click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns

The Discovery Institute has conducted a series of related public relations campaigns which seek to promote intelligent design while attempting to discredit evolutionary biology, which the Institute terms "Darwinism." The Discovery Institute promotes the pseudoscientific intelligent design movement and is represented by Creative Response Concepts, a public relations firm. Prominent Institute campaigns have been to'Teach the Controversy' and to allow'Critical Analysis of Evolution'. Other campaigns have claimed that intelligent design advocates have been discriminated against, thus that Academic Freedom bills are needed to protect academics' and teachers' ability to criticise evolution, that the development of evolutionary theory was linked to ideologies such as Nazism and eugenics, claims based on misrepresentation which have been ridiculed by topic experts; these three claims are all publicised in the pro-ID movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed, the Anti-Defamation League said the film's attempt to blame science for the Nazi Holocaust was outrageous.

Other campaigns have included petitions, most notably A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism. The theory of evolution is accepted by overwhelming scientific consensus. Intelligent design has been rejected, both by the vast majority of scientists and by court findings, such as Kitzmiller v. Dover, as being a religious view and not science; the overarching goal of the Institute in conducting the intelligent design campaigns is religious. To accomplish this the Institute has conducted a number of public relations campaigns; the governing strategy of these various campaigns is called the Wedge strategy and was first made public when the Institute's "Wedge Document" was leaked on the World Wide Web in 1999. The Discovery Institute argues that science, due to its reliance on naturalism, is an inherently materialistic and atheistic enterprise and thus the source of many of society's ills, that "Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview."None of the campaigns are aimed at directly influencing the scientific community, which the Institute considers dogmatic and hidebound, but rather are focused on swaying the opinions of the public and public policy makers, which, if effective, it is hoped will respond by forcing the academic institutions supporting the scientific community to accept the Discovery Institute's redefinition of science.

Public high school science curricula has been the most common and visible target of the campaigns, with the Institute publishing its own model lesson plan, the Critical Analysis of Evolution. In a Seattle Weekly article, Nina Shapiro quoted Institute founder and president Bruce Chapman when she wrote that behind all Discovery Institute programs there is an underlying hidden religious agenda: Yet the Discovery Institute as an organization did not get involved in the issue in order to solve the mysteries of the universe. Chapman is up front about having a political agenda, he sees design intelligence as a way to combat the growing reliance on genetic explanations for human behavior and what he sees as an undermining of personal responsibility. As an example of this phenomenon, Chapman cites the infamous "Twinkie defense" used by a murder defendant claiming his sugar high made him do it. Others associated with the institute take a bigger leap of logic to argue that welfare, as dispensed, is a misguided consequence of the Darwinian outlook.

"If you see human beings as nothing but matter and motion, than all you do is treat them like mouths to feed," says Jay Richards, program director for the institute's Center for Science and Culture. "If they're more than that, you treat the whole person," he argues, which would mean looking at such things as family structure and the role of moral and religious values in their lives. Do you have to attack a whole branch of science in order to counter liberal views on welfare? The Discovery Institute folk think. "Unless you get the science right," Chapman says, "it's hard to contend with the other arguments." The Institute's approach has been to position itself as opposed to any required teaching intelligent design, while campaigns such as Teach the Controversy and Critical Analysis of Evolution introduce high school students to design arguments through the Discovery Institute-drafted lesson plans. Teach the Controversy and Free Speech on Evolution both require that "competing" or "alternative" "theories" to evolution to be presented while the Critical Analysis of Evolution model lesson plan fills that requirement by listing intelligent design books by Institute Fellows as such alternatives for students.

"Discovery Institute opposes mandating the teaching of intelligent design, but it supports requiring students to know about scientific criticisms of Darwin's theory, the approach adopted by the science standards in Ohio, New Mexico, under discussion in Kansas. Discovery Institute supports the right of teachers to voluntarily discuss the scientific debate over intelligent design free from persecution or intimidation." Attempts to introduce creationism into public high school science curricula had been derailed when this was found to have violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. In an attempt to avoid repeating this violation, the Institute today avoids directly advocating for intelligent design in high school curricula. Instead, it advocates teaching methods that introduce intelligent design ideas indirectly through a campaign to "Teach the Controversy" by portraying evolution as "a theory in crisis" and "presenting all the evid

Arundel Head

The Arundel Head is a Hellenistic bronze portrait of a dramatist or king from Asia Minor, now kept in the British Museum. Dating to the 2nd-1st centuries BC, the head once belonged to the famous English collector of classical antiquities, Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel; the head is all. The artist has realistically conveyed the worn features of an old man, including a wrinkled forehead, almond-shaped eyes and pouting mouth, which gives the portrait an air of power and authority; the hair of this bronze masterpiece is tied down in a ribbon, which suggests it may have portrayed a poet. Once thought to represent the ancient Greek writer Homer, it is considered to personify either the ancient Greek playwright Sophocles or a Macedonian King. Recent research has suggested that the Arundel Head may have been found in Smyrna, the ancient name for Izmir in Turkey; the bronze sculpture was brought to England from Constantinople in the early seventeenth century as part of the collection of Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel.

