The Charlemagne building is a high-rise in the European Quarter of Brussels, which houses the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, the Directorate-General for Trade and, since 2015, the Internal Audit Service of the Commission. The building has 15 floors, it is located at 170 Rue de la Loi/Wetstraat, in the City of Brussels, one of the 19 municipalities forming the Brussels-Capital Region. The postal code for the municipality is 1000, but the postal code for the European Commission is 1049; the building was designed by Jacques Cuisinier and constructed in 1967 at the same time as the Berlaymont Building to group together more scattered departments of the European Commission. However, with the Commission refusing to share the Berlaymont with the Council of the European Union, Charlemagne was given to the Council's secretariat in 1971; this had been located in the city centre. The Council moved out to the Justus Lipsius building in 1995 allowing it to be renovated; the renovation was completed in 1998 by Helmut Jahn, replacing the concrete exterior with a glass one.
After the restoration it was occupied by the Commission, further grouping the Union's offices around the Schuman roundabout. It was considered as the future HQ of the European External Action Service, established in 2010, but was discounted on image grounds. Brussels and the European Union Berlaymont building Madou Plaza Tower Justus Lipsius building Lex building Europa building European commission Berlaymont building Breydel building Convent Van Maerlant Madou Plaza Tower Brussels and the European Union Institutional seats of the European Union Emporis building information Dow Corning construction European Navigator
Benita Ferrero-Waldner is an Austrian diplomat and politician, a member of the conservative Austrian People's Party. Ferrero-Waldner served as the Foreign Minister of Austria 2000–2004 and was the candidate of the Austrian People's Party in the Austrian presidential election, 2004, which she narrowly lost with 47.6% of the votes. She served as the European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy from 2004 to 2009, as the European Commissioner for Trade and European Neighbourhood Policy from 2009 to 2010. Born in Salzburg, Waldner took her matura exams in 1966 and studied law, receiving a doctorate from the University of Salzburg in 1970; until 1983 Waldner worked in the private sector. Only in 1984 did she enter the diplomatic service. One of her most influential positions was Chef de protocole for Secretary General Boutros-Ghali at the UN in New York City. From 1995 until 2000 Ferrero-Waldner served as Under-Secretary of State in two governments led by Social Democrats Franz Vranitzky and Viktor Klima.
When Wolfgang Schüssel became Chancellor of Austria early in 2000 he made Ferrero-Waldner his Minister for Foreign Affairs, a position she held until October 2004, when she was succeeded by Ursula Plassnik. In January 2004 it was announced that Ferrero-Waldner would run for Federal President to succeed Thomas Klestil in July 2004, her candidature was supported by the Austrian People's Party. However, she lost the election on 25 April. In late July 2004 Ferrero-Waldner was nominated the successor of Franz Fischler as Austria's European Commissioner, she took office on 22 November. Her portfolio was European Neighbourhood Policy; as the EU's External Affairs Commissioner, Ferrero-Waldner is credited with being the key diplomat in the 24 July 2007 release of 5 Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor imprisoned by Libya. They had been held more than 8 years on charges of purposefully infecting children with HIV, have continued to profess their innocence; the commissioner met with the prisoners regularly.
She worked to improve conditions for children infected with HIV/Aids. In September 2009 Ferrero-Waldner ran for the post of UNESCO Director-General but lost to the Bulgarian candidate Irina Bokova. Since leaving politics, she has held a variety of paid and unpaid positions, including the following: Munich Re, Member of the Supervisory Board European Institute of the Mediterranean Graduate School for Global and International Studies, University of Salamanca, Member of the Advisory Board From 1974 until 1983 Waldner was married to Wolfgang Sterr, a Bavarian high school teacher. However, their marriage ended in divorce. In 1993 Waldner married Francisco Ferrero Campos, a lecturer in Spanish and Latin American literature at the University of Vienna. After her previous marriage had been annulled Ferrero-Waldner married her husband again in church in December 2003. Although the wedding was a private ceremony, the news was leaked to the press. This, some of Ferrero-Waldner's critics claimed, was done intentionally to attract potential voters as the Austrian Federal President is directly elected and Austria is a predominantly Roman Catholic country rooted in tradition.
