Lake Powell is a reservoir on the Colorado River, straddling the border between Utah and Arizona, United States. Most of Lake Powell, along with Rainbow Bridge National Monument, is located in Utah, it is a major vacation spot. It is the second largest man-made reservoir by maximum water capacity in the United States behind Lake Mead, storing 24,322,000 acre feet of water when full. However, due to high water withdrawals for human and agricultural consumption, because of subsequent droughts in the area, Lake Mead has fallen below Lake Powell in size several times during the 21st century in terms of volume of water and surface area. Lake Powell was created by the flooding of Glen Canyon by the Glen Canyon Dam, which led to the creation of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, a popular summer destination; the reservoir is named for explorer John Wesley Powell, a one-armed American Civil War veteran who explored the river via three wooden boats in 1869. In 1972, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area was established.
It is public land managed by the National Park Service, available to the public for recreational purposes. It lies in parts of Garfield and San Juan counties in southern Utah, Coconino County in northern Arizona; the northern limits of the lake extend at least as far as the Hite Crossing Bridge. Lake Powell is a water storage facility for the Upper Basin states of the Colorado River Compact; the Compact specifies that the Upper Basin states are to provide a minimum annual flow of 7,500,000 acre feet to the Lower Basin states. In the 1940s and early 1950s, the United States Bureau of Reclamation planned to construct a series of Colorado River dams in the rugged Colorado Plateau province of Colorado and Arizona. Glen Canyon Dam was born of a controversial damsite the Bureau selected in Echo Park, in what is now Dinosaur National Monument in Colorado. A small but politically effective group of objectors led by David Brower of the Sierra Club succeeded in defeating the Bureau's bid, citing Echo Park's natural and scenic qualities as too valuable to submerge.
By agreeing to a relocated damsite near Lee's Ferry between Glen and Grand Canyons, Brower did not realize what he had gambled away. At the time, Brower had not been to Glen Canyon; when he saw Glen Canyon on a river trip, Brower discovered that it had the kind of scenic and wilderness qualities associated with America's national parks. Over 80 side canyons in the colorful Navajo Sandstone contained clear streams, abundant wildlife, natural bridges, numerous Native American archeological sites. By however, it was too late to stop the Bureau and its commissioner Floyd Dominy from building Glen Canyon Dam. Brower believed the river should remain free, would forever after consider the loss of Glen Canyon his life's ultimate disappointment. Glen Canyon Dam was built to solve the downstream delivery obligations of the Upper Basin states. Lake Powell is an "aquatic bank" built to fulfill the terms of the "Compact Calls" of Lower Basin. If the Compact had required the Upper Basin to deliver half the flow of the Colorado in low water years, rather than a fixed amount, the burden of drought would have been spread between the basins and there would have been no need to build the dam.
It's ironic that the lake is named after John Wesley Powell, who planned to settle the West based on the facts of hydrology, not politics. Construction on Glen Canyon Dam began with a demolition blast keyed by the push of a button by President Dwight D. Eisenhower at his desk in the Oval Office on October 1, 1956; the first blast started clearing tunnels for water diversion. On February 11, 1959, water was diverted through the tunnels; that year, the bridge was completed, allowing trucks to deliver equipment and materials for the dam, for the new town of Page, Arizona. Concrete placement started around the clock on June 17, 1960; the last bucket of concrete was poured on September 13, 1963. Over 5 million cubic yards of concrete make up Glen Canyon Dam; the Dam is 710 feet high, with the surface elevation of the water at full pool being 3700 feet. Construction of the Dam cost $155 million, 18 lives were lost in the process. From 1970 to 1980, turbines and generators were installed for hydroelectricity.
