Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history, sometimes involving neighbouring countries; the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as culture and education. Flanders, despite not being the biggest part of Belgium by area, is the area with the largest population. 7,876,873 out of 11,491,346 Belgian inhabitants live in the bilingual city of Brussels. Not including Brussels, there are five modern Flemish provinces. In medieval contexts, the original "County of Flanders" stretched around AD 900 from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary and expanded from there; this county still corresponds with the modern-day Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, along with neighbouring parts of France and the Netherlands.
Although this original meaning is still relevant, during the 19th and 20th centuries it became commonplace to use the term "Flanders" to refer to the entire Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, stretching all the way to the River Meuse, as well as cultural movements such as Flemish art. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the Belgian part of this area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region"; these entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages. In this period, cities such as Ghent and Antwerp made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe and weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export; as a consequence, a sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, due to massive national investments in port infrastructures, Flanders' economy modernised and today Flanders and Brussels are more wealthy than Wallonia and in general one of the wealthiest regions in Europe and the world. Geographically, Flanders is flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of 500 people per square kilometer, it touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own: Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the north consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands; the term "Flanders" has several main modern meanings: The "Flemish community" or "Flemish nation", i.e. the social and linguistic, scientific and educational and political community of the Flemings.
It comprises 6.5 million Belgians. The political subdivisions of Belgium: the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community; the first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels. The political institutions that govern both subdivisions: the operative body "Flemish Government" and the legislative organ "Flemish Parliament"; the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders. An ancien régime territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic; until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of what are now France and the Netherlands. One of the Flemish regions which are now part of France, in the Nord department; this is referred to as French Flanders, can be divided into two smaller regions: Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century.
The city of Lille identifies itself as "Flemish", this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The Flemish region which became part of the Dutch Republic, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland; the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries: the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became commonplace to refer to the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders"; the linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early'60's, from Kortrijk to Maastricht. Now, Flanders extends over the northern part of Belgium, including Belgian Limburg (corresponding to t
Floris II, Count of Holland
Floris II, Count of Holland was the first from the native dynasty of Holland to be called Count of Holland. He was the son of his predecessor Dirk Othilde. Floris II ended the conflict with the Bishop of Utrecht, most by becoming his vassal. In 1101 he was endowed with the title of Count of Holland by the bishop of Utrecht, after acquiring Rhineland. Around 1108, Floris II married the daughter of Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine. Gertrude changed her name in recognition of her loyalty to the Holy See. Petronilla and Floris II had four children, three boys and one girl: Dirk, Floris and Hedwig, respectively. Dirk became his successor, Dirk VI of Holland, while Floris became known as Floris the Black and contested his brother's power. Wessels, Johannes Willhelmus. History of the Roman-Dutch Law. Cape Town: The African Book Company
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht
The Archdiocese of Utrecht is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The Archbishop of Utrecht is the Metropolitan of the Ecclesiastical province of Utrecht. There are six suffragan dioceses in the province: Breda, Groningen-Leeuwarden, Haarlem-Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and's-Hertogenbosch; the cathedral church of the archdiocese is Saint Catherine Cathedral which replaced the prior cathedral, Saint Martin Cathedral, after it was taken by Protestants in the Reformation. The Archdiocese of Utrecht was established in the 7th century and disestablished in the 16th century during the Protestant Reformation; the Catholic church reestablished the Archdiocese in the 19th century.. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the founding of the diocese dates back to Francia, when St. Ecgberht of Ripon sent St. Willibrord and eleven companions on a mission to pagan Frisia, at the request of Pepin of Herstal; the Diocese of Utrecht was erected by Pope Sergius I in 695. In 695 Sergius consecrated Willibrord in Rome as Bishop of the Frisians.