The couple does not have any children. November 2004 – November 2009 Member of the European Commission in charge of External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy November 2009 – February 2010 Member of the European Commission in charge of Trade, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the EuropeAid – Cooperation Office. Born between Salzburg and Braunau am Inn
Georgia–European Union relations
Georgia and the European Union have maintained relations since 1996 in the INOGATE framework, in 2006 a five-year "Action Plan" of rapprochement was implemented in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy. A more comprehensive Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. A European Union Monitoring Mission was sent to Georgia in the wake of the 2008 South Ossetia war. Georgia does not have any official status as a candidate for future enlargement of the European Union, but in 2011 Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili expressed a desire for his country to become a member state of the EU; this view has been explicitly expressed on several occasions as links to the United States, EU and NATO have been strengthened in an attempt to move away from the Russian sphere of influence. In Adjara, leader Aslan Abashidze was forced to resign in May 2004 following the Rose Revolution. EU CFSP Chief Javier Solana indicated in February 2007 that the EU could send troops to Georgia alongside Russian forces.
In July 2006 the European Union referred to recent developments in South Ossetia zone of and to the Resolution of the Georgian Parliament on Peacekeeping Forces Stationed in the Conflict Zones, adopted on 18 July 2006 as follows: After the 2008 South Ossetia war a EU cease-fire monitoring mission in Georgia was sent to monitor the Russian troop withdrawal from "security zones" established by Russia around South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The mission started on 1 October 2008 and was prolonged by the EU in July 2009 for one year while the EU expressed concern that Russia was blocking other observers from working there A United Nations Security Council resolution aimed at extending its UN Observer Mission in Georgia was vetoed by Russia on 15 June 2009. On 2 October 2006, a joint statement on the agreed text of the Georgia-European Union Action Plan within the European Neighbourhood Policy was issued; the Action Plan was formally approved at the EU-Georgia Cooperation Council session on 14 November 2006 in Brussels.
To enhance their relationship, the EU and Georgia began negotiating an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement. In November 2012, EU Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy Stefan Fule stated that the AA negotiations could be finalized by November 2013. In February 2013, Tamar Beruchachvili, the Deputy State Minister for European and Euro-Atlantic Integration of Georgia, stated that Georgia had no plans to join the Customs Union of Belarus and Russia, which Fule has warned Ukraine would be incompatible with the agreements with the EU. A ceremony on the initialling of the AA by the Georgian Foreign Minister Maia Panjikidze and EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton was held at the Eastern Partnership summit on 29 November 2013, it was formally signed on 27 June 2014, had to be ratified by the EU, their member states and Georgia. A second agreement, governing the country's involvement in EU crisis management operations, was signed.
The Association Agreement, much of which provisionally came into force in September, has been ratified by Georgia and all EU member states. On 18 December 2014 the European Parliament approved the Association Agreement. Members backed the treaty by 490 votes in favour to 76 with 57 abstentions; the agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The European Parliament passed a resolution in 2014 stating that "in accordance with Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, Georgia and Ukraine, as well as any other European country, have a European perspective and can apply for EU membership in compliance with the principles of democracy, respect for fundamental freedoms and human rights, minority rights and ensuring the rule of rights." Membership is welcomed by Georgians, with 77% of the population approving the government's goal to join the EU and only 11% opposing it. Georgia's former President Mikheil Saakashvili has expressed a desire for Georgia to join the EU; this view has been explicitly expressed on several occasions as links to the United States, EU and NATO have been strengthened in an attempt to move away from the Russian sphere of influence.
Territorial integrity issues in Ajaria were dealt with after the Rose Revolution, when leader Aslan Abashidze was forced to resign in May 2004. However, unresolved territorial integrity issues have again risen to the forefront in South Ossetia and Abkhazia as a result of the 2008 South Ossetia War. On 11 November 2010, Georgian Deputy Prime Minister Giorgi Baramidze announced that Georgia wants to cooperate with Ukraine in their attempt to join the European Union. Georgian Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili said at a press conference in Brussels on 27 June 2014 that Georgia could be a full EU member within 5–10 years. However, he stressed; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia has submitted an action plan for achieve accession to the European Union. The commission received information about the implementation of the Georgia-EU Association Agreement and the National Action Plan for the Implementation of the Association Agenda; as it has pointed out during the meeting, the European side, both in the last year's meeting of the Georgia-EU Association Council and the report of the European Commission, commended the reforms of the Georgian Government aiming at the implementation of the Association Agreement.
The meeting adopted the 2017-2020 Government Strategy on Georgia's EU and NATO Integration Communications. In June 2012, the EU and Georgia began a visa liberalisation dialogue to allow for visa-free travel of Georgian citizens to the European Union; the talks aimed to have a Visa Liberalisation Action Plan in place by the end of the year
India–European Union relations
Relations between the Republic of India and the European Union are defined by the 1994 EU-India Cooperation Agreement. The EU is a significant trade partner for India and the two sides have been attempting to negotiate a free trade deal since 2007. Indo-EU bilateral trade stood at US$89.55 billion in the financial year 2016-17. The EU is India's largest trading partner with 12.5% of India's overall trade between 2015 and 2016, ahead of China and the United States. India is the EU's 9th largest trading partner with 2.4% of the EU's overall trade. Bilateral trade reached €115 billion in 2017 EU exports to India have grown from €24.2 billion in 2006 to €41.7 billion in 2017. India's exports to EU grew from €22.6 billion in 2006 to €44.2 billion in 2017. The largest sectors being in engineering goods and jewellery, other manufactured goods and chemicals. Trade in services have tripled between 2005 and 2016, reaching €28.9 billion. India is among few nations in the world that run a surplus in services trade with the EU.
Investment stocks from Europe to India reached €51.2 billion in 2015. France, Germany and UK collectively represent the major part of EU-India trade. India was one of the first countries to develop relations with the European Union; the Joint Political Statement of 1993 and the 1994 Co-operation Agreement were the foundational agreements for the bilateral partnership. In 2004, India and European Union became "Strategic Partners". A Joint Action Plan was agreed upon in 2005 and updated in 2008. India-EU Joint Statements was published in 2012 following the India-European Union Summits. EU-India relationship has been qualified as low on substance. India and the EU have been working on a Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement since 2007, but India's trade regime and regulatory environment remains comparatively restrictive. Seven rounds of negotiations have been completed without reaching a Free Trade Agreement Talks on an EU-India Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement have stalled after failing to resolve differences related to matters such as the level of FDI & market access, manufacture of generic drugs, greenhouse gas emissions, civil nuclear energy, farming subsidies, regulation & safeguards of the financial sector, cooperation on tax evasion, overseas financing of NGOs in India, trade controls, technology transfer restrictions and cooperation on embargoes.
In January 2015, India rejected a non-binding resolution passed by the European Parliament pertaining to maritime incidents which occurred within Indian Contiguous Zone. European Union Ambassador to India Joao Cravinho played down the resolution saying that the case will be resolved in accordance with Indian and International Laws; the EU and India agreed on 29 September 2008 at the EU-India summit in Marseille, France's largest commercial port, to expand their co-operation in the fields of nuclear energy and environmental protection and deepen their strategic partnership. French President Nicolas Sarkozy, the EU's rotating president, said at a joint press conference at the summit that "EU welcomes India, as a large country, to engage in developing nuclear energy, adding that this clean energy will be helpful for the world to deal with the global climate change." Sarkozy said the EU and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan pledged to accelerate talks on a free trade deal and expected to finish the deal by 2009.
The Indian prime minister was cautiously optimistic about co-operation on nuclear energy. "Tomorrow we have a bilateral summit with France. This matter will come up and I hope some good results will emerge out of that meeting," Singh said when asked about the issue. Singh said, he added that EU and India have "common values" and the two economies are complementary to each other. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso speaking at Monday's press conference, expounded the joint action plan on adjustments of EU's strategic partnership with India, saying the two sides will strengthen co-operation on world peace and safety, sustainable development, co-operation in science and technology and cultural exchanges. Reviewing the two sides' efforts in developing the bilateral strategic partnership, the joint action plan reckoned that in politics, dialogue and co-operation have enhanced through regular summits and exchanges of visits and that in economy, mutual investments have increased in recent years, dialogue in macro economic policies and financial services has established and co-operation in energy and technology and environment has been launched.
