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A disaccharide is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates; the most common types of disaccharides—sucrose and maltose—have 12 carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11. The differences in these disaccharides are due to atomic arrangements within the molecule; the joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called a disaccharidase; as building the larger sugar ejects a water molecule, breaking it down consumes a water molecule. These reactions are vital in metabolism; each disaccharide is broken down with the help of a corresponding disaccharidase.

There are two functionally different classes of disaccharides: Reducing disaccharides, in which one monosaccharide, the reducing sugar of the pair, still has a free hemiacetal unit that can perform as a reducing aldehyde group. They can be detected by the Woehlk test or Fearon's test on methylamine. Non-reducing disaccharides, in which the component monosaccharides bond through an acetal linkage between their anomeric centers; this results in neither monosaccharide being left with a hemiacetal unit, free to act as a reducing agent. Sucrose and trehalose are examples of non-reducing disaccharides because their glycosidic bond is between their respective hemiacetal carbon atoms; the reduced chemical reactivity of the non-reducing sugars in comparison to reducing sugars, may be an advantage where stability in storage is important. The formation of a disaccharide molecule from two monosaccharide molecules proceeds by displacing a hydroxyl radical from one molecule and a hydrogen nucleus from the other, so that the now vacant bonds on the monosaccharides join the two monomers together.

The vacant bonds on the hydroxyl radical and the proton unite in their turn, forming a molecule of water, that goes free. Because of the removal of the water molecule from the product, the term of convenience for such a process is "dehydration reaction". For example, milk sugar is a disaccharide made by condensation of one molecule of each of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose, whereas the disaccharide sucrose in sugar cane and sugar beet, is a condensation product of glucose and fructose. Maltose, another common disaccharide, is condensed from two glucose molecules; the dehydration reaction that bonds monosaccharides into disaccharides forms what are called glycosidic bonds. The glycosidic bond can be formed between any hydroxyl group on the component monosaccharide. So if both component sugars are the same, different bond combinations and stereochemistry result in disaccharides that are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties. Depending on the monosaccharide constituents, disaccharides are sometimes crystalline, sometimes water-soluble, sometimes sweet-tasting and sticky-feeling.

Digestion involves breakdown to the monosaccharides. Maltose and chitobiose are hydrolysis products of the polysaccharides starch and chitin, respectively. Less common disaccharides include: Disaccharides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Leslie Stewart (writer)

Leslie Stewart is a British-based writer and director. Born Leslie George Gannagé-Stewart, he co-wrote the song "Mistletoe and Wine", which earned Cliff Richard the 1988 Christmas number one, his television script writing work includes Monarch of the Glen, Holby City, Love Bytes, Down to Earth, Casualty, As If, Peak Practice, the 1987 film, Two of Us, for the BBC's Scene series. In 1976, Stewart co-wrote his first Shoot Up at Elbow Creek, he wrote The Little Match Girl, based on Hans Christian Andersen's short story, for Richmond's Orange Tree Theatre, which contained the song "Mistletoe and Wine." HTV assisted in the production of the play for television in 1986. Having worked extensively in music, writing for, among others, the jazz-rock outfit Swegas and Cliff Richard, producing artists including Jeff Baker, Stewart continues to work as a lyricist with the American blues musician, Johnny Mars. Stewart is a member of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the Writers' Guild of Great Britain, the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors and PRS for Music.

Shoot up at Elbow Creek. The Little Matchgirl, which transposed Hans Christian Andersen’s classic fairytale to the world of alcohol abuse and child-prostitution. A song from the show, ‘Mistletoe and Wine’ won an Ivor Novello Award, was the best-selling single of 1988 and the third best-selling single of the 1980s; the Soldier Contributed to the London Revue City Delights Three Minute Heroes The Amazing Miss Stella Estelle Space Station: Milton Keynes Wide Games Good Neighbours Janna, Where Are You? Q. P. R. Askey Is Dead That Green Stuff Two of Us The Little Match Girl Boogie Outlaws Love Bytes, an anthology series, Nominated for Most Outstanding Drama SeriesSilver Logie Award 2005, produced by Shine and Fox TV. Peak Practice Holby City Down to Earth Monarch of the Glen Casualty As If Turpo; the Key to My Father's House Canada Park Dancing Backwards The Great Wall of China The Runner Cloudberry 9 The Millennium Job "Moomins on the Riviera". A hand-drawn animation feature film based on Tove Jansson's original Moomins comic strips.