Subsequently, it came into the possession of Dr Richard Mead and Brownlow Cecil, 9th Earl of Exeter, who donated it to the British Museum in 1760, making it one of the earliest pieces of classical antiquities to enter the national collection. Henry Beauchamp Walters: British Museum. Select bronzes, Greek and Etruscan, in the Departments of Antiquities, London 1915 C. C. Mattusch, Classical bronzes S. Walker and Roman portraits L. Burn, The British Museum book of Greek and Roman Art, revised edition

Open (curling)

The Open referred to as the Meridian Open for sponsorship reasons, is an annual bonspiel, or curling tournament. It is one of the seven Grand Slams and four "majors" on the World Curling Tour, the only one to use a triple knockout format. A women's event was introduced in the 2014–15 curling season, it was known as the Canadian Open prior to the 2021 edition, when it was held outside of Canada for the first time. The event features women's teams; the top seven teams on the World Curling Tour Order of Merit ranking and the top seven on the WCT Year-to-date ranking qualify, plus the winner of the previous Tour Challenge Tier 2 event plus a sponsor's exemption. The event has had its current format since 2014. Telus Canadian Open: 2001 M&M Meat Shops Canadian Open: 2002 Canadian Open: 2003, 2005 BDO Classic Canadian Open: 2006, 2007 BDO Classic Canadian Open of Curling: 2007 BDO Canadian Open of Curling: 2009–2011 Canadian Open of Curling: 2012 Canadian Open: 2013–2014 Meridian Canadian Open: 2015-2020 Meridian Open: 2021 Official site

Bass Lake, Indiana

Bass Lake is a census-designated place in California and North Bend Townships, Starke County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 1,195 at the 2010 census. Covering over 1,300 surface acres, Bass Lake is the third-largest natural lake in Indiana; the community was named after the nearby lake, populated with a large number of black bass. A post office was established at Bass Lake in 1892, remained in operation until it was discontinued in 1948. Bass Lake is located at 41°13′51″N 86°35′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 11.3 square miles, of which 9.1 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,249 people, 534 households, 365 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 136.5 people per square mile. There were 1,193 housing units at an average density of 130.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.40% White, 0.08% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.48% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.12% of the population. There were 534 households out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.85. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $42,440, the median income for a family was $47,361. Males had a median income of $37,159 versus $19,318 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,407. About 10.6% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.4% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over

Baale language

The Baale language, Baleesi or Baalesi, is an Eastern Sudanic language of Ethiopia and South Sudan, spoken by the Baale or Zilmamo people of Ethiopia, by the Kachepo of South Sudan. It is a member of the Surmic cluster and is known as Suri, evoking an ethnonym that embraces the Tirma and Baale communities. There are 9,000 native speakers of Baleesi, 5,000 in South Sudan and 4,100 in Ethiopia. Yigezu notes that although Baale is genetically a Southwest Surmic language, it has taken on many features of Southeast Surmic languages due to heavy contact. Baleesi can be alternately referred to as Baalesi, Bale, Dok, Kacipo-Balesi, Silmamo, Zelmamu and Zulmamu. "The Baale call their language Baalesi. They are referred to as Zilmamo, the name of their country, situated west and south of Jeba town, towards the border with Sudan; the Gimira call their language Baaye, whereas the Anywak refer to them as Dok. The Baale people call the neighboring Dizi people Saara, the Amhara are referred to as Goola. Baale is spoken across the border in Sudan, in an area known as Kachepo, the name used by the neighboring Toposa and Murle for the Baale people and their country."There are no known dialects of Baleesi, but it is related to the Didinga-Murle cluster, which consists of Didinga and Larim in Sudan, Murle in both Sudan and Ethiopia.

It shares 35 % lexical similarity with Mursi. It is spoken in Rumeat, Upper Boma, Mewun villages, Pibor County, Boma State, located near the Ethiopian border, it is spoken in the northwestern corner of East Equatoria State. The Baleesi counting system is based on twenty and uses the same quinary system as does the Didinga-Murle cluster; the word for "1,000" means "plenty," and everything greater than 100 is referred to as "a lot."While the Tirma and Baale people form an ethnic unit called Suri, sharing similar age-set systems, common ceremonies, material cultures, their languages are only distantly related. There is no known writing system for Baleesi and it is regarded as an unwritten language; the language status is classified as vigorous, meaning that it is unstandardized and in use by all ages. However, it may still be considered an endangered language due to the small population of native speakers in existence; the Baale have a positive attitude towards their language, use it in most areas of life besides the market.

Some Baale people can speak Tirma or Chai along with Baleesi, a few speak Dizi or Amharic. Speakers of Baleesi include non-native individuals as well. In Jeba town, there are Dizi people who speak Baleesi as a second language, serve as intermediaries between local or regional traders and the Baale people when they come to the market; the literacy rate of both first-language and second-language speakers is below 1%. The Baale share many aspects of culture with their fellow Suri people. For example, a practice common among the tribes of the Surma, is the insertion of a clay plate into the bottom lip of young girls and women. Another ritual the Suri take part in is called the Donga, which involves champions of teams from different clans and villages fighting in pairs using long wooden sticks; the ritual is used as a way to resolve conflicts on either higher level. Arensen, Jonathan E. 1989. "On comparing language relationships: a case study of Murle and Tirma." Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages 6: 67-76.

Möller, Mirjam. 2009. Vowel Harmony in Bale - A Study of ATR Harmony in a Surmic Language of Ethiopia. BA thesis. University of Stockholm. Dimmendaal, Gerrit. 2003. “Baale Language.” In Encyclopaedia Aethiopica vol. 1, edited by Siegbert Uhlig, 423-424. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. —. 2000. “Noun classification in Baale.” In Mehr als nur Worte...: afrikanistische Beiträge zum 65. Geburtstag von Franz Rottland, edited by R. Vossen, A. Mietzner, A. Meissner, 183-203. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. —. 2000. “