Under the joint action plan, EU and Indian would enhance consultation and dialogue on human rights within the UN framework, strengthen co-operation in world peacekeeping mission, fight against terror and non-proliferation of arms, promote co-operation and exchange in developing civil nuclear energy and strike a free trade deal as soon as possible. France, which relies on nuclear power and is a major exporter of nuclear technology, is expected to sign a deal that would allow it to provide nuclear fuel to India. On the eve of the Summit President Van Rompuy stated: "The 12th EU-India summit will confirm that EU and India are strengthening and rebalancing their partnership in its political dimension, thus bringing our relationship to new heights, it will demonstrate that increased co-operation between India and the EU can make a difference for the security and the prosperity of our continents." Although there were some apprehensions regarding the EU-enforced carbon tax on all fliers landing or passing through European skies, opposed by many other countries, including India, the US and Russia, the Eur
Foreign relations of the European Union
Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is still a intergovernmental matter, with the 28 members controlling their own relations to a large degree. However, with the Union holding more weight as a single bloc, there are at times attempts to speak with one voice, notably on trade and energy matters; the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy personifies this role. The EU's foreign relations are dealt with either through the Common Foreign and Security Policy decided by the European Council, or the economic trade negotiations handled by the European Commission; the leading EU diplomat in both areas is the High Representative Federica Mogherini. The Council can issue negotiating directives to the Commission giving parameters for trade negotiations. A limited amount of defence co-operation takes place within the Common Defence Policy. However, it is hoped that defence co-operation and integration between member states will be improved by establishing a Military Planning and Conduct Capabilities" unit focused on military operations.
The High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, the EU's predecessor, opened its first mission in London in 1955, three years after non-EU countries began to accredit their missions in Brussels to the Community. The US had been a fervent supporter of the ECSC's efforts from the beginning, Secretary of State Dean Acheson sent Jean Monnet a dispatch in the name of President Truman confirming full US diplomatic recognition of the ECSC. A US ambassador to the ECSC was accredited soon thereafter, he headed the second overseas mission to establish diplomatic relations with the Community institutions; the number of delegates began to rise in the 1960s following the merging of the executive institutions of the three European Communities into a single Commission. Until some states had reservations accepting that EU delegations held the full status of a diplomatic mission. Article 20 of the Maastricht Treaty requires the Delegations and the Member States’ diplomatic missions to "co-operate in ensuring that the common positions and joint actions adopted by the Council are complied with and implemented".
As part of the process of establishment of the European External Action Service envisioned in the Lisbon Treaty, on 1 January 2010 all former European Commission delegations were renamed European Union delegations and till the end of the month 54 of the missions were transformed into embassy-type missions that employ greater powers than the regular delegations. These upgraded delegations have taken on the role carried out by the national embassies of the member state holding the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union and merged with the independent Council delegations around the world. Through this the EU delegations take on the role of co-ordinating national embassies and speaking for the EU as a whole, not just the Commission; the first delegation to be upgraded was the one in Washington D. C. the new joint ambassador was Joao Vale de Almeida who outlined his new powers as speaking for both the Commission and Council presidents, member states. He would be in charge where there was a common position but otherwise, on bilateral matters, he would not take over from national ambassadors.
All delegations are expected to be converted by the end of 2010. Some states may choose to operate through the new EU delegations and close down some of their smaller national embassies, however France has indicated that it will maintain its own network around the world for now; the EU sends its delegates only to the capitals of states outside the European Union and cities hosting multilateral bodies. The EU missions work separately from the work of the missions of its member states, however in some circumstances it may share resources and facilities. In Abuja is shares its premises with a number of member states. Additionally to the third-state delegations and offices the European Commission maintains representation in each of the member states. Prior to the establishment of the European External Action Service by the Treaty of Lisbon there were separate delegations of the Council of the European Union to the United Nations in New York, to the African Union and to Afghanistan - in addition to the European Commission delegations there.
In the course of 2010 these would be transformed into integrated European Union delegations. The EU member states have their own diplomatic missions, in addition to the common EU delegations. On the other hand, additionally to the third-state delegations and offices the European Commission maintains representation in each of the member states. Where the EU delegations have not taken on their full Lisbon Treaty responsibilities, the national embassy of the country holding the rotating EU presidency has the role of representing the CFSP while the EU delegation speaks only for the Commission. Member state missions have certain responsibilities to national of fellow states. Consulates are obliged to support EU citizens of other states abroad if they do not have a consulate of their own state in the country. If another EU state makes a request to help their citizens in an emergency they are obliged to assist. An example would be evacuations. No EU member state has embassy in the countries of Bahamas, Dominica, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Somalia, Tonga, the sovereign entity Sovereign
Catherine Margaret Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, is a British Labour politician who served as the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and First Vice President of the European Commission in the Barroso Commission from 2009 to 2014. Her political career began in 1999 when she was created a Life Peer as "Baroness Ashton of Upholland, of St Albans, in the County of Hertfordshire" by Tony Blair's Labour Government, she became the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Department for Education and Skills in 2001 and subsequently in the Ministry of Justice in 2004. She was appointed a Privy Councillor in May 2006. Ashton became Leader of the House of Lords and Lord President of the Council in Gordon Brown’s first Cabinet in June 2007, she was instrumental in steering the EU's Treaty of Lisbon through the UK Parliament's upper chamber. In 2008, she was appointed as the British European Commissioner and became the Commissioner for Trade in the European Commission.
In December 2009, she became the inaugural High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, created by the Treaty of Lisbon. As High Representative, Ashton served as the EU's foreign policy chief. Despite being criticised by some at the time of her appointment and in the early stages of her term of office, for her limited previous experience of international diplomacy, Ashton subsequently won praise for her work as a negotiator in difficult international situations, in particular for her role in bringing Serbia and Kosovo to an agreement in April 2013 that normalised their ties, in the P5+1 talks with Iran which led to the November 2013 Geneva interim agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme. In January 2017, Ashton became Chancellor of the University of Warwick, succeeding Sir Richard Lambert and becoming Warwick's first female chancellor. Catherine Ashton was born at Upholland, Lancashire, on 20 March 1956, she comes with a background in coal mining. She attended Upholland Grammar School in Billinge Higher End, Lancashire Wigan Mining and Technical College, Wigan.
She graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Sociology in 1977 from London. She was the first person in her family to attend university. Ashton lives in St Albans with her husband, Peter Kellner, the president of an online polling organisation, YouGov. Ashton and Kellner have been married since 1988. Ashton has three stepchildren. Between 1977 and 1983, Ashton worked for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament as an administrator and in 1982 was elected as its national treasurer and subsequently as one of its vice-chairs. From 1979 to 1981 she was business manager of a management consultancy; as of 1983 she worked for the Central Council for Training in Social Work. From 1983-89 she was director of Business in the Community, working with business to tackle inequality, she established the Employers' Forum on Disability, Opportunity Now, the Windsor Fellowship. For most of the 1990s, she was a freelance policy adviser, she chaired the Health Authority in Hertfordshire from 1998 to 2001 and she became a vice-president of the National Council for One-Parent Families.
She was created a Labour Life Peer as Baroness Ashton of Upholland in 1999, under Prime Minister Tony Blair. In June 2001 she was appointed Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State in the Department for Education and Skills. In 2002 she became Minister responsible for Sure Start in the same department, in September 2004 she was appointed Parliamentary Under-Secretary in the Department for Constitutional Affairs, with responsibilities including the National Archives and the Public Guardianship Office. Ashton was sworn of the Privy Council in 2006, she became Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the new Ministry of Justice in May 2007. In 2005 she was voted "Minister of the Year" by The House Magazine and "Peer of the Year" by Channel 4. In 2006 she won the "Politician of the Year" award at the annual Stonewall Awards, made to those who had a positive impact on the lives of British LGBT people. On 28 June 2007, Prime Minister Gordon Brown appointed Ashton to HM Cabinet as Leader of the House of Lords and Lord President of the Council.
As Government Leader in the House of Lords, she was responsible for steering the Lisbon Treaty through the Upper House. On 3 October 2008, Ashton was nominated by the UK to replace Peter Mandelson as the European Commissioner for Trade; because European Commissioners may not engage in any other occupation during their term of office, whether gainful or not, she used the procedural device adopted in 1984 by Lord Cockfield and took a leave of absence from the House of Lords on 14 October 2008, retaining her peerage but not her seat. During her term, Ashton represented the EU in negotiations related to a long-running dispute over beef with the United States, led the EU delegation in an agreement with South Korea that removed all tariffs between the two economies and represented the EU in ending a long-running dispute over banana imports, principally involving Latin America and the EU. On 19 November 2009, Ashton was appointed the EU's first High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security policy.
Her appointment was agreed at a summit by 27 European Union leaders in Brussels. Having pushed for former British Prime Minister Tony Blair to become President of the European Council, Gordon Brown relented on the condition that the post of High Representative be awarded to a Briton. Ashton's relative obscurity prior to her appointment prompted comment in the media; the Guardian newspaper
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19