George Edmundson wrote, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition, that the bishops, in fact, as the result of grants of immunities by a succession of German kings, notably by the Saxon and Franconian emperors became the temporal rulers of a dominion as great as the neighboring counties and duchies. John Mason Neale explained, in History of the so-called Jansenist church of Holland, that bishops "became warriors rather than prelates. Debitum pastoralis officii nobis was Pope Leo X's 1517 prohibition to the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Hermann of Wied, as legatus natus, to summon, to a court of first instance in Cologne, Philip of Burgundy, his treasurer, his ecclesiastical and secular subjects. Leo X only confirmed a right of the Church, explained Neale; the Bishopric ended when Henry of the Palatinate resigned the see in 1528 with the consent of the cathedral chapter, transferred his secular authority to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The chapters voluntarily transferred their right of electing the bishop to Charles V, Pope Clement VII gave his consent to the proceeding.
George Edmundson wrote, in History of Holland, that Henry, "was compelled" in 1528 to formally surrender "the temporalities of the see" to Charles V. Lordship of Utrecht The diocese was elevated to an archdiocese in 1559, it was taken from Province of Cologne, in which it was a suffragan, elevated to the rank of an archdiocese and metropolitan see. During the administration of the first archbishop, Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg, Calvinism spread especially among the nobility, who viewed with disfavor the endowment of the new bishoprics with the ancient and wealthy abbeys; the parish churches were attacked in the Beeldenstorm in 1566. The hanging of the nineteen Martyrs of Gorkum in Brielle in 1572 is an example of the persecution which Catholics suffered. During the Dutch Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands, the archdiocese fell. In the Beeldenstorm in 1580, the collegiate churches were victims of iconoclastic attacks and St. Martin's Cathedral, was "severely damaged". "Even though one third of the people remained Roman Catholic and in spite of a great tolerance," as early as 1573, the public exercise of Catholicism was forbidden, the cathedral was converted into a Protestant church in 1580.
The cathedral chapter survived and "still managed its lands and formed part of the provincial government" in the Lordship of Utrecht. "The newly appointed canons, were always Protestants." The two successor archbishop appointed by Spain neither received canonical confirmation nor could they enter their diocese because of the States-General opposition. The archdiocese was suppressed in 1580. Walter Phillips wrote, in Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition, the last archbishop of Utrecht, Frederik V Schenck van Toutenburg, died in 1580, "a few months before the suppression of Roman Catholic public worship" by William I, Prince of Orange. "Suppression of dioceses," wrote Hove, "takes place only in countries where the faithful and the clergy have been dispersed by persecution," the suppressed dioceses become missions, prefectures, or vicariates apostolic. This is; the Holland Mission started when the vicariate was erected by Pope Clement VIII in 1592. "For two centuries after the Peace of Westphalia much of Holland was under vicars apostolic as mission territory, as England was in the same period.
The see was reestablished as an Archdiocese in the 1853. Johannes Zwijsen Andreas Ignatius Schaepman Petrus Matthias Snickers Henricus van de Wetering Johannes Henricus Gerardus Jansen Johannes de Jong Bernardus Johannes Alfrink Johannes Gerardus Maria Willebrands Adrianus Johannes Simonis Willem Jacobus Eijk Source: Radboud University Library. Goswin Haex van Loenhout, O. Carm. Godefridus Yerwerd, O. S. B. (28 M
Egmond Abbey or St. Adalbert's Abbey is a Benedictine monastery of the Congregation of the Annunciation between Egmond aan den Hoef and Bakkum in Egmond-Binnen in the municipality of Bergen in the Dutch province of North Holland. Founded in 920-925 and destroyed in the Reformation, it was re-founded in 1935 as the present Sint-Adelbertabdij, in the Diocese of Haarlem; the Benedictine abbey was founded by Dirk I, Count of Holland, in about 920-925. It was a nunnery that, according to local tradition, had been there since Saints Adalbert and Willibrord landed in 760. In about 950 work began on a stone church to replace the wooden one, as a gift from Dirk II, Count of Holland, his wife Hildegard, to house the relics of Saint Adalbert; the consecration of the new church took place in or shortly after 975, is recorded in the Egmond Gospels, presented to the abbey by Dirk. At the same time a community of Benedictine monks from Ghent replaced the nuns, who under their abbess Erlinde, daughter of Count Dirk, were transferred to a newly established nunnery, Bennebroek Abbey.
This was the oldest monastery of the Holland region. Dirk I, the founder, was buried there, as were many subsequent counts of Holland and members of their families, including Dirk II, Count of Holland, Dirk III, Floris I, Dirk V, Floris II; the Count Lamoral, owner of the nearby castle, was beheaded in 1568, this started the Dutch Revolt. Shortly afterwards, in 1573, the abbey was dissolved and laid waste just before the siege of Alkmaar on the orders of Diederik Sonoy to prevent it being used by the Spanish; the abbey's income was diverted by the stadtholder to the financing of his educational project, the newly formed Leiden University. North of the abbey is the site of Egmond Castle in Egmond aan den Hoef; the castle was built by the knight Berwout van Egmond in 1129, paid by the Count of Holland to represent him, protect the abbey and collect the rents, as Voogd. This was the origin of the House of Egmond; the relationship turned into a power struggle between the Egmond family and the abbots that lasted for centuries.
Just like the abbey, the castle was destroyed in 1573. The chapel was restored by the Dutch Protestant church, but the castle was never rebuilt; the foundations are still visible and the land surrounding the old moat and foundations has been turned into a park. In 1933 a new Benedictine community, the Sint-Adelbertabdij, was founded on the site of the former Egmond Abbey, was again dedicated to Saint Adalbert; the first buildings, designed by Alexander Kropholler were constructed in 1935. and the community was repopulated with monks. Buildings were extended in the late 1940s and early 1950s; the farmlands were put back to use, though since 1989 however the agricultural lands have been let to a farmer since the monks were no longer able to do the heavy farmwork. A candle-making operation was started in 1945 to support the community, a pottery workplace was added. In 1984 the relics of Saint Adalbert were returned here, having been kept safe in Haarlem since the destruction of the previous monastery in the 16th century, are enshrined beneath the altar.
In the spring of 2003 the monks had solar panels installed which were promptly stolen two weeks a loss of €20,000. An online collection was held to help pay for new panels. Many artefacts from the old abbey have been recovered in the years since the'beeldenstorm' of 1568, such as the altarpiece of 1530, the Egmond Tympanum, a 12th-century tympanum set over the portal of the west front of the abbey church, which since 1842 has been preserved in the Rijksmuseum. At first it was assumed that all the abbey's possessions had been burned, but in fact they had been sold by the Protestant leader who dissolved the abbey, Diederik Sonoy, before the buildings were destroyed. In recent decades the current monastery has been able to recover many lost relics, or at least information about them; the old abbey had been of great importance to artists, much of that art has survived, against all odds. Moreover, in the intervening period from 1568 until the remaining ruins were demolished in about 1800, the abbey and the associated castle ruins served as an inspiration in its damaged state to many artists who visited Bergen, Schoorl or Egmond to paint the ruins, among them Jacob van Ruisdael in 1655-60.
Egmond Abbey website
The Scheldt is a 350-kilometre long river in northern France, western Belgium, the southwestern part of the Netherlands. Its name is derived from an adjective corresponding to Old English sceald, Modern English shoal, Low German schol, West Frisian skol, Swedish skäll; the headwaters of the Scheldt are in the Aisne department of northern France. It flows north through Cambrai and Valenciennes, enters Belgium near Tournai. In Ghent, where it receives the Lys, one of its main tributaries, the Scheldt turns east. Near Antwerp, the largest city on its banks, the Scheldt flows west into the Netherlands towards the North Sea. There were two branches from that point: the Oosterschelde. In the 19th century, the river was cut off from its eastern branch by a dyke that connects Zuid-Beveland with the mainland. Today the river therefore continues into the Westerschelde estuary only, passing Terneuzen to reach the North Sea between Breskens in Zeelandic Flanders and Vlissingen on Walcheren; the Scheldt is an important waterway, has been made navigable from its mouth up to Cambrai.
Above Cambrai, the Canal de Saint-Quentin follows its course. The port of Antwerp, the second largest in Europe, lies on its banks. Several canals connect the Scheldt with the basins of the Rhine and Seine, with the industrial areas around Brussels, Liège, Lille and Mons; the Scheldt flows through the following departments of France, provinces of Belgium, provinces of the Netherlands, towns: Aisne: Gouy Nord: Cambrai, Valenciennes Hainaut: Tournai West Flanders: Avelgem East Flanders: Oudenaarde, Dendermonde, Temse Antwerp: Antwerp Zeeland: Hulst, Sluis, Vlissingen The Scheldt estuary has always had considerable commercial and strategic importance. In Roman times, it was important for the shipping lanes to Roman Britain. Nehalennia was venerated at its mouth; the Franks took control over the region about the year 260 and at first interfered with the Roman supply routes as pirates. They became allies of the Romans. With the various divisions of the Frankish Empire in the 9th century, the Scheldt became the border between the Western and Eastern parts of the Empire, which became France and the Holy Roman Empire.
This status quo remained intact—at least on paper—until 1528, although by both the County of Flanders on the western bank and Zeeland and the Duchy of Brabant on the east were part of the Habsburg possessions of the Seventeen Provinces. Antwerp was the most prominent harbour in Western Europe. After this city fell back under Spanish control in 1585, the Dutch Republic took control of Zeelandic Flanders, a strip of land on the left bank, closed the Scheldt for shipping; this shifted the trade to the ports of Amsterdam and Middelburg and crippled Antwerp—an important and traumatic element in the history of relations between the Netherlands and what was to become Belgium. Access to the river was the subject of the brief Kettle War of 1784, and—in the French Revolutionary era shortly afterwards—the river was reopened in 1792. Once Belgium had claimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1830, the treaty of the Scheldt determined that the river should remain accessible to ships heading for Belgian ports.
The Dutch government would demand a toll from passing vessels until 16 July 1863. The Question of the Scheldt, a study providing "a history of the international legal arrangements governing the Western Scheldt", was prepared for the use of British negotiators at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. In the Second World War, the Scheldt estuary once again became a contested area. Despite Allied control of Antwerp, in September 1944 German forces still occupied fortified positions throughout the Scheldt estuary west and north, preventing any Allied shipping from reaching the port. In the Battle of the Scheldt, the Canadian First Army cleared the area, allowing supply convoys direct access to the port of Antwerp by November 1944. Western Scheldt or Honte Schijn Rupel Nete Kleine Nete Aa Wamp Grote Nete Wimp Molse Nete Laak Dijle Zenne Maalbeek Woluwe Maalbeek Molenbeek Neerpedebeek Zuun Geleytsbeek Linkebeek Molenbeek Senette Hain Samme Thines Vrouwvliet Demer Velp Gete Herk Melsterbeek Grote Gete Kleine Gete Voer IJse Nethen Laan Zilverbeek Thyle Durme Molenbeek Dender Mark Ruisseau d'Ancre Zulle Eastern Dender Western Dender Molenbeek-Ter Erpenbeek Lys/Leie Mandel Heulebeek Gaverbeek Douve Deûle/Deule or Feule Marque Souchez Carency Saint-Nazaire Laquette Lawe Brette, ruisseau de Caucourt, fossé d'Avesnes Clarence Nave, Grand Nocq Becque de Steenwerk Zwalm Rone Rhosne
Count of Holland
The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century. The first count of Holland, Dirk I, was the foster-son of Gerolf, Count in Frisia, he received land around Egmond from Charles the Fat at a place called Bladella in 922. This is seen as the beginning of the county of Holland. However, until about 1100, the usual names for the county were West-Friesland, Frisia or Kennemerland. Note that the chronology of the first few counts is uncertain; the existence of a count between Dirk I and Dirk II was only suggested, since it is thought that the references to counts named Dirk between 896 and 988 refer to three, not two, different counts. This third Count Dirk is placed between Dirk I and II and numbered as Dirk I bis to avoid confusion with the established numbering referring to the other counts of Holland named Dirk. Gerolf Dirk I Dirk I bis, son of Dirk I Dirk II, son of Dirk I bis Arnulf, son of Dirk II Dirk III Hierosolymita, son of Arnulf I Dirk IV, son of Dirk III Floris I, brother of Dirk IV Gertrude of Saxony, widow of Floris I Robert the Frisian, second husband of Gertrude Godfrey the Hunchback, Duke of Lower Lorraine William II, King of Germany, son of Floris IV Floris de Voogd, brother of William II Floris V the Peasants' God, son of William II John III, Lord of Renesse Wolfert I, Lord of Borselen John II, Count of Hainaut John I, son of Floris V When John I died childless, the county was inherited by John II of Avesnes, Count of Hainaut from 1299.
