Irreducible complexity involves the idea that certain biological systems cannot evolve by successive small modifications to pre-existing functional systems through natural selection. Irreducible complexity has become central to the creationist concept of intelligent design, but the scientific community, which regards intelligent design as pseudoscience, rejects the concept of irreducible complexity. Irreducible complexity is one of two main arguments used by intelligent-design proponents, alongside specified complexity. Creation science presented the theological argument from design with assertions that evolution could not explain complex molecular mechanisms, in 1993 Michael Behe, a professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University, presented these arguments in a revised version of the school textbook Of Pandas and People. In his 1996 book Darwin's Black Box he called this concept irreducible complexity and said it made evolution through natural selection of random mutations impossible; this was based on the mistaken assumption that evolution relies on improvement of existing functions, ignoring how complex adaptations originate from changes in function, disregarding published research.
Evolutionary biologists have published rebuttals showing how systems discussed by Behe can evolve, examples documented through comparative genomics show that complex molecular systems are formed by the addition of components as revealed by different temporal origins of their proteins. In the 2005 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial, Behe gave testimony on the subject of irreducible complexity; the court found that "Professor Behe's claim for irreducible complexity has been refuted in peer-reviewed research papers and has been rejected by the scientific community at large." Michael Behe defined irreducible complexity in natural selection in his book Darwin's Black Box:... a single system, composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, where the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to cease functioning. A second definition given by Behe is as follows: An irreducibly complex evolutionary pathway is one that contains one or more unselected steps.
The degree of irreducible complexity is the number of unselected steps in the pathway. Intelligent design advocate William A. Dembski gives this definition: A system performing a given basic function is irreducibly complex if it includes a set of well-matched, mutually interacting, nonarbitrarily individuated parts such that each part in the set is indispensable to maintaining the system's basic, therefore original, function; the set of these indispensable parts is known as the irreducible core of the system. The argument from irreducible complexity is a descendant of the teleological argument for God; this states that because certain things in nature appear complicated, they must have been designed. William Paley famously argued, in his 1802 watchmaker analogy, that complexity in nature implies a God for the same reason that the existence of a watch implies the existence of a watchmaker; this argument has a long history, one can trace it back at least as far as Cicero's De Natura Deorum ii.34, written in 45 BC.
Galen wrote about the large number of parts of the body and their relationships, which observation was cited as evidence for creation. The idea that the interdependence between parts would have implications for the origins of living things was raised by writers starting with Pierre Gassendi in the mid-17th century and by John Wilkins, who wrote, "Now to imagine, that all these things, according to their several kinds, could be brought into this regular frame and order, to which such an infinite number of Intentions are required, without the contrivance of some wise Agent, must needs be irrational in the highest degree." In the late 17th-century, Thomas Burnet referred to "a multitude of pieces aptly joyn'd" to argue against the eternity of life. In the early 18th century, Nicolas Malebranche wrote "An organized body contains an infinity of parts that mutually depend upon one another in relation to particular ends, all of which must be formed in order to work as a whole", arguing in favor of preformation, rather than epigenesis, of the individual.
In his 1790 book, The Critique of Judgment, Kant is said by Guyer to argue that "we cannot conceive how a whole that comes into being only from its parts can be the cause of the properties of those parts". Chapter XV of Paley's Natural Theology discusses at length what he called "relations" of parts of living things as an indication of their design. Georges Cuvier applied his principle of the correlation of parts to describe an animal from fragmentary remains. For Cuvier, this related to another principle of his, the conditions of existence, which excluded the possibility of transmutation of species. While he did not originate the term, Charles Darwin identified the argument as a possible way to falsify a prediction of the theory of evolution at the outset. In The Origin of Species, he wrote, "If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not have been formed by numerous, slight modifications, my theory would break down, but I can find out no such case." Darwin's theory of evolution challenges the teleological argument by postulating an alternative explanation to that of an intelligent designer—namely, evolution by natural selection.