On September 22, 1966, Glen Canyon Dam was dedicated by Lady Bird Johnson. Upon completion of Glen Canyon Dam on September 13, 1963, the Colorado River began to back up, no longer being diverted through the tunnels; the newly flooded Glen Canyon formed Lake Powell. Eleven years elapsed before the lake filled to the 3,700 feet level, on June 22, 1980; the lake level fluctuates depending on the seasonal snow runoff from the Rocky Mountains. The all-time highest water level was reached on July 14, 1983, during one of the heaviest Colorado River floods in recorded history, in part influenced by a strong El Niño event; the lake rose with a water content of 25,757,086 acre feet. Colorado River flows have been below average since the year 2000. In the winter of 2005 the lake reached its lowest level since filling, an elevation of 3,555.10 feet above sea level, 150 feet below full pool. Since 2005, the lake level has rebounded, although it has not filled since then. Summer 2011 saw the third largest June and the second largest July runoff since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the water level peaked at nearly 3
Fremont River (Utah)
Fremont River is 95-mile long river in southeastern Utah, United States that flows from the Johnson Valley Reservoir, located on the Wasatch Plateau near Fish Lake, southeast through Capitol Reef National Park to the Muddy Creek near Hanksville where the two rivers combine to form the Dirty Devil River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The Johnson Valley Reservoir is fed by Lake Creek; the Fremont River passes through Fremont, Lyman, Bicknell and Torrey and provides year round irrigation for the agricultural lands of Rabbit Valley and Caineville. It heads through Hanksville and afterwards to its mouth; the Fremont River has a drainage area of 751 square miles fed by spring snowmelt off Thousand Lake Mountain, Boulder Mountain, the northern Henry Mountains. The river is named after John Charles Fremont, it gives its name to a Precolumbian archaeological culture. Flow, by month, at Bicknell gauging station: List of Utah rivers List of tributaries of the Colorado River Media related to Fremont River at Wikimedia Commons
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area is a recreation and conservation unit of the National Park Service that encompasses the area around Lake Powell and lower Cataract Canyon in Utah and Arizona, covering 1,254,429 acres of desert. The recreation area borders Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park on the north, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument on the west, Vermilion Cliffs National Monument and the northeasternmost reaches of Grand Canyon National Park on the southwest, the Navajo Nation on the southeast; the Glen Canyon NRA was established in 1972 "to provide for public use and enjoyment and to preserve the area's scientific and scenic features." The stated purpose of Glen Canyon NRA is for recreation as well as preservation. As such, the area has been developed for access to Lake Powell via 5 marinas, 4 camping grounds, two small airports, houseboat rental concessions; the southwestern end of Glen Canyon NRA in Arizona can be accessed via U. S. Route 89 and State Route 98.
State Route 95 and State Route 276 lead to the northeastern end of the recreation area in Utah. The current Lake Powell lies above Glen Canyon, flooded by the Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1966. Lake Powell has nearly 2,000 miles of fish-holding shoreline and provides opportunity to fish for largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and striped bass that swim in the midst of the recreation area. Several local marinas provide houseboats, jet skis, fishing gear, related equipment to visitors; the geology of the area is dominated by the Glen Canyon Group, consisting of the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Wingate Sandstone. The entire stratigraphic section included rocks dating from the Cretaceous to Pennsylvanian. With over one million visitors per year, it is inevitable that some will deface the rock faces of the canyon; the Glen Canyon NRA has implemented a voluntourism program wherein volunteers sign up for a five-day houseboat trip to remove graffiti from the canyon walls. Glen Canyon Glen Canyon Dam Glen Canyon Institute Rainbow Bridge National Monument Official National Park Service site Official National Park Service Concessionaire Site Lake Powell Resorts & Marinas, managed by ARAMARK, is an authorized concessioner of the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
Glen Canyon Natural History Association Page Lake Powell Chamber of Commerce Lake Powell National Golf Course scenic 18-hole golf course Lake Powell Yacht Club to serve the interest of boat owners and water recreational enthusiasts
The Robbers Roost was an outlaw hideout in southeastern Utah used by Butch Cassidy and his Wild Bunch gang in the closing years of the Old West. The hideout was considered ideal because of the rough terrain, it was defended, difficult to navigate into without detection, excellent when the gang needed a month or longer to rest and lie low following a robbery. It was while hiding out at Robbers Roost that Elzy Lay and Butch Cassidy first formed the Wild Bunch gang; the Wild Bunch gang, early on led by Cassidy and his closest friend Elzy Lay, developed contacts inside Utah that gave them easy access to supplies of fresh horses and beef, most notably the ranch owned by outlaw sisters Ann Bassett and Josie Bassett. The gang constructed cabins inside Robbers Roost to help shield them from the harsh winters. There, they stored weapons, horses and cattle. Pursuing lawmen of the day never discovered the site of the hideout; the outlaws held each other to strict confidentiality regarding its location. There were only five women known to have been allowed inside Robbers Roost: Ann and Josie Bassett, the Sundance Kid's girlfriend Etta Place, one of Elzy Lay's girlfriends Maude Davis, gang member Laura Bullion.
