IGN is an American video game and entertainment media website operated by IGN Entertainment Inc. a subsidiary of Ziff Davis, itself wholly owned by j2 Global. The company is located in San Francisco's SOMA district and is headed by its former editor-in-chief, Peer Schneider; the IGN website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29, 1996. It focuses on games, television, comics and other media. A network of desktop websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, via YouTube, Twitch and Snapchat. IGN was the flagship website of IGN Entertainment, a website which owned and operated several other websites oriented towards players' interests and entertainment, such as Rotten Tomatoes, GameSpy, GameStats, VE3D, TeamXbox, Vault Network, FilePlanet, AskMen, among others. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a j2 Global subsidiary. Created in September 1996 as the Imagine Games Network, the IGN content network was founded by publishing executive Jonathan Simpson-Bint and began as five individual websites within Imagine Media: N64.com, PSXPower, Next-Generation.com and Ultra Game Players Online.
Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating an affiliate network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation.com, Sega-Saturn.com, Game Sages, GameFAQs. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand; the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation. G. P. O. Dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, Next-Generation was put "on hold" when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand. In February 1999, PC Magazine named IGN one of the hundred-best websites, alongside competitors GameSpot and CNET Gamecenter; that same month, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its affiliate channels as Affiliation Networks, while Simpson-Bint remained at the former company. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball.com.
At the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball shed most of its other properties during the dot-com bubble. IGN prevailed with growing audience numbers and a newly established subscription service called IGN Insider, which led to the shedding of the name "Snowball" and adoption of IGN Entertainment on May 10, 2002. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site. IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdoch's multi-media business empire, News Corporation, for $650 million. IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12, 2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, until it relocated to a smaller office building near AT&T Park in San Francisco on March 29, 2010. On May 25, 2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount.
In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation. News Corp. planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had acquired. On February 4, 2013, after a failed attempt to spin off IGN as a separate company, News Corp. announced that it had sold IGN Entertainment to the publishing company Ziff Davis, acquired by J2 Global. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed. Prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP.com had been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP.com, UGO in order to focus on its flagship brands, IGN.com and AskMen. The role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review aggregation website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a "GPM" rating system which incorporates an average press score and average gamer score, as well as the number of page hits for the game.
However, the site is no longer being updated. The Xbox interest site, TeamXbox, the PC game website VE3D were acquired in 2003. IGN Entertainment merged with GameSpy Industries in 2005; the merger brought the game download site FilePlanet into the IGN group. IGN Entertainment acquired the online male lifestyle magazine AskMen.com in 2005. In 2004, IGN acquired film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes and in 2010, sold the website to Flixster. In October 2017, Humble Bundle announced that it was being acquired by IGN. A member of the IGN staff writes a review for a game and gives it a score between 0.1 and 10.0, assigned by increments of 0.1 and determines how much the game is recommended. The score is given according to the "individual aspects of a game, like presentation, sound and lasting appeal." Each game is given a score in each of these categories, but the overall score for the game is an independent evaluation, not an average of the scores in each category. On August 3, 2010, IGN announced.
Instead of a 100-point s
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Disciples III: Renaissance
Disciples III: Renaissance is a turn-based strategy video game. The game was published by Akella and Kalypso Media; the project was in development since the summer of 2005. The player assumes the role of one of the lords of Nevendaar; this new episode contains three playable races,'The Empire','The Legions of the Damned' and the'Elven Alliance', with the remaining factions making an addition in planned expansions. The battle system is different from that of previous Disciples games. Units are able to make use of terrain for fortifications; the player's hero is customizable. His abilities as well as his armor and weapons can be changed. All of the equipment changes are noticeable on the actual character model. Disciples III: Renaissance uses.dat's in-house Virtual Dream engine. The Highfather has turned away from the land of its inhabitants, his mind is occupied with the coming fate of his world. During this time, a star is seen as a sign by the people. Wise men and prophets attempt to solve its mystery, while humans and demons send their own heroes to find it.
Bethrezen above all others wishes to use its power as his own. Thus begins the journey of the mysterious messenger from the heavens named Inoele, she becomes a symbol of hope for many inhabitants of Nevendaar. While traveling the world with representatives of three ancient races, Inoele begins to experience emotions unknown to her, her soul begins to thaw, in her heart grows love for the strange, but beautiful world of Nevendaar. The Russian-language version of Disciples III: Resurrection was released featuring the'Undead Hordes' faction, it is available in gift pack and deluxe editions. The English version was released in Europe on October 7, 2011, in North America on February 7, 2012. Another iteration, Disciples III: Reincarnation, is an updated version containing both the main game and expansion, featuring a new game engine and added content; the Russian version was released on April 11, 2012, while the English version was released via Steam on February 14, 2014. The game received more "mixed" reviews than the first two original Disciples games according to the review aggregation website Metacritic.
Game Revolution gave it an F, but due to the reports of the game crashing that were proven to be false, the grading has since been raised to a D. The Resurrection expansion pack received "mixed" reviews, albeit a little more positive than the original Disciples III, according to Metacritic; the Reincarnation expansion pack received "average" reviews according to Metacritic. Official website at the Wayback Machine Disciples III: Renaissance at Akella Disciples III: Renaissance at MobyGames Disciples III: Resurrection at MobyGames Disciples III: Reincarnation at MobyGames
Tactical role-playing game
Tactical role-playing games are a genre of video game which incorporates elements of traditional role-playing video games with that of tactical games, emphasizing tactics rather than high-level strategy. The format of a tactical RPG video game is much like a traditional tabletop role-playing game in its appearance and rule structure. Early tabletop role-playing games are descended from skirmish wargames like Chainmail, which were concerned with combat; this subgenre of role-playing video games principally refers to games which incorporate elements from strategy video games as an alternative to traditional role-playing game systems. Like standard RPGs, the player controls a finite party and battles a similar number of enemies, and like other RPGs, death is temporary. But this genre incorporates strategic gameplay such as tactical movement on an isometric grid. Unlike traditional RPGs which are traditionally single-player, some tactical RPGs feature multiplayer play, such as Final Fantasy Tactics.
A distinct difference between tactical RPGs and traditional RPGs is the lack of exploration. In Final Fantasy Tactics, instead of exploration, there is an emphasis on battle strategy. Players are able to build and train characters to use in battle, utilizing different classes, including warriors and magic users, depending on the game. Characters gain experience points from battle and grow stronger, are awarded secondary experience points which can be used to advance in specific character classes. Battles have specific winning conditions, such as defeating all enemies or surviving a certain number of turns, that the player must accomplish before the next map will become available. In between battles, players can access their characters to equip them, change classes, train them, depending on the game. A number of early role-playing video games used a tactical form of combat, such as Tunnels of Doom and Ultima III: Exodus, as well as The Dragon and Princess and Bokosuka Wars, which introduced party-based, tiled combat to America and Japan, respectively.
Further, tactical RPGs are descendents of tabletop role-playing games and wargames, such as Dungeons & Dragons and Chainmail, which were tactical in their original form. Much of the development of tactical RPGs has diverged on each side of the Pacific, the term "tactical RPG" is sometimes reserved only for those titles that were created in Japan. One of the earliest Japanese RPGs, Koei's The Dragon and Princess, released NEC's PC-8001 home computer platform in 1982; this game can be considered a precursor to the tactical RPG genre. It used a combat system where, following a random encounter, the game transitioned to a separate, overhead battle screen, tactical turn-based combat ensued; that same year, in 1982, Tunnels of Doom used a similar combat system. During the 8-bit era, Bokosuka Wars, a computer game developed by Koji Sumii for the Sharp X1 in 1983 and ported to the Nintendo Entertainment System by ASCII in 1985, was responsible for laying the foundations for the tactical RPG genre, or "simulation RPG" genre as it is known in Japan, with its blend of role-playing and strategy game elements.
The game revolves around a king who must recruit soldiers and lead his army against overwhelming enemy forces, while each unit gains experience and levels up along the way. It is considered to be an early prototype real-time strategy game. Another notable early example of the genre was Kure Software Koubou's 1988 PC-8801 strategy RPG, Silver Ghost, cited by Camelot Software Planning's Hiroyuki Takahashi as inspiration for the Shining series of tactical RPGs. According to Takahashi, Silver Ghost was "a simulation action type of game where you had to direct and command multiple characters." Unlike tactical RPGs, Silver Ghost was not turn-based, but instead used real-time strategy and action role-playing game elements. It featured a point-and-click interface, to control the characters using a cursor. A similar game released by Kure Software Koubo that same year was First Queen, a unique hybrid between a real-time strategy, action RPG, strategy RPG. Like an RPG, the player can explore the world, purchase items, level up, like a strategy video game, it focuses on recruiting soldiers and fighting against large armies rather than small parties.