Foot in the Door Once Upon a Time How Green is My Alley? Filigree, a documentary That Green Stuff Space Station: Milton Keynes Lola She's Not There Terry Wide Games Good Neighbours Stewart, Three minute heroes, Act now. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-31895-2 Stewart, Leslie. L, OCLC 431285025 Stewart, Two of us, Arlington Books, ISBN 978-0-85140-749-4 Leslie Stewart on IMDb Credits at BFI

Deng Yuzhi

Deng Yuzhi known as Cora Deng, was a Chinese social and Christian activist, a feminist. Born in Hubei, she promoted women's education and rights, defied the traditional woman's role in Chinese society. A Protestant by birth, she was an active and leading member of the Chinese Young Women's Christian Association, she established night schools for the women workers of industrial establishments, fought for their rights. At the age of 19, she participated in the May Fourth Movement, and, on the establishment of the People's Republic, held positions in the Chinese Communist Party administration. In her student days, Deng was introduced to revolutionary ideology by Maud Russell, but Deng did not perceive herself as a feminist or a revolutionary, relying instead on Christianity as a source of her identity. Deng Yuzhi was born in 1900 in Hubei Province, her family pursued business enterprises. Her father worked for the Qing dynasty, she was eight years old. Her primary education occurred at the First Women's Normal School of Hunan Province, the Zhounan Girls Middle School, which promoted "progressive, modern curriculum and student’s activism during the republican revolutionary era."

Her parents died in 1910 when she was 10 years old, at which time she was taken care of by her grandmother who admitted her to the Fuxiang School run by the Protestant Mission for Girls. While in school she developed liberal views on a woman's role in Chinese society as a result of her association with the May Fourth Movement and her Christian faith, she decided to be an independent woman, remain unmarried, live the life of a "new woman". The first step she took in this regard was to break the Chinese traditional practice of arranged marriage. While in high school, in spite of her resolve not get married, her grandmother persuaded her to marry as the grandmother had been engaged at a young age. Deng agreed on the condition that after marriage, she would be allowed to continue her studies, find work, follow her Christian faith, would not be forced to observe traditional Chinese religious dogmas, but after marriage, her husband and his family broke their promises to Deng which resulted in her leaving her husband to continue her studies.

She entered Ginling College in Nanjing around 1923. Deng started working at this time with the woman brocade workers in support of their causes, albeit her husband pursued her to return to the marriage, but Matilda Thurston, president of Ginling College and sent Deng to Shanghai to join the YWCA in 1921, in the next few years, she moved several time. After returning to Changsha, she met Maud Russell, working at the YWCA who offered her employment. Deng's divorce came through and she was able to lead an independent life, continuing her work with the YWCA. After the bitter marriage, she resolved to work on social work and not to marry again. With professional and financial help from Russell, she participated in international conferences and in the middle of 1920s, she continued her studies at the London School of Economics with a scholarship for one year. After her studies, she interned with the International Labour Organization in Geneva, learning about the security and rights of women and child workers.

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, with her return to China, she headed the Students and Workers's Departments in YWCA and became General Secretary of the Chinese YWCA. She worked as a consultant from time to time to the YWCA of Changshu, Wuhan, Guiyang and Hong Kong, she established night schools in Shanghai and Guangzhou for women workers. In the part of 1930s, she was sponsored for graduate studies at Columbia University. While serving as the head of the YWCA Industrial Department, Deng reopened schools for women workers in the factory districts; these schools provided impetus for organizing labor into political stream. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Deng took the initiative to organize and convince women workers of YWCA Shanghai to work in the war front, tending the sick and wounded soldiers, she created "refugee camps and welfare stations for the families of soldiers", helped soldiers write letters to their families. She convinced the Kuomintang government to honour the compensation rights due to the families of soldiers.

In 1938, she established the YWCA national office in Wuhan. At this time, the KMT and Communist Party of China were united, Deng coordinated with Soong Mayling of KMT and Deng Yingchao of CCP in the war effort of relief and rehabilitation. In 1938, Deng was invited by Soong Mayling to take part in a conference of women leaders in different fields, which included women from the communists group, to have a unified approach to address women's issues. In 1948, when the People's Republic of China became a reality, Deng was one of the persons among many religious leaders invited to advise PRC on religious issues. Following CCP, Deng joined the Tiananmen Square celebration on 1 October 1949 at the invitation extended to her by Mao Zedong and other members of the party. In 1950, she assumed the role of general secretary of YMCA and was the official representative of the CPC at the All-China Women's Federation and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference; as Secretary of YMCA, she pursued the organization's role on women's issues with emphasis on Christian thoughts.

She was appointed as the vice-chair of a committee set up to decide on the status of the Chinese Christian Church as an independent identity, withou


Reichshund was an informal term used in Germany for Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck's dogs and more for similar dogs Great Danes. Germans became able to own dogs as a result of the democratisation following the revolution of 1848. Keeping dogs became fashionable as the 19th century continued, people in public life did so as part of their image. Bismarck took a blonde Great Dane called Ariel with him when he entered the University of Göttingen in 1832, he continued to keep Great Danes throughout the rest of his life. His favourite was Sultan. Sultan was a gift from the Bavarian Count Holnstein. After Sultan's death on 26 October 1877, Bismarck could only be consoled by the gift of another Great Dane from Count Holnstein, Tyras. Tyras died on 18 January 1889; the dog died on 11 May 1896. Bismarck owned female Great Danes named Flora, Sultan's mate, Rebecca, who died in 1897. After receiving Tyras II from the emperor, Bismarck regretfully gave Tyras I's offspring, whom he had hand-reared, to his head forester.

Bismarck's dogs were buried at his estate in Pomerania. Accounts of the dogs' temperament vary; some historians have regarded Bismarck's choice of the largest available breed and his habit of having a dog with him, which would disconcert foreign diplomats, as calculated demonstrations of power. Former diplomat James Bryce, Viscount Bryce referred to the dog as "now and growl and show its teeth in a threatening way", diplomat and President of Japan Kijūrō Shidehara said in a speech that "the dog threatened to bite anyone who would provoke his master's displeasure." Robert K. Massie describes Tyras as "terrori the Chancellory staff" and writes that those who spoke with Bismarck were "advised to make no unusual gestures which Tiras might interpret as threatening." On the other hand Tyras was said by one contemporary to have "never been guilty of any such ill-mannered act before" his celebrated misbehaviour, the English periodical The Spectator described him at the time as "a quiet creature, with a most pacific reputation."

Bismarck's dogs came to the public's attention and began to be called'Reichshund' after Tyras attacked the Russian chancellor, Alexander Gorchakov, at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In some accounts, he knocked him to the ground, according to Massie after he raised his arm to make a point, but according to The Spectator after he had stumbled and Bismarck had rushed to aid him. However, Kladderadatsch published a front-page poem describing him as having torn the envoy's trousers, its title was "An den Reichshund" - "To the Dog of the Empire". The poem misidentifies the offending dog as Sultan, who had died; the term Reichshund came to be used for similar dogs in general. In Nancy Mitford's Wigs on the Green Eugenia's "enormous mastiff" is called the Reichshund "after Bismarck's dog"; some of the statues of Bismarck in Germany depict him with a dog, for example Max Klein's statue of him in Grunewald, Adolf Lehnert's statue of him in the Johannapark in Leipzig with a dog for whom Tyras II served as model and the statue of a young Bismarck by Norbert Pfretzschner erected by members of the student'corps' on the Rudelsburg at Bad Kösen in 1896 depicts him with attributes of a corps member including a dog for whom Tyras I served as model.

Late-19th century student corps members included keeping large dogs among their traditions. Commons:Reichshund de.wikisource: "An den Reichshund"


Carmustine is a medication used for chemotherapy. It is a nitrogen mustard β-chloro-nitrosourea compound used as an alkylating agent. Carmustine is an orange-yellow solid medication used for chemotherapy, it is a nitrogen mustard β-chloro-nitrosourea compound. As an alkylating agent, carmustine can form interstrand crosslinks in DNA, which prevents DNA replication and DNA transcription. Carmustine is used as an alkylating agent to treat several types of brain cancer including glioma, glioblastoma multiforme and astrocytoma), multiple myeloma, lymphoma. BCNU is sometimes used in conjunction with alkyl guanine transferase inhibitors, such as O6-benzylguanine; the AGT-inhibitors increase the efficacy of carmustine by inhibiting the direct reversal pathway of DNA repair, which will prevent formation of the interstrand crosslink between the N1 of guanine and the N3 of cytosine. It is used as part of a chemotherapeutic protocol in preparation for hematological stem cell transplantation, a type of bone marrow transplant, in order to reduce the white blood cell count in the recipient.

Use under this protocol with fludarabine and melphalan, was developed by oncologists at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. In the treatment of brain tumours, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration approved biodegradable discs infused with carmustine, they are implanted under the skull during a surgery called a craniotomy. The disc allows for controlled release of carmustine in the extracellular fluid of the brain, thus eliminating the need for the encapsulated drug to cross the blood-brain barrier. Carmustine for injection was marketed under the name BiCNU by Bristol-Myers Squibb and now by Emcure Pharmaceuticals. In India it is sold under various brand names, including Consium.. The product is now available as a generic version with other manufacturers offering the product licensed in the USA and EU markets. Bendamustine Lomustine Semustine MedlinePlus DrugInfo medmaster-a682060 BiCNU package insert, U. S. Idis press release for EU

Peter Grant (footballer, born 1965)

Peter Grant is a Scottish football player and coach, the manager of Alloa Athletic. During his playing career, Grant played for Celtic, Norwich City and Bournemouth, he was awarded a testimonial match, played against Bayern Munich, by Celtic in 1997. Grant played in two full international matches for Scotland, both in 1989. Since retiring as a player, Grant has since worked as a football coach, he was manager of Norwich City for a year, briefly the caretaker manager of Fulham. He was captain of the Celtic team that won the inaugural Scottish Youth Cup in 1983–84. Grant made his debut as a teenager for Celtic in a 1984 Old Firm game against Rangers, he was a key figure in league campaigns, such as the 1985–86 Scottish Premier Division which Celtic won in the last game of the season, the 1987–88 where Celtic clinched the league and cup double in their centenary season, the 1989 Scottish Cup Final against Rangers. Grant played in the 1989 final having missed the 1988 final due to injury. Celtic would experience a barren period after 1989 failing to challenge for silverware and going bankrupt in 1993.

1994 saw the arrival as Celtic manager of Grant's former teammate Tommy Burns who saw Grant as being pivotal in his plans to revive the club. The barren period would end in 1995 with Celtic winning the 1995 Scottish Cup Final against Airdrie, with Grant at the heart of the team. Only a few weeks before, Grant had received a bad knee injury in the final league game of the season, but he concealed the severity of this injury and played through the pain barrier to help Celtic to their first trophy in 6 years. Grant maintained his place as a regular in the 1995–96 season, his loyalty to Celtic was rewarded with a testimonial match, played against Bayern Munich in January 1997. After making 483 appearances for Celtic in all competitions between 1984 and 1997, Grant signed for Norwich City for a fee of £200,000. Mike Walker, in his second stint as Norwich City manager, had tried to sign Grant soon after taking over from Dave Stringer at Carrow Road in 1992 - however, Celtic had been unwilling to let Grant leave, Walker opted for Gary Megson as a midfielder enforcer.

After deciding against taking on former Barcelona captain Jose Maria Bakero, Walker this time found Celtic willing to let Grant — now 32 - move to East Anglia. In 1997–98, a difficult season with the club suffering a number of injuries to key players, Grant started 32 games, scoring 3 times. After serving Bournemouth as player-coach and assistant manager, Grant enjoyed a successful time as assistant manager to Alan Pardew at West Ham, helping them reach the 2006 FA Cup Final and finish ninth in their first season back in the English Premier League. In October 2006, Grant was appointed manager of Norwich City. On 14 October he was in the stands to see his new side draw 3–3 with Queens Park Rangers at Loftus Road, presided over by caretaker manager Martin Hunter. Grant opted to retain Hunter as a coach, but appointed a new assistant manager, Jim Duffy. Hunter left the club in the summer of 2007 to take up a coaching position at Watford. Grant's first signing for Norwich was Jamie Ashdown from Portsmouth on a one-month loan.

Grant made a good start to his managerial career only losing 2 league games out of his first 6 although this was a heavy 5–0 defeat to Stoke and a defeat to local rivals Ipswich. They did get wins against high flying teams such as Cardiff. Norwich only won once in the league in December and January, which put them within three points off the relegation zone at one point. Consecutive away wins at relegation rivals Barnsley and Luton Town all but ended any risk of relegation, City finished the season in 16th place. In the summer of 2007 Grant prepared for his first full season in charge at Carrow Road by signing Jamie Cureton, Jon Otsemobor, David Marshall, he signed Julien Brellier and David Strihavka, both of whom struggled to perform and left by January. However, he expressed his frustration at losing Rob Earnshaw and Dickson Etuhu as a result of buy-out clauses in their contracts. City's season started with a goalless draw at Preston and a 2–1 home win against Southampton. After this it all started to go wrong and City only picked up one win in the next few games, against Crystal Palace.

Norwich lost five out of six games, failed to score in any of them. The last game of this run was a televised 1–0 defeat to Queens Park Rangers, who had yet to register a win in the season. Grant announced after the match he was considering his future at the club, the next day he resigned as manager. On 8 July 2008, he joined West Bromwich Albion as first-team coach. Grant, who holds a UEFA Pro Licence, was a team-mate of Albion manager Tony Mowbray at Celtic, he was appointed the first-team coach at Celtic in June 2009, after West Bromwich Albion agreed compensation, believed to be in the region of £2.5 million, for the management team of Tony Mowbray, Mark Venus and Grant. On 25 March 2010, Grant was dismissed as first-team coach at Celtic, along with Mowbray and Venus, after a 4–0 loss to St Mirren. In July 2010 Grant was appointed first-team coach at Birmingham City. Before following McLeish to Aston Villa as assistant manager. McLeish and Grant were sacked by Aston Villa after one season. Grant joined McLeish at Nottingham Forest as a first team coach in December 2012.

Fulham appointed Grant as first team coach on 19 June 2014. Following manager Felix Magath's departure from the club in September, Grant's role changed to that of Lead Professional Development Coa