By showing how simple unintelligent forces can ratchet up designs of
Conservatism in the United States
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States, characterized by respect for American traditions, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral universalism, anti-communism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism and moral relativism. Liberty is a core value. American conservatives consider individual liberty—within the bounds of American values—as the fundamental trait of democracy. American conservatives believe in limiting government in size and scope, in a balance between national government and states' rights. Apart from some libertarians, they tend to favor strong action in areas they believe to be within government's legitimate jurisdiction national defense and law enforcement. Social conservatives oppose abortion and favor restricting LGBT rights, while privileging traditional marriage and allowing voluntary school prayer. American conservatism, like most American political ideologies, originates from republicanism, which rejected aristocratic and monarchical government and upheld the principles of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Conservative philosophy is derived in part from the classical liberal tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, which advocated for laissez-faire economics. Historians such as Patrick Allitt and political theorists such as Russell Kirk argue that the conservative tradition has played a major role in American politics and culture since 1776. However, they stress that an organized conservative movement with beliefs that differ from those of other American political parties has played a key role in politics only since the 1950s; the recent movement is based in the Republican Party, however some Southern Democrats were important figures early in the movement's history regarding crime control and labor unions, though most Southern Democrats were liberal. The history of American conservatism has been marked by competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small government, laissez-faire economy, low income and corporate taxes, limited regulation, free enterprise. Social conservatives see traditional social values.
Neoconservatives want to expand. Paleoconservatives advocate restrictions on immigration, non-interventionist foreign policy, opposition to multiculturalism. Most conservative factions nationwide, except some libertarians, support a unilateral foreign policy, a strong military. Most libertarians, support gun ownership rights, citing the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution; the conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of "godless communism."William F. Buckley Jr. in the first issue of his magazine National Review in 1955, explained the standards of his magazine and helped make explicit the beliefs of American conservatives: Among our convictions: It is the job of centralized government to protect its citizens' lives and property. All other activities of government tend to hamper progress; the growth of government must be fought relentlessly. In this great social conflict of the era, we are, on the libertarian side.
The profound crisis of our era is, in essence, the conflict between the Social Engineers, who seek to adjust mankind to scientific utopias, the disciples of Truth, who defend the organic moral order. We believe that truth is neither arrived at nor illuminated by monitoring election results, binding though these are for other purposes, but by other means, including a study of human experience. On this point we are, on the conservative side. According to Peter Viereck, American conservatism is distinctive because it was not tied to a monarchy, landed aristocracy, established church, or military elite. Instead American conservatives were rooted in American republicanism, which European conservatives opposed, they are committed, says Seymour Martin Lipset, to the belief in America's "superiority against the cold reactionary monarchical and more rigidly status-bound system of European society." Traditional conservatives tend to be anti-ideological, some would say anti-philosophical, promoting, as Russell Kirk explained, a steady flow of "prescription and prejudice".
Kirk's use of the word "prejudice" here is not intended to carry its contemporary pejorative connotation: a conservative himself, he believed that the inherited wisdom of the ages may be a better guide than rational individual judgment. There are two overlapping subgroups of social conservatives -- the religious. Traditional conservatives support traditional codes of conduct those they feel are threatened by social change and modernization. For example, traditional conservatives may oppose the use of female soldiers in combat. Religious conservatives focus on conducting society as pr
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 400 F. Supp. 2d 707 was the first direct challenge brought in the United States federal courts testing a public school district policy that required the teaching of intelligent design. In October 2004, the Dover Area School District of York County, Pennsylvania changed its biology teaching curriculum to require that intelligent design be presented as an alternative to evolution theory, that Of Pandas and People, a textbook advocating intelligent design, was to be used as a reference book; the prominence of this textbook during the trial was such that the case is sometimes referred to as the Dover Panda Trial, a name which recalls the popular name of the Scopes Monkey Trial in Tennessee, 80 years earlier. The plaintiffs argued that intelligent design is a form of creationism, that the school board policy violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution; the judge's decision sparked considerable response from both critics.
Eleven parents of students in Dover, York County, near the city of York, sued the Dover Area School District over the school board requirement that a statement presenting intelligent design as "an explanation of the origin of life that differs from Darwin's view" was to be read aloud in ninth-grade science classes when evolution was taught. The plaintiffs were represented by the American Civil Liberties Union, Americans United for Separation of Church and State and Pepper Hamilton LLP; the National Center for Science Education acted as consultants for the plaintiffs. The defendants were represented by the Thomas More Law Center; the Foundation for Thought and Ethics, publisher of Of Pandas and People, tried to join the lawsuit late as a defendant but was denied for multiple reasons. The suit was brought in the U. S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. Since it sought an equitable remedy, by the Seventh Amendment, right to a jury trial did not apply.
It was tried in a bench trial from September 26, 2005, to November 4, 2005, before Judge John E. Jones III, a Republican appointed in 2002 by George W. Bush. On December 20, 2005, Jones issued his 139-page findings of fact and decision ruling that the Dover mandate requiring the statement to be read in class was unconstitutional; the ruling concluded that intelligent design is not science, permanently barred the board from "maintaining the ID Policy in any school within the Dover Area School District, from requiring teachers to denigrate or disparage the scientific theory of evolution, from requiring teachers to refer to a religious, alternative theory known as ID." All eight of the Dover school board members who were up for re-election on November 8, 2005, were defeated by a set of challengers who opposed the teaching of intelligent design in a science class. The new school board president subsequently stated that the board did not intend to appeal the ruling. From 2002, William Buckingham and Alan Bonsell, members of the Dover Area School District Board of Education who were young earth creationists, had made various statements supporting teaching creationism alongside evolution.
At a board meeting on June 7, 2004, Buckingham mentioned creationism and raised objections to the proposed use of the textbook Biology written by Kenneth R. Miller and Joseph S. Levine, describing it as "laced with Darwinism" and saying it was "inexcusable to have a book that says man descended from apes with nothing to counterbalance it."This story made the York newspapers, Buckingham was telephoned by Discovery Institute staff attorney Seth Cooper, whose tasks included "communicating with legislators, school board members, teachers and students" to "address the topic of ID in a scientifically and educationally responsible way" in public schools. He stated that he made the call to "steer the Dover Board away from trying to include intelligent design in the classroom or from trying to insert creationism into its cirriculum ", an account Buckingham has disputed. Cooper sent the book and DVD of Icons of Evolution to Buckingham, who required the Dover High School science teachers to watch the DVD.
They did not take up the opportunity to use it in their classes. Cooper advised that the Discovery Institute was not offering legal advice, soon afterwards Buckingham contacted Richard Thompson of the Thomas More Law Center, who agreed to represent the Dover Board, recommended the book Of Pandas and People. On October 18, 2004, the school board voted 6–3 resolving that there were to be lectures on the subject, with Pandas as a reference book, that the following statement was to be added to their biology curriculum: "Students will be made aware of the gaps/problems in Darwin's theory and of other theories of evolution including, but not limited to, intelligent design. Note: Origins of life is not taught."On November 19, 2004, the Dover Area School District issued a press release stating that, commencing in January 2005, teachers would be required to read the following statement to students in the ninth-grade biology class at Dover High School: The Pennsylvania Academic Standards require students to learn about Darwin's theory of evolution and to take a standardized test of which evolution is a part.
Because Darwin's Theory is a theory, it is still being tested. The Theory is not a fact. Gaps in the Theory exist for. A theory is defined as a well-tested explanation. Intelligent design is an explanation of the origin of life; the reference book Of Pandas and People, is available for students t
Captain George Vancouver was a British officer of the Royal Navy best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of what are now the American states of Alaska and Oregon, as well as the province of British Columbia in Canada. He explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia. Vancouver Island and the city of Vancouver, British Columbia are named for him, as is Vancouver, Washington. Mount Vancouver of Yukon and Alaska, on the Canadian-American border and New Zealand's sixth highest mountain, are named for him. George Vancouver was born in the seaport town of King's Lynn on 22 June 1757 as the sixth, youngest, child of John Jasper Vancouver, a Dutch-born Deputy Collector of Customs, Bridget Berners. In 1771, at the age of 13, Vancouver entered the Royal Navy as a "young gentleman," a future candidate for midshipman, he was selected to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Resolution, on James Cook's second voyage searching for Terra Australis.
He accompanied Cook's third voyage, this time aboard Resolution's companion ship, HMS Discovery, was present during the first European sighting and exploration of the Hawaiian Islands. Upon his return to Britain in October 1780, Vancouver was commissioned as a lieutenant and posted aboard the sloop HMS Martin on escort and patrol duty in the English Channel and North Sea, he accompanied the ship. On 7 May 1782 he was appointed fourth Lieutenant of the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame, at the time part of the British West Indies Fleet and assigned to patrolling the French-held Leeward Islands. Vancouver returned to England in June 1783. In the late 1780s the Spanish Empire commissioned an expedition to the Pacific Northwest; the 1789 the Nootka Crisis developed, Spain and Britain came close to war over ownership of the Nootka Sound on contemporary Vancouver Island, of greater importance, the right to colonise and settle the Pacific Northwest coast. Henry Roberts had taken command of the survey ship HMS Discovery, to be used on another round-the-world voyage, Roberts selected Vancouver as his first lieutenant, but they were diverted to other warships due to the crisis.
Vancouver went with Joseph Whidbey to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Courageux. When the first Nootka Convention ended the crisis in 1790, Vancouver was given command of Discovery to take possession of Nootka Sound and to survey the coasts. Departing England with two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham, on 1 April 1791, Vancouver commanded an expedition charged with exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition travelled to Cape Town, New Zealand and Hawaii, collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way, he formally claimed at Possession Point, King George Sound Western Australia, now the town of Albany, Western Australia for the British. Proceeding to North America, Vancouver followed the coasts of present-day Oregon and Washington northward. In April 1792 he encountered American Captain Robert Gray off the coast of Oregon just prior to Gray's sailing up the Columbia River. Vancouver entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver Island and the Washington state mainland on 29 April 1792.
His orders included a survey of every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the mainland, all the way north to Alaska. Most of this work was in small craft propelled by both oar. Vancouver named many features for his officers, friends and his ship Discovery, including: Mount Baker – after Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the first on the expedition to spot it Mount St. Helens – after his friend, Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens Puget Sound – after Discovery's 2nd lieutenant Peter Puget, who explored its southern reaches. Mount Rainier – after his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. Port Gardner and Port Susan, Washington – after his former commander Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner and his wife Susannah, Lady Gardner. Whidbey Island – after naval engineer Joseph Whidbey. Discovery Passage, Discovery Island, Discovery Bay and Port Discovery. Vancouver was the second European to enter Burrard Inlet on 13 June 1792, naming it for his friend Sir Harry Burrard, it is the present day main harbour area of the City of Vancouver beyond Stanley Park.
He surveyed Jervis Inlet over the next nine days. On his 35th birthday on 22 June 1792, he returned to Point Grey, the present-day location of the University of British Columbia. Here he unexpectedly met a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores. Vancouver was "mortified" to learn they had a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia based on the 1791 exploratory voyage of José María Narváez the year before, under command of Francisco de Eliza. For three weeks they cooperatively explored the Georgia Strait and the Discovery Islands area before sailing separately towards Nootka Sound. After the summer surveying season ended, in August 1792, Vancouver went to Nootka the region's most important harbour, on contemporary Vancouver Island. Here he was to receive any British buildings and lands returned by the Spanish from claims by Francisco de Eliza for the Spanish crown; the Spanish commander, Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, was cordial and he and Vancouver exchanged the maps they had made, but no agreement was reached.
At this time, they decided to name t
Objections to evolution
Objections to evolution have been raised since evolutionary ideas came to prominence in the 19th century. When Charles Darwin published his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, his theory of evolution met opposition from scientists with different theories, but came to receive overwhelming acceptance in the scientific community; the observation of evolutionary processes occurring has been uncontroversial among mainstream biologists since the 1940s. Since most criticisms and denials of evolution have come from religious groups, rather than from the scientific community. Although many religious groups have found reconciliation of their beliefs with evolution, such as through theistic evolution, other religious groups continue to reject evolutionary explanations in favor of creationism, the belief that the universe and life were created by supernatural forces; the U. S.-centered creation–evolution controversy has become a focal point of perceived conflict between religion and science. Several branches of creationism, including creation science, neo-creationism, intelligent design, argue that the idea of life being directly designed by a god or intelligence is at least as scientific as evolutionary theory, should therefore be taught in public education.
Such arguments against evolution have become widespread and include objections to evolution's evidence, plausibility and scientific acceptance. The scientific community does not recognize such objections as valid, pointing to detractors' misinterpretations of such things as the scientific method and basic physical laws. Evolutionary ideas came to prominence in the early 19th century with the theory of the transmutation of species put forward by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Evolution was at first opposed among the scientific community, notably by Georges Cuvier; the idea that laws control nature and society gained vast popular audiences with George Combe's The Constitution of Man of 1828 and the anonymous Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation of 1844. When Charles Darwin published his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, he convinced most of the scientific community that new species arise through descent through modification in a branching pattern of divergence from common ancestors, but while most scientists accepted that natural selection is a valid and empirically testable hypothesis, Darwin's view that it is the primary mechanism of evolution was rejected by some.
Darwin's contemporaries came to accept the transmutation of species based upon fossil evidence, the X Club was formed to defend evolution against the church and wealthy amateurs. At that time the specific evolutionary mechanism which Darwin provided of natural selection was disputed by scientists in favour of alternative theories such as Lamarckism and orthogenesis. Darwin's gradualistic account was opposed by saltationism and catastrophism. Lord Kelvin led scientific opposition to gradualism on the basis of his thermodynamic calculations that the Earth was between 24 and 400 million years old, his views favoured a version of theistic evolution accelerated by divine guidance; this age of the earth was disputed by geological estimates, which gained strength in 1907 when radioactive dating of rocks showed that the Earth was billions of years old. The specific hereditary mechanism Darwin hypothesized of pangenesis that supported gradualism lacked any supporting evidence and was disputed by the empirical tests of Francis Galton.
Although evolution was unchallenged, uncertainties about the mechanism in the eclipse of Darwinism persisted from the 1880s until the 1930s' inclusion of Mendelian inheritance and the rise of the modern evolutionary synthesis. The modern synthesis rose to universal acceptance among biologists with the help of new evidence, such as genetics, which confirmed Darwin's predictions and refuted the competing theories. Protestantism in America, broke out in "acrid polemics" and argument about evolution from 1860 to the 1870s—with the turning point marked by the death of Louis Agassiz in 1873—and by 1880 a form of "Christian evolution" was becoming the consensus. In Britain, while publication of The Descent of Man by Darwin in 1871 reinvigorated debate from the previous decade, Sir Henry Chadwick notes a steady acceptance of evolution "among more educated Christians" between 1860 and 1885; as a result, evolutionary theory was "both permissible and respectable" by 1876. Frederick Temple's lectures on The Relations between Religion and Science on how evolution was not "antagonistic" to religion highlighted this trend.
Temple's appointment as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1896 demonstrated the broad acceptance of evolution within the church hierarchy. For decades the Roman Catholic Church avoided official refutation of evolution. However, it would rein in Catholics who proposed that evolution could be reconciled with the Bible, as this conflicted with the First Vatican Council's finding that everything was created out of nothing by God, to deny that finding could lead to excommunication. In 1950, the encyclical Humani generis of Pope Pius XII first mentioned evolution directly and officially, it allowed one to enquire into the concept of humans coming from pre-existing living matter, but not to question Adam and Eve or the creation of the soul. In 1996, Pope John Paul II said that evolution is "more than a hypothesis" and acknowledged the large body of work accumulated in its support, but reiterated that any attempt to give a material explanation of the human soul is "incompatible with the truth about man."
Pope Benedict XVI