d'Armor, are less important. Lorient, in the Morbihan, was once a major shipping port trading with – as its name suggests – the Orient, it is the venue for Brittany's annual Interceltiques music and culture festival. Despite its limited size, Brittany is quite a diverse region; the south coast, facing onto the Bay of Biscay, is flatter, much milder, has a number of large sandy beaches. There are a lot of inlets on the south coast, such as La Trinité sur Mer, which in the past have been ports and commercial harbours, but today are more popular with yachtsmen and a dwindling fishing industry; the sea here