The game's "Gochyakyara" system let the player control one character at a time while the others are controlled by computer AI that follow the leader, where battles are large-scale with characters sometimes filling an entire screen. Master of Monsters, developed by SystemSoft and released in 1989 for the MSX2, added fantasy characters and magic attacks to the gameplay of the wartime combat Daisenryaku series, which had instead opted for tanks and other vehicles of real-world modern combat. Master of Monsters added experience bars for the character units, a concept which would be adapted and popularized by console-based series like Fire Emblem. Unlike many other early titles in the genre, Master of Monsters made its way to the west via a port to the Sega Genesis in 1991, albeit only in North America. However, the genre did not become prolific until Nintendo published the game that set the template for tactical wargame RPGs, Fire Emblem: Ankoku Ryū to Hikari no Tsurugi. Developed by Intelligent Systems and released in Japan for the Nintendo Famicom in 1990, Fire Emblem would become an archetype for the whole genre, establishing gameplay elements that are still used in
A turn-based strategy game is a strategy game where players take turns when playing. This is distinguished from real-time strategy. Many board games are turn based, such as chess, checkers, Hare games, Go, as well as many modern board games. Turn-based tactical game-play is characterized by the expectation of players to complete their tasks by using the combat forces provided to them, by the provision of a realistic representation of military tactics and operations. Tactical role-playing games are a part of this genre. Examples include Fire Emblem, The Battle for Wesnoth, Silent Storm, Steel Panthers: World at War!, King's Bounty, Great Big War Game, Nintendo Wars, UniWar, XCOM 2 and Chessaria: The Tactical Adventure. After a period of converting board and historic TBS games to computer games, companies began basing computer turn-based strategy games on original properties or concepts; the presence of a computer to calculate and arbitrate allows game complexity, not feasible in a traditional board game.
Some well known turn-based strategy games are Final Fantasy series, Sid Meier's Civilization series, Heroes of Might and Magic series, Panzer General series and Age of Wonders series. A further market trend is the rise of "Indie" TBS games; these games extend or refine existing TBS strategy games. Examples include Golden Age of Civilizations. Since turn-based strategy games do not require vast amounts of art or modeling, developers willing to volunteer their time can focus on gameplay. Directories like Freecode provide large lists of turn-based strategy projects. Online browser-based games do not require users to install files and are free; the Hex Empire set of games is a good example of browser-based games in this genre. List of turn-based strategy video games Time-keeping systems in games Real-time strategy
The undead are beings in mythology, legend, or fiction that are deceased but behave as if they were alive. A common example of an undead being is a corpse reanimated by supernatural forces, by the application of either the deceased's own life force or that of another being; the undead may corporeal like vampires and zombies. The undead are featured in the belief systems of most cultures, appear in many works of fantasy and horror fiction; the term is occasionally used for putative non-supernatural cases of re-animation, from early experiments like Robert E. Cornish's to future sciences such as chemical brain preservation and cryonics. Bram Stoker considered using the title, The Un-Dead, for his novel Dracula, use of the term in the novel is responsible for the modern sense of the word; the word does appear in English before Stoker but with the more literal sense of "alive" or "not dead", for which citations can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary. In one passage, Nosferatu is given as an "Eastern European" synonym for "un-dead".
Stoker's use of the term "undead" refers only to vampires. Most it is now taken to refer to supernatural beings which had at one point been alive and continue to display some aspects of life after death, but the usage is variable. In Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, Van Helsing describes the Un-Dead as the following: ‘Before we do any-thing, let me tell you this, it is out of the lore and experience of the ancients and of all those who have studied the powers of the UnDead. When they become such, there comes with the change the curse of immortality, they cannot die, but must go on age after age adding new victims and multiply-ing the evils of the world. For all that die from the preying of the Undead become themselves Undead, prey on their kind, and so the circle goes on widening, like as the ripples from a stone thrown in the water... But of the most blessed of all, when this now UnDead be made to rest as true dead the soul of the poor lady whom we love shall again be free. Instead of working wickedness by night and growing more debased in the assimilating of it by day, she shall take her place with the other Angels.