Charlie Siringo wrote that Robbers' Roost was "fifty miles east of Hanksville, where the'Wild Bunch' used twenty dollar gold pieces for poker chips." He goes on to write the Wild Bunch used Robbers' Roost as "headquarters for several years until Joe Bush and a posse of Salt Lake City officers made a raid on the'Roost' and killed some of the gang."Robbers Roost Canyon, a remote tributary of the Dirty Devil River, is named after this hideout. Today, Robbers Roost attracts hikers, horseback riders, all-terrain vehicle enthusiasts. Many steep, narrow slot canyons popular with technical canyoneers are found in Robbers Roost. Hole-in-the-Wall Hiking & Canyoneering Routes in Robbers Roost
Garfield County, Utah
Garfield County is a county in south central Utah, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census the population was 5,172, making it the fifth-least populous county in Utah, its county seat and largest city is Panguitch. The Utah Territory legislature created the county on March 9, 1882, with areas partitioned from Iron County It was named for James A. Garfield, the twentieth President of the United States, who had died six months earlier; the border with Iron County was adjusted in 1884, Garfield County's boundaries have remained intact since then. The Colorado River, flowing southwestward through a deep gorge, forms the eastern boundary; the Dirty Devil River flows southward through the east end of the county to discharge into the Colorado at the county's border. Westward, the cliffs of tributary canyons give way to the barren stretches of the San Rafael Desert, beyond which a variety of mountains and canyons make up the terrain. Most of Bryce Canyon National Park lies in the southwestern part of the county and the northern half of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument occupies the middle of the county.
A large portion of Capitol Reef National Park lies in the east-central part of the county. A small part of Canyonlands National Park lies in the northeast corner of the county; the terrain of Garfield County is arid and carved with erosion. The county terrain slopes to the south and to the east; the county's highest point is Mount Ellen, in Canyonlands, near the county's north border, at 11,522' ASL. The county has a total area of 5,208 square miles, of which 5,175 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in Utah by area. Bryce Canyon Airport Lake Powell Panguitch Lake Wide Hollow Reservoir As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,735 people, 1,576 households, 1,199 families in the county; the population density was 0.91/sqmi. There were 2,767 housing units at an average density of 0.53/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 94.95% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 1.84% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.12% from other races, 1.48% from two or more races.
2.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,576 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.40% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.90% were non-families. 20.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.43. The county population contained 32.60% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 23.10% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 104.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,180, the median income for a family was $40,192. Males had a median income of $30,239 versus $20,408 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,439. About 6.10% of families and 8.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2010 the largest self-identified ancestry groups in Garfield County are: English - 46.2% German - 14.8% Irish - 10.1% Danish - 6.6% Scottish - 4.9% Welsh - 3.9% Scotch-Irish - 2.5% Swedish - 2.3% Norwegian - 2.2% Garfield County has traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. Utah portal List of counties in Utah National Register of Historic Places listings in Garfield County, Utah Media related to Garfield County, Utah at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti