Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they
Susan Point is a Musqueam Coast Salish artist from Canada, who works in the Coast Salish tradition. Her works include public pieces installed at the Vancouver International Airport, Stanley Park, the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D. C. the U. B. C. Museum of Anthropology, the city of Seattle. Point was born in Alert Bay while Edna Grant and Anthony Point were salmon fishing, she grew up with her family in their home on the Musqueam Indian Reserve. In the early 1980s, she joined a group of artists interested in reviving the traditions of Coast Salish art and design, including artists such as Stan Greene, Rod Modeste, Floyd Joseph. Little research had been done on Salish art, so Point taught herself the Salish traditions, she studied the collections of Coast Salish art at the University of British Columbia's Museum of Anthropology and the Royal British Columbia Museum. There is broad agreement that Point's works were critical to the current efflorescence of contemporary Coast Salish art.
She was a leader in expanding the audience for Salish art to a market, biased towards Northwest Coast artworks produced in northern Northwest Coast formline design principles. Her close study of the formal characteristics of historical works of Salish art laid the foundation for her contemporary productions - some based on new renderings in print form of historical spindle whorls in museum collections, expanding out into original forms in new media, such as glass and bronze. Much of her art practice has involved the adaptation of traditional spindle whorl carvings into the medium of screen printing, her work brought new scholarly attention to her culture. She has produced more prints than any other artist on the Coast, with over 360 prints in her oeuvre by 2016. For several decades in the late 1990s and early 20th century, she completed a major public work in B. C. or Seattle, a series of prints and works in glass each year. A major retrospective of her work was shown by the Vancouver Art Gallery in 2017, Susan Point: Spindle Whorl.
Her works include Salish Footprint in the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia, Musqueam house posts at the American Museum of Natural History, carvings installed at the Vancouver International Airport and at Brockton Point in Stanley Park. In 1995, Susan Point's "Flight" was installed at the Vancouver International Airport, it is the largest spindle whorl in the world at 4.8 meters in diameter. The piece is set against a stone waterfall to symbolize the connection between sky. In 2008, Point created "Buttress Runnels" for the Olympic Oval in Richmond, B. C.. The runnels move water from the roof of the building away from the site; the runnels include cast images of the life of the Fraser River, including fish, herons. Herons are the symbol of the City of Richmond and figure prominently in stories and histories of the Musqueam people. In 2009, Point’s “Tree of Life” stained glass window was installed in Christ Church Cathedral in Vancouver; the design represents the Salish belief in the interconnectedness of all forms of life, uniting Christian theology with First Nations culture and merging the traditional with the modern.
Point was commissioned by the church to design the windows after winning a competition. Honorary doctorate in Fine Arts from the University of British Columbia, University of Victoria, Simon Fraser University, Emily Carr University of Art and Design Appointment to the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts National Aboriginal Achievement Award Officer of the Order of Canada One of B. C.'s 100 most influential women Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal 2018: Audain Prize for Lifetime Achievement in the Visual Arts List of First Nations people Croess, Dale. Susan Point: works on paper. ISBN 9780991858897. Nagai, Kenji. Susan Point: Coast Salish artist. Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 0295980184. Official website
Ultimate known as Ultimate frisbee, is a non-contact team sport played with a flying disc. Ultimate was developed in 1968 by a group of students at Columbia High School in Maplewood, New Jersey. Although Ultimate resembles many traditional sports in its athletic requirements, it is unlike most sports due to its focus on self-officiating at the highest levels of competition; the term frisbee used to generically describe all flying discs, is a registered trademark of the Wham-O toy company, thus the sport is not formally called "Ultimate frisbee", though this name is still in common casual use. Points are scored by passing the disc to a teammate in the opposing end zone. Other basic rules are that players must not take steps while holding the disc, interceptions, incomplete passes, passes out of bounds are turnovers. Rain, wind, or other adversities can make for a testing match with rapid turnovers, heightening the pressure of play. From its beginnings in the American counterculture of the late 1960s, ultimate has resisted empowering any referee with rule enforcement.
Instead it relies on the sportsmanship of players and invokes "Spirit of the Game" to maintain fair play. Players call their own fouls, dispute a foul only when they genuinely believe it did not occur. Playing without referees is the norm for league play but has been supplanted in club competition by the use of "observers" or "game advisors" to help in disputes, the professional league employs empowered referees. In 2012, there were 5.1 million Ultimate players in the United States. Ultimate is played across the world in pickup games and by recreational, club and national teams at various age levels and with open, women's, mixed divisions; the United States wins most of the world titles, but not all of them. US teams won 4 out of 5 divisions in 2014 world championship, all divisions in 2016 competitions between national teams. USA won the 2017 beach world championships, but the Russian women's team ended the American previous undefeated streak by defeating team USA in the women's final. I just remember one time running for a pass and leaping up in the air and just feeling the Frisbee making it into my hand and feeling the perfect synchrony and the joy of the moment, as I landed I said to myself,'This is the ultimate game.
This is the ultimate game.' Team flying disc games using pie tins and cake pan lids were part of Amherst College student culture for decades before plastic discs were available. A similar two-hand, touch-football-based game was played at Kenyon College in Ohio starting in 1942. From 1965 or 1966 Jared Kass and fellow Amherst students Bob Fein, Richard Jacobson, Robert Marblestone, Steve Ward, Fred Hoxie, Gordon Murray, others evolved a team frisbee game based on concepts from American football and soccer; this game had some of the basics of modern Ultimate including scoring by passing over a goal line, advancing the disc by passing, no travelling with the disc, turnovers on interception or incomplete pass. Jared, an instructor and dorm advisor, taught this game to high school student Joel Silver during the summer of 1967 or 1968 at Mount Hermon Prep school summer camp. Joel Silver, along with fellow students Jonny Hines, Buzzy Hellring, others, further developed Ultimate beginning in 1968 at Columbia High School, New Jersey, USA.
The first sanctioned game was played at CHS in 1968 between the student council and the student newspaper staff. Beginning the following year evening games were played in the glow of mercury-vapor lights on the school's student-designated parking lot. Players of Ultimate frisbee used a "Master" disc marketed by Wham-O, based on Fred Morrison's inspired "Pluto Platter" design. Hellring and Hines developed the first and second edition of "Rules of Ultimate Frisbee". In 1970 CHS defeated Millburn High 43–10 in the first interscholastic Ultimate game. CHS, three other New Jersey high schools made up the first conference of Ultimate teams beginning in 1971. Alumni of that first league took the game to their universities. Rutgers defeated Princeton 29–27 in 1972 in the first intercollegiate game; this game was played 103 years after the first intercollegiate American football game by the same teams at the same site, paved as a parking lot in the interim. Rutgers won both games by an identical margin.
Rutgers won the first ultimate frisbee tournament in 1975, hosted by Yale, with 8 college teams participating. That summer ultimate was introduced at the Second World Frisbee Championships at the Rose Bowl; this event introduced ultimate on the west coast of the USA. In 1975, ultimate was introduced at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto as a showcase event. Ultimate league play in Canada began in Toronto in 1979; the Toronto Ultimate Club is one of ultimate's oldest leagues. In January 1977 Wham-O introduced the World Class "80 Mold" 165 gram frisbee; this disc replaced the light and flimsy Master frisbee with much improved stability and consistency of throws in windy conditions. Throws like the flick and hammer were possible with greater control and accuracy with this sturdier disc; the 80 Mold was used in Ultimate tournaments after it was discontinued in 1983. Discraft, founded in the late 1970s by Jim Kenner in London, Ontario moved the company from Canada to its present location in Wixom, Michigan.
Discraft introduced the Ultrastar 175 gram disc in 1981, with an updated mold in 1983. This disc was adopted as the standard for ultimate during the 1980s, with Wham-O holdouts frustrated by the discontinuation of the
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure