Social change involves alteration of the social order of a society. It may include changes in social behaviours or social relations. Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by evolutionary means, it may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Accordingly, it may refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement. Social change may be driven by cultural, economic, scientific or technological forces. Change comes from two sources. One source is random or unique factors such as climate, weather, or the presence of specific groups of people. Another source is systematic factors. For example, successful development has the same general requirements, such as a stable and flexible government, enough free and available resources, a diverse social organization of society.
On the whole, social change is a combination of systematic factors along with some random or unique factors. There are many theories of social change. A theory of change should include elements such as structural aspects of change and mechanisms of social change, directions of change. Hegelian: The classic Hegelian dialectic model of change is based on the interaction of opposing forces. Starting from a point of momentary stasis, Thesis countered by Antithesis first yields conflict it subsequently results in a new Synthesis. Marxist: Marxism presents a dialectical and materialist concept of history. Kuhnian: The philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn argues in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions with respect to the Copernican Revolution that people are to continue utilizing an unworkable paradigm until a better paradigm is accepted. Heraclitan: The Greek philosopher Heraclitus used the metaphor of a river to speak of change thus, "On those stepping into rivers staying the same other and other waters flow".
What Heraclitus seems to be suggesting here interpretations notwithstanding, is that, in order for the river to remain the river, change must be taking place. Thus one may think of the Heraclitan model as parallel to that of a living organism, which, in order to remain alive, must be changing. A contemporary application of this approach is shown in the social change theory SEED-SCALE which builds off of the complexity theory subfield of Emergence. Daoist: The Chinese philosophical work Dao De Jing, I.8 and II.78 uses the metaphor of water as the ideal agent of change. Water, although soft and yielding, will wear away stone. Change in this model is to be natural and steady, albeit imperceptible. One of the most obvious changes occurring is the change in the relative global population distribution between countries. In the recent decades, developing countries became a larger proportion of world population, increasing from 68% in 1950 to 82% in 2010, while population of the developed countries has declined from 32% of total world population in 1950 to 18% in 2010.
China and India continue to be the largest countries, followed by the US as a distant third. However, population growth throughout the world is slowing. Population growth among developed countries has been slowing since the 1950s, is now at 0.3% annual growth. Population growth among the less developed countries excluding the least developed has been slowing, since 1960, is now at 1.3% annual growth. Population growth among the least developed countries has slowed little, is the highest at 2.7% annual growth. In much of the developed world, changes from distinct men's work and women's work to more gender equal patterns have been economically important since the mid-20th century. Both men and women are considered to be great contributors to social change worldwide. Eisenstadt, SN. Tradition and Modernity. Krieger Publishing. Giddens, Anthony. Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press. Haralambos and Holborn, Martin. Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0007245955 Harper, CL. Exploring Social Change.
New Jersey: Engelwood Cliffs. Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W.. "The Role of Developmental Psychology to Understanding History and Social Change". Journal of Social Sciences. 10: 185–195. Doi:10.3844/jssp.2014.185.195. Polanyi, Karl.. The Great Transformation. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. Tilly, Charles.. "Misreading Rereading, Nineteenth-Century Social Change." Pp. 332–58 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, eds. Barry Wellman and S. D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tilly, Charles.. Social Movements, 1768-2004. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers. ISBN 1-59451-043-1. Vago, Steven.. Social Change, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-679416-5. Understanding The World Today – Reports about global social, economic and technological change. Social Change Collection from Georgia State University
A social movement is a type of group action. There is no single consensus definition of a social movement, they are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they resist, or undo a social change, they provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations. Social movements can be defined as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new political parties as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to agenda setting and influence on politics. Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work, type of change and timeframe.
Modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th-century societies. It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern Western culture are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Social movements have been and continue to be connected with democratic political systems. Social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, but more they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a global expression of dissent. Modern movements utilize technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U.
S. and Canada use social media to facilitate collective action. The systematic literature review of Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of social movements. Mario Diani argues that nearly all definitions share three criteria: "a network of informal interactions between a plurality of individuals, groups and/or organizations, engaged in a political or cultural conflict, on the basis of a shared collective identity" Sociologist Charles Tilly defines social movements as a series of contentious performances and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics, he argues that there are three major elements to a social movement: Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as "collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites and authorities."
He distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. The sociologists John McCarthy and Mayer Zald define as a social movement as "a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society." According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of ‘coming together’: the formation of some kind of collective identity. Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose; the early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure John Wilkes.
As editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the L
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from sensory experience, interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive source of all certain knowledge. Positivism holds. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence. Positivism holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected, as are metaphysics and theology because metaphysical and theological claims cannot be verified by sense experience. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of western thought, the modern approach was formulated by the philosopher Auguste Comte in the early 19th century. Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so does society, further developed positivism into a Religion of Humanity; the English noun positivism was re-imported in the 19th century from the French word positivisme, derived from positif in its philosophical sense of'imposed on the mind by experience'.
The corresponding adjective has been used in a similar sense to discuss law since the time of Chaucer. Positivism is part of a more general ancient quarrel between philosophy and poetry, notably laid out by Plato and reformulated as a quarrel between the sciences and the humanities, Plato elaborates a critique of poetry from the point of view of philosophy in his dialogues Phaedrus 245a, Symposium 209a, Republic 398a, Laws 817 b-d and Ion. Wilhelm Dilthey popularized the distinction between Geisteswissenschaft and Naturwissenschaften; the consideration that laws in physics may not be absolute but relative, and, if so, this might be more true of social sciences, was stated, in different terms, by G. B. Vico in 1725. Vico, in contrast to the positivist movement, asserted the superiority of the science of the human mind, on the grounds that natural sciences tell us nothing about the inward aspects of things. Positivism asserts that all authentic knowledge allows verification and that all authentic knowledge assumes that the only valid knowledge is scientific.
Thinkers such as Henri de Saint-Simon, Pierre-Simon Laplace and Auguste Comte believed the scientific method, the circular dependence of theory and observation, must replace metaphysics in the history of thought. Émile Durkheim reformulated sociological positivism as a foundation of social research. Wilhelm Dilthey, in contrast, fought strenuously against the assumption that only explanations derived from science are valid, he reprised the argument found in Vico, that scientific explanations do not reach the inner nature of phenomena and it is humanistic knowledge that gives us insight into thoughts and desires. Dilthey was in part influenced by the historicism of Leopold von Ranke. At the turn of the 20th century the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, rejected the doctrine, thus founding the antipositivist tradition in sociology. Antipositivists and critical theorists have associated positivism with "scientism". In his career, German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg, Nobel laureate for pioneering work in quantum mechanics, distanced himself from positivism by saying: The positivists have a simple solution: the world must be divided into that which we can say and the rest, which we had better pass over in silence.
But can any one conceive of a more pointless philosophy, seeing that what we can say amounts to next to nothing? If we omitted all, unclear we would be left with uninteresting and trivial tautologies. In the early 20th century, logical positivism—a descendant of Comte's basic thesis but an independent movement—sprang up in Vienna and grew to become one of the dominant schools in Anglo-American philosophy and the analytic tradition. Logical positivists rejected metaphysical speculation and attempted to reduce statements and propositions to pure logic. Strong critiques of this approach by philosophers such as Karl Popper, Willard Van Orman Quine and Thomas Kuhn have been influential, led to the development of postpositivism. In historiography the debate on positivism has been characterized by the quarrel between positivism and historicism. Arguments against positivist approaches in historiography include that history differs from sciences like physics and ethology in subject matter and method.
That much of what history studies is nonquantifiable, therefore to quantify is to lose in precision. Experimental methods and mathematical models do not apply to history, it is not possible to formulate general laws in history. Positivism in the social sciences is characterized by quantitative approaches and the proposition of quasi-absolute laws. A significant exception to this trend is represented by cultural anthropology, which tends toward qualitative approaches. In psychology the positivist movement was influential in the development of operationalism; the 1927 philosophy of science book The Logic of Modern Physics in particular, intended for physicists, coined the term operational definition, which went on to dominate psychological method for the whole century. In economics, practising researc
Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, management, control and prevention of criminal behavior, both on individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, which draws upon the research of sociologists, philosophers, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law; the term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminologie. From 1900 through to 2000 the study underwent three significant phases in the United States: Golden Age of Research -which has been described as a multiple-factor approach, Golden Age of Theory -which shows that there was no systematic way of connecting criminological research to theory, a 1960-2000 period-which was seen as a significant turning point for criminology. In the mid-18th century, criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime and concepts of law.
Over time, several schools of thought have developed. There were three main schools of thought in early criminological theory spanning the period from the mid-18th century to the mid-twentieth century: Classical and Chicago; these schools of thought were superseded by several contemporary paradigms of criminology, such as the sub-culture, strain, critical criminology, cultural criminology, postmodern criminology, feminist criminology and others discussed below. The Classical school has its basis in utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crimes and Punishments, Jeremy Bentham, other philosophers in this school argued: People have free will to choose how to act; the basis for deterrence is the idea humans are'hedonists' who seek pleasure and avoid pain and'rational calculators' who weigh the costs and benefits of every action. It ignores the possibility of irrationality and unconscious drives as'motivators'. Punishment can deter people from crime, as the costs outweigh benefits, severity of punishment should be proportionate to the crime.
The more swift and certain the punishment, the more effective as a deterrent to criminal behavior. This school developed during a major reform in penology when society began designing prisons for the sake of extreme punishment; this period saw many legal reforms, the French Revolution, the development of the legal system in the United States. The Positivist school argues criminal behavior comes from internal and external factors out of the individual's control. Philosophers within this school applied the scientific method to study human behavior. Positivism comprises three segments: biological and social positivism. Cesare Lombroso, an Italian sociologist working in the late 19th century, is called "the father of criminology." He was one of the key contributors to biological positivism and founded the Italian school of criminology. Lombroso took a scientific approach, he suggested physiological traits such as the measurements of cheekbones or hairline, or a cleft palate could indicate "atavistic" criminal tendencies.
This approach, whose influence came via the theory of phrenology and by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, has been superseded. Enrico Ferri, a student of Lombroso, believed social as well as biological factors played a role, believed criminals should not be held responsible when factors causing their criminality were beyond their control. Criminologists have since rejected Lombroso's biological theories since control groups were not used in his studies. Sociological positivism suggests societal factors such as poverty, membership of subcultures, or low levels of education can predispose people to crime. Adolphe Quetelet used data and statistical analysis to study the relationship between crime and sociological factors, he found age, poverty and alcohol consumption were important factors to crime. Lance Lochner performed three different research experiments, each one proving education reduces crime. Rawson W. Rawson used crime statistics to suggest a link between population density and crime rates, with crowded cities producing more crime.
Joseph Fletcher and John Glyde read papers to the Statistical Society of London on their studies of crime and its distribution. Henry Mayhew used empirical methods and an ethnographic approach to address social questions and poverty, gave his studies in London Labour and the London Poor. Émile Durkheim viewed crime as an inevitable aspect of a society with uneven distribution of wealth and other differences among people. Differential association posits; this theory was advocated by Edwin Sutherland. These acts may justify crime under specific circumstances. Interacting with antisocial peers is a major cause. Reinforcing criminal behavior makes it chronic. Where there are criminal subcultures, many individuals learn crime, crime rates swell in those areas; the Chicago school arose in the early twentieth century, through the work of Robert E. Park, Ernest Burgess, other urban sociologists at the University of Chicago. In the 1920s, Park and Burgess identified five concentric zones that exist as cities grow, including the "zone of transition", identified as the most volatile and subject to disorder.
In the 1940s, Hen
History of sociology
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged out of the Enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge. Social analysis in a broader sense, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and pre-dates the field. Modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, urbanization, secularization and imperialism. Late-19th-century sociology demonstrated a strong interest in the emergence of the modern nation state. An emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the Enlightenment distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy. Various quantitative social research techniques have become common tools for governments and organizations, have found use in the other social sciences. Divorced from theoretical explanations of social dynamics, this has given social research a degree of autonomy from the discipline of sociology.
"social science" has come to be appropriated as an umbrella term to refer to various disciplines which study humans, society or culture. The sociological reasoning may be traced back at least as far as the ancient Greeks. Proto-sociological observations are to be found in the founding texts of Western philosophy, as well as in the non-European thought of figures such as Confucius; the characteristic trends in the sociological thinking of the ancient Greeks can be traced back to their social environment. Because there was any extensive or centralized political organization within states this allowed the tribal spirit of localism and provincialism to have free play; this tribal spirit of localism and provincialism pervaded most of the Greek thinking upon social phenomena. The origin of the survey can be traced back to the Domesday Book ordered by king William I in 1086. In the 13th century, Ma Tuan-Lin, a Chinese historian, first recognized patterns of social dynamics as an underlying component of historical development in his seminal encyclopedia, Wenxian Tongkao or "Comprehensive Examination of Literature".
There is evidence of early Muslim sociology from the 14th century. Some consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Tunisian, Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, the introduction to a seven volume analysis of universal history, was the first to advance social philosophy and social science in formulating theories of social cohesion and social conflict, he is thus considered by some to be the forerunner of sociology. Concerning the discipline of sociology, he conceived a dynamic theory of history that involved conceptualizations of social conflict and social change, he developed the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the concept of a "generation", the inevitable loss of power that occurs when desert warriors conquer a city. Following a contemporary Arab scholar, Sati' al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work: six books of general sociology. Topics dealt with in this work include politics, urban life and knowledge.
The work is based around Ibn Khaldun's central concept of'asabiyyah, translated as "social cohesion", "group solidarity", or "tribalism". This social cohesion arises spontaneously in other small kinship groups. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds – psychological, economic, political – of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger cohesion; the term was first coined by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, from the Latin: socius, "companion". In 1838, the French-thinker Auguste Comte gave sociology the definition that it holds today. Comte had earlier expressed his work as "social physics", but that term had been appropriated by others, such as Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Saint-Simon published Physiologie sociale in 1813 and devoted much of his time to the prospect that human society could be steered toward progress if scientists would form an international assembly to influence its course.
He argued that scientists could distract groups from war and strife, by focusing their attention to improving their societies living conditions. In turn, this would prevent conflict. Saint-Simon took the idea that everyone had encouraged from the Enlightenment, the belief in science, spun it to be more practical and hands-on for the society. Saint-Simon's main idea was, he saw that people had been seeing progress as an approach for science, but he wanted them to see it as an approach to all aspects of life. Society was making a crucial change at the time; this new path could provide the basis for solving all the old problems society had encountered. He was more concerned with the participation of
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
Bibliography of sociology
This bibliography of sociology is a list of works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of sociology. Some of the works are selected from general anthologies of sociology. Sociology studies society using various methods of empirical investigation to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure. Comte, Auguste. Discours sur l'ensemble du positivisme. Translated by J. H. Bridges. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-00064-2. Marx, Karl; the German Ideology. Including Theses on Feuerbach and introduction to The critique of political economy. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-258-6. Marx, Karl. Das Kapital. Gardners Books. ISBN 978-1-934568-43-9. Weber, Max. Die protestantische Ethik und der'Geist' des Kapitalismus. Translated by Peter Baehr. Wells. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-043921-2. Puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism; however religious devotion was accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs including economic pursuit.
Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses that paradox in that work. Durkheim, Emile. De La Division Du Travail Social. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83638-6. —. Le Suicide; the Free Press. ISBN 0-684-83632-7. A case study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Jewish populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy. A major contribution to structural functionalism.—. Cladis, Mark S. ed. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Translated by Carol Cosman. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954012-9. —. Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique. Transl. by W. D. Halls with an introduction by Steven Lukes. New York, N. Y.: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-907940-9. Demography is the statistical study of human population, it encompasses the study of the size and distribution of these populations, spatial and/or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration and death. Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population with A Summary View, Introduction by Professor Antony Flew.
Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-043206-X. Gunnar Myrdal and Alva Myrdal. Crisis in the Population Question Economic sociology attempts to explain economic phenomena, it concentrates on the roles of social relations and institutions. Tocqueville, Alexis De. Zunz, Olivier, ed. Democracy in America. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer; the Library of America. ISBN 1-931082-54-5. —. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Translated by Stuart Gilbert. New York: Anchor Books. Durkheim, Emile. De La Division Du Travail Social. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-83638-6. Simmel, George; the Philosophy of Money. Translated by David Frisby. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-34172-1. Weber, Max. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press. Polanyi, Karl; the Great Transformation: the political and economic origins of our time. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-5643-1. Hirschman, Albert O. "Rival Interpretations of Market Society: Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble?". Journal of Economic Literature. 20: 1463–1484. Granovetter, Mark.
"Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness". The American Journal of Sociology. 91: 481–510. Doi:10.1086/228311. White, Harrison C. 2002. Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton: Princeton University Press Smelser and Richard Swedberg. 2005. The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Boltanski, Luc; the New Spirit of Capitalism. Verso. Boltanski, Luc. On Justification; the Economies of Worth. Princeton University Press. Industrial sociology is the sociology of technological change, labor markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations. Daniel Bell The Coming of Post-Industrial Society Harry Braverman Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century Michael Burawoy Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Monopoly Capitalism Ronald P. Dore British factory, Japanese factory. Hannigan, John A.. Environmental sociology: a social constructionist perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-11255-0.
Argues that a society's willingness to recognize and solve environmental problems depends more upon the way these claims are presented by a limited number of interest groups than upon the severity of the threat they pose. Schnaiberg, Alan. Environment and society: the enduring conflict. Caldwell, NJ: Blackburn. ISBN 1-930665-00-8