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Directive (European Union)

A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. It can be distinguished from regulations, which are self-executing and do not require any implementing measures. Directives leave member states with a certain amount of leeway as to the exact rules to be adopted. Directives can be adopted by means of a variety of legislative procedures depending on their subject matter; the text of a draft directive is prepared by the Commission after consultation with its own and national experts. The draft is presented to the Parliament and the Council—composed of relevant ministers of member governments for evaluation and comment subsequently for approval or rejection; the legal basis for the enactment of directives is Article 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Article 288 To exercise the Union's competences, the institutions shall adopt regulations, decisions and opinions.

A regulation shall have general application. It shall be directly applicable in all Member States. A directive shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods. A decision shall be binding in its entirety upon those. Recommendations and opinions shall have no binding force; the Council can delegate legislative authority to the Commission and, depending on the area and the appropriate legislative procedure, both institutions can seek to make laws. There are Council Commission directives. Article 288 does not distinguish between legislative acts and administrative acts, as is done in national legal systems. Directives are binding only on the member states to whom they are addressed, which can be just one member state or a group of them. In general, with the exception of directives related to the Common Agricultural Policy, directives are addressed to all member states; when adopted, directives give member states a timetable for the implementation of the intended outcome.

The laws of a member state may comply with this outcome, the state involved would be required only to keep its laws in place. More member states are required to make changes to their laws in order for the directive to be implemented correctly; this is done in 99% of the cases. If a member state fails to pass the required national legislation, or if the national legislation does not adequately comply with the requirements of the directive, the European Commission may initiate legal action against the member state in the European Court of Justice; this may happen when a member state has transposed a directive in theory but has failed to abide by its provisions in practice. Britain passed a statutory instrument, the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1994, to implement the EU Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive 1993. For reasons that are not clear, the 1994 SI was deemed inadequate and was repealed and replaced by the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999; the Consumer Rights Act 2015, a major UK statute consolidating consumer rights abolished the 1999 SI.

Though directives were not thought to be binding before they were implemented by member states, the European Court of Justice developed the doctrine of direct effect where unimplemented or badly implemented directives can have direct legal force. In the important case of Francovich v. Italy, the ECJ extended the principle of Van Gend en Loos to provide that Member States who failed to implement a directive could incur liability to pay damages to individuals and companies, adversely affected by such non-implementation. EudraLex EUR-Lex European Union regulation Framework decision Law of the European Union List of European Union directives Policy measures of the European Union UK House of Commons: Report of the EU Legislative Process and scrutiny by national parliaments. EUR-Lex, European Union Law database. EU Legislative Procedures

Shelby Fero

Shelby Ann Fero is an American writer and comedian. Fero was born at Stanford Hospital on October 27, 1993. After graduating from Menlo-Atherton High School, she attended the USC School of Cinematic Arts before leaving to pursue a career in comedy. Shelby Fero is an American comedian best known for her popular tweets, she has written for HelloGiggles. Fero has done stand-up at Magic Bag, she appeared on a live version of WTF with Marc Maron, has been a panelist several times on National Public Radio's Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me show, she played Denise in Peele's viral Substitute Teacher sketch. In 2016 she won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Short Form Animated Program. 2013 Froyo Robbery 2014 DeAndre Jordan's Amazing Charles Barkley Impression 2014 The Live Read of Space Jam with Blake Griffin Other Space Money From Strangers @midnight Chozen Robot Chicken Brad Neely's Harg Nallin Sclopio Peepio Disney's 3x5 Live Idiotest Season 3, episode 18 List of Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me! Episodes List of Wait Wait...

Don't Tell Me! Episodes Hey Girl List of WTF with Marc Maron episodes List of Comedy Bang! Bang! Episodes Shelby Fero on Twitter ShelbyFero's channel on YouTube Shelby Fero on Instagram Shelby Fero on IMDb

Chiomara asychis

Chiomara asychis, the white-patched skipper or white patch, is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. It is found from Argentina, north through tropical America to the West southern Texas. Strays can be found as far north as southern Arizona and Kansas; the wingspan is 29–38 mm. Three to four generations occur, with adults on wing throughout the year in southern Texas; the larvae feed on Gaudichaudia pentandra in Mexico. Adults feed on flower nectar. Chiomara asychis asychis Chiomara asychis autander Chiomara asychis georgina Chiomara asychis grenada Chiomara asychis pelagica Chiomara asychis simon Chiomara asychis vincenta Chiomara asychis zania Chiomara asychis georgina at Butterflies and Moths of North America

Jim Baggott

James Edward Baggott is a British science writer living in Reading, England who writes about science and science history. Baggott is the author of nine books, including Farewell to Reality: How Modern Physics Has Betrayed the Search for Scientific Truth, Origins: The Scientific Story of Creation, Higgs: The Invention and Discovery of the God Particle and The Quantum Story: A History in 40 moments. Baggott is a regular contributor to New Scientist, Nature; as a child Baggott had the normal curiosity of wondering. He was interested in "how stuff came to be". Baggott told science writer Brian Clegg that the reason why he went into the sciences was because he had some great schoolteachers, he loved physics but did not think he had a strong enough talent for the mathematics that would be required. "That said, my desire to seek explanations for things led me to chemical physics and it was with a great sense of pride and pleasure that I did manage to publish some theoretical research papers, full of mathematical equations!"He obtained his degree at the University of Manchester in 1978 and his DPhil in chemical physics at the University of Oxford.

He worked as a professor for the University of Reading and left academia to work for Shell International Petroleum. After several years he opened his own consultancy business, he calls himself a "science communicator" and publishes a science book every 18 months. He selects the topics for his books by writing about things; the advent of the Internet makes it much easier to do research than back when he first started writing books in the early 1990s. Baggott felt that the CERN people were getting close to discovering the Higgs boson and approached his editor about writing on the topic, his idea was to start writing the book, get about 95% done, when the discovery was announced, he would be able to finish the last 5% and the book would be on the shelves soon after the announcement. Throughout 2011 and 2012 he kept leaving the last 1,500 words unsaid, he watched CERN's live webcast announce the discovery of the boson on 4 July and finished writing the book the next day. Baggott got the idea to write Farewell to Reality: How Modern Physics Has Betrayed the Search for Scientific Truth and become a science activist when watching the BBC program What is Reality.

In his opinion, the program started out well, but became what he calls "fairy tale physics" when it included interviews with theoretical physicists who talked about such ideas as multiverse, superstring theory, supersymmetry. These topics, according to Baggott, are fascinating to read about and are an entertaining way to make documentaries, sell books, or spend time at parties, but are "abstracted, theoretical speculation without any kind of empirical foundation" and "not science". Farewell to Reality is Baggott's attempt to counteract the "fuzzy science theory" and advocate for evidence and facts. Baggott states, "When you start asking'Do we live in a hologram?' You are crossing into metaphysics, you are heading down the path of allowing all kinds of things that have no evidence to back it up, like creationism."In an interview with Massimo Pigliucci on the Rationally Thinking podcast, Baggott stated that science is a human endeavour with a "fuzziness around the edges". He went on to say that there are no rules and, when training to be a scientist, no one gives you an instruction book on how to do science.

"We kinda make it up as we go along... and it is reasonable for the scientific community to want to change those rules." Science writer Philip Ball, in a review of Farewell in The Guardian, stated that Baggott was right "although his target is as much the way this science is marketed as what it contains." Ball cautioned Baggott about criticising scientists that speculate because "conjecture injects vitality into science."Baggott, along with Jon Butterworth, Hilary Rose and Stephen Minger, discussed the idea of futurist science theories with BBC Radio 4 interviewer Allan Little. They discussed the likelihood that string theory and other theories that have yet to show empirical data will be proved. Baggott expressed concern that "a body of professional theorists want to change the definition of what it means to do science", he feels that empirical data provides an anchor for these people to "return to reality" and that science without evidence is "most dangerous". Science writer Tony Hey writes that Beyond Measure was written for graduate and undergraduate physics students as an overview of quantum mechanics.

The book has wider appeal by keeping the equations to the appendices for optional review. The book is divided into five parts starting with the history behind quantum theory, followed by the more recent experiments. "Chapters on consciousness and on the ever-popular many-worlds interpretation of quantum theory form the conclusion." Royal Society of Chemistry – Marlow Medal Glaxo Science Writers Award Quantum Space: Loop Quantum Gravity and the Search for the Structure of Space and the Universe, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198809111 2019 Mass: The quest to understand matter from Greek atoms to quantum fields, Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 368, ISBN 978-0198759713 Origins: The Scientific Story of Creation, Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 352, ISBN 978-0198707646 Farewell to Reality: How Fairy-tale Physics Betrays the Search for Scientific Truth, Pegasus, 2014, pp. 336, ISBN 978-1605985749 Higgs: The Invention and Discovery of the'God Particle', Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 304, ISBN 978-0199679577 The Quantum Story: A History in 40 moments, Oxf