John of Avesnes was a son of Adelaide of sister of William II of Holland. During the rule of Margaret, her son William V had the real power in the county, he became ruler in his own right as a result of the Cod wars. He was Duke of Bavaria-Straubing as William I. Louis the Bavarian, Holy Roman Emperor, husband of Margaret William V, son of Louis and Margaret Albert I, brother of William V William VI, son of Albert Jacqueline, daughter of William VI John III the Pitiless, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, brother of William VI, rival of Jacqueline John IV, Duke of Brabant and husband of Jacqueline Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, husband of Jacqueline Francis, Lord of Borselen, husband of JacquelineThere was a war of succession between John III and Jacqueline; this war was won by Philip of Burgundy in 1432, who, in the meantime had inherited John's claims on the county. Philip was a nephew of William VI. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline to abdicate from Holland on his behalf. Philip I the Good, grandson of Albert I Charles I the Bold, son of Philip I Mary I the Rich, daughter of Charles I Maximilian, Holy Roman Emperor, husband of Mary I Philip II the Handsome, King Philip I of Castile Charles II, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, King of Spain Philip III, King Philip II of SpainDuring the'foreign rule' by Burgundy and Habsburg, the county was governed by a stadtholder in name of the count.
In 1581, the Estates General of the United Provinces declared themselves independent from the Spanish rule of Philip II. Until the Treaty of Münster in 1648, the kings of Spain still used the title Count of Holland, but they had lost the actual power over the county to the States of Holland. Philip IV, King Philip III of Spain Philip V, King Philip IV of Spain The County remained in existence as a constituent member state of the Dutch Republic until 1795. There were no more Counts however since the Estates of Holland and West-Frisia were the sovereign of the County; the Stadtholders, who were servants of the Estates were the de facto Chief-Executives during this period. Counts of Holland family tree A book of 32 plates of the counts of Holland published in Amsterdam in 1663, engraved by Adriaen Matham B. K. S. Dijkstra, Een stamboom in been, Amsterdam 1991. Counts of Holland
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV became King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, he was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy, he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Germany, he died soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France. In 1056 at Aachen, Henry IV was enthroned as the King of the Germans by Pope Victor II, while his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent. In 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of the Coup of Kaiserswerth, a conspiracy of German nobles led by Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne. Henry, at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat on the Rhine. Agnes retired to a convent, the government was placed in the hands of Anno, his first action was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had recognized but subsequently left without support.
Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years; the malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. During an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only an ecclesiastical role. Henry's entire reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, he worked to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. In 1066, he expelled from the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment. Henry adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg. In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055.
In the same year, at the request of the Pope, he assembled an army to fight the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had attacked the Normans. Therefore, the expedition was halted. In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha, his peroration at a council in Mainz was rejected, however, by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, or Peter Damian, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court. Henry believed that the Papal opposition was less about his marriage than about overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the empire's boundaries, he led the margrave of a district east of Saxony.
Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king, it was decided that a trial by combat should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, he declined to appear. He was declared deposed in Bavaria, his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, in his efforts to exact tithes from them. More formidable still was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king—he was the son of one enemy, Henry III, the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen; the momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated.
Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert, who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men, of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost. Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII. While Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda; the high tensions between the Empire and the Church culminated in the ecclesiastical councils of 1074-75, many of the measures passed attempted to undo substantial portions of Henry III's policies. Among other measures, the councils denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in any ecclesiastical office.