So that, my friend, it will be a blessed hand for her. Other notable 19th-century stories about the avenging undead included Ambrose Bierce's The Death of Halpin Frayser, various Gothic Romanticism tales by Edgar Allan Poe. Though their works could not be properly considered zombie fiction, the supernatural tales of Bierce and Poe would prove influential on writers such as H. P. Lovecraft, by Lovecraft's own admission. In the Harry Potter series, Lord Voldemort uses reanimated dead bodies that are placed under his control by his dark magic powers as his guardians, they are known as Inferi. Banshee Ghost, Phantom, or Spectre Grim reaper Poltergeist Shadow person Wraith Draugr Ghoul Jiangshi Lich Mummy Revenant Skeleton Vampire Wight Zombie Afterlife Death Ghost story Ghouls in popular culture Grógaldr Immortality Jiangshi fiction Necromancy Philosophical zombie Resurrection True death Vampire fiction Völuspá Werewolf fiction Zombie
A demon is a supernatural and malevolent being prevalent in religion, literature, fiction and folklore. The original Greek word daimon does not carry negative connotations; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. In Ancient Near Eastern religions and in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered a harmful spiritual entity which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology, a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. Daimōn most came from the Greek verb daiesthai.
The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. To distinguish the classical Greek concept from its Christian interpretation, the former is anglicized as either daemon or daimon rather than demon; the original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation understood by implementation of the Koine δαιμόνιον, ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root. The Greek terms do not have any connotations of malevolence. In fact, εὐδαιμονία eudaimonia, means happiness. By the early Roman Empire, cult statues were seen, by pagans and their Christian neighbors alike, as inhabited by the numinous presence of the gods: "Like pagans, Christians still sensed and saw the gods and their power, as something, they had to assume, lay behind it, by an easy traditional shift of opinion they turned these pagan daimones into malevolent'demons', the troupe of Satan..... Far into the Byzantine period Christians eyed their cities' old pagan statuary as a seat of the demons' presence.
It was no longer beautiful, it was infested." The term had first acquired its negative connotations in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which drew on the mythology of ancient Semitic religions. This was inherited by the Koine text of the New Testament; the Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a demon derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late Antiquity. The Hellenistic "daemon" came to include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by Christianity; the supposed existence of demons remains an important concept in many modern religions and occultist traditions. Demons are still feared due to their alleged power to possess living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist tradition, a demon is a useful metaphor for certain inner psychological processes, though some may regard it as an objectively real phenomenon; some scholars believe that large portions of the demonology of Judaism, a key influence on Christianity and Islam, originated from a form of Zoroastrianism, were transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.
Both deities and demons can act as intermediaries to deliver messages to humans. Thus they share some resemblance to the Greek daimonion; the exact definition of "demon" in Egyptology posed a major problem for modern scholarship, since the borders between a deity and a demon are sometimes blurred and the ancient Egyptian language lacks a term for the modern English "demon". However, magical writings indicate that ancient Egyptians acknowledged the existence of malevolent demons by highlighting the demon names with red ink. Demons in this culture appeared to be subordinative and related to a specific deity, yet they may have acted independent from the divine will; the existence of demons can be related beyond the created world. But this negative connotation cannot be denied in light of the magical texts; the role of demons in relation to the human world remains ambivalent and depends on context. Ancient Egyptian demons can be divided into two classes: "guardians" and "wanderers." "Guardians" are tied to a specific place.
Demons protecting the underworld may prevent human souls from entering paradise. Only by knowing right charms is the deceased able to enter the Halls of Osiris. Here, the aggressive nature of the guardian demons is motivated by the need to protect their abodes and not by their evil essence. Accordingly, demons guarded the gates to the netherworld. During the Ptolemaic and Roman period, the guardians shifted towards the role of Genius loci and they were the focus of local and private cults; the "wanderers" are associated with possession, mental illness and plagues. Many of them serve as executioners for the major deities, such as Ra or Osiris, when ordered to punish humans on earth or in the netherworld. Wanderers can be agents of chaos, arising from the world beyond creation to bring about misfortune and suffering without any divine instructions, led only by evil motivations; the influences of the wanderers can be warded off and kept at the borders on the human world by the use of magic, but they can never be destroyed.
A sub-category of "wanderers" are nightmare demons, which were believed to ca