Clare Hall, Cambridge

Clare Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Founded in 1966 by Clare College, Clare Hall is a college for advanced study, admitting only postgraduate students alongside postdoctoral researchers and fellows, it was established to serve as an Institute of Advanced Studies and has grown and developed into a full constituent college. Clare Hall is one of the smallest colleges with 200 graduate students, but around 125 Fellows, making it the highest Fellow to Student ratio at Cambridge University. Notwithstanding its small size, the college is notable for its high number of Nobel Laureate affiliates. Clare Hall maintains many Cambridge traditions including formal hall and the tutorial system. Clare Hall was founded by Clare College as a centre for advanced study, but was intended to become a social group of men and women with their families that would include graduate students studying for higher degrees in the university, research fellows working at post-doctoral level, permanent fellows holding faculty or research posts in the university, visiting fellows on leave from universities around the world.

After Clare College decided to establish this new centre in January 1964, the initial planning was carried through by a small group of fellows of the college chaired by the Master, Sir Eric Ashby. It was soon agreed that the new centre would be called Clare Hall, the ancient name by which the college itself had been known for more than five hundred years until the mid-19th century. Clare Hall maintains close ties with Clare College, sharing some facilities and annual events; the Institute of Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna is so far the only institution abroad explicitly modelled upon Clare Hall. The architect Ralph Erskine was appointed to design the buildings for Clare Hall, which were to include common rooms and dining facilities, a house for the President, twenty apartments for visiting fellows. A neighbouring house, Elmside in Grange Road, provided rooms for the small number of graduate students. Sir Eric Ashby Master of Clare College and Vice-Chancellor of the University, formally opened Clare Hall in September 1969.

Brian Pippard, the first President of Clare Hall, had moved into the President's house with his family, twelve research students were living on the college site in Elmside and a number of visiting fellows with their families were living in the newly built college apartments. Among the early visiting fellows was Ivar Giaever, awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973. Joseph Brodsky, a visiting fellow and poet in residence at Clare Hall in 1977, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1987. William Nordhaus, a visiting fellow in 1970, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 2018. Other facilities in the college grounds include a sports complex with a multi-gym and swimming pool and an adjacent tennis court, it has a dining room, used for Formal Hall. The university athletics track is a short run from the main college buildings. In 1978 a second neighbouring house, now called Leslie Barnett House, was obtained for graduate student accommodation; this purchase allowed the Michael Stoker and Brian Pippard Buildings to be built in the college grounds, providing further student rooms.

The Anthony Low Building in the garden of Elmside was completed in 2000, providing further common rooms and the Garden Bar for the graduates on the main college site. In the summer of 1996, the college purchased a substantial property the Cambridge family home of Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild, about five minutes' walk from the college at the western end of Herschel Road, it was renamed Clare Hall West Court and, after conversion and some major building works, now provides public rooms, apartments, study bedrooms, a fitness centre and a swimming pool. Unlike other colleges in the university, Clare Hall does not have a High Table at meals or a Senior Common Room, it is a single society for all social functions and in the use of the various college common rooms and other facilities; this encourages interaction between graduate students, distinguished visiting fellows and other senior members, aided by the wide variety of national backgrounds and research interests of the members. The interaction between members of Clare Hall is encouraged by college seminars, lunchtime discussions and formal lecture series.

The latter includes the annual series of lectures relating to human values, given by a distinguished international scholar and sponsored by the Tanner Foundation. They include the annual Ashby lecture, given by a visiting fellow, the more frequent ASH seminar that were initiated by some of the visiting life members. Other events include art exhibitions and small concerts which supplement the wealth of music available in the university; the President's term of office is fixed at seven years. Previous presidents include, Brian Pippard, Robert Honeycombe, Goldsmiths Professor and Head of the Department of Metallurgy. In February 2013, it was announced that David Ibbetson, Regius Professor of Civil Law would succeed Harris after the summer; the late Lord Ashby was elected as the first honorary fellow of Clare Hall in 1975

The Meadows School

The Meadows School is a non-profit, nonsectarian, independent college preparatory day school located in the affluent Summerlin area of Las Vegas, Nevada. The campus serves just under 900 students in grades pre-k through 12 spread among four divisions – Beginning School, Lower School, Middle School, Upper School. For the 2017-18 school year, The Meadows has an estimated enrollment of 837 students and a teaching staff of 86 faculty, giving a student to faculty ratio of 10:1. Class sizes are limited to 18 students in the Beginning and Upper Schools and 20 students in the Lower and Middle Schools; the Upper School offers students 24 AP courses and in 2014 had an AP exam pass rate of 100%. In 2016, The Washington Post named The Meadows School the #2 most challenging high school in Nevada, the #97 most challenging private high school in the country. Since its first Upper School Commencement in 1991, 100 percent of graduates from The Meadows School have been accepted into four-year colleges or universities.

The Meadows School was first conceptualized by Carolyn Goodman in the early 1970s. She and her husband, attorney Oscar Goodman, had settled in Las Vegas and were looking to enroll their four children in schools with academic standards comparable to the top college preparatory schools on the East Coast. Through her search of area schools, Goodman was introduced to Dr. LeOre Cobbley, a longtime educator in the Clark County School District who championed a no-nonsense, traditional system of elementary education. Modeled after her alma mater, The Brearley School in Manhattan, the teaching philosophy of Dr. Cobbley, Goodman incorporated the nonprofit School in 1981 as the "Clark County Day School." Three years and with Dr. Cobbley serving as the founding Headmistress, The Meadows School opened on September 4, 1984, with an enrollment of 140 students in grades K-6. At the time that The Meadows School opened in 1984, a permanent campus site had not yet been found. In lieu of a permanent location, Goodman raised $300,000 and purchased 5,000 square feet of temporary modular buildings that were set up on a parking lot behind a car dealership.

The lot was loaned to the School by Board Member Fletcher Jones, Jr. and was located, coincidentally, on Meadows Lane in northern Las Vegas. These buildings served as the School’s classrooms until the permanent campus was opened four years later. In 1985, Carolyn Goodman was introduced to William Lummis, the nephew of Howard Hughes and the Chairman of the Board for the Summa Corporation; the Summa Corporation was in the early stages of developing the northwest area of Las Vegas known as Summerlin. Recognizing the correlation between strong communities and good schools, the Summa Corproation donated 40 acres of undeveloped land to the School for a permanent campus. Construction on the new campus began in the fall of 1987; the permanent campus was situated on Scholar Lane, a street name chosen by the students for their new school. While the construction of the Summerlin campus was underway, the Summa Corporation provided additional funding to the School to add new modular buildings to the temporary campus to accommodate its growing student enrollment, which by 1987 had increased to 200 students in grades K-8.

One year at the beginning of the 1988 school year, Lower School students moved into The LeOre Cobbley Lower School building on the new campus. Middle and Upper School students followed suit in December of that year and moved into classrooms created from the previous modular buildings on Meadows Lane, relocated to the permanent campus; the Lower School program is based on the educational philosophy developed by founding Headmistress Dr. LeOre Cobbley, with special emphasis on her reading program that allows for advanced groupings with great focus on phonics and comprehension. Students study English and social studies on a daily basis, take specialized classes throughout the week in science, physical education, music. Students in grades K-5 are required to study Spanish as part of their curriculum. In addition to the academic curriculum, strong emphasis is placed on learning and exemplifying good citizenship; the Middle and Upper School programs follow a traditional curriculum modeled after that of the top East Coast preparatory schools.

In addition to the traditional subject matter, students at these levels must study fine arts and foreign languages, with Middle School students required to take three years of Spanish and one and a half years of Latin, Upper School students required to take at least three sequential years of a foreign language. Outside of their academic studies, students in these divisions must participate in either physical education classes or interscholastic athletics. In addition to the regular school year, The Meadows School offers several summer classes for incoming and current Upper School students. Recognizing the importance that technology plays in the 21st century classroom, The Meadows School introduced a number of technology initiatives at the start of the 2012-2013 school year; the School established a technology curriculum guide to set the standards for tech skills and integration at each grade level. In addition to partnering with Google Apps for Education and installing a SMART Board in every classroom, the School purchased iPads for use in grades PreK-2 and Google Chromebooks for use in grades 3-5.

The School implemented a Bring-Your-Own-Device program in its Middle and Upper School to ensure that all students are properly equipped to participate and collaborate in their technology-infused classes. The Meadows School has embraced the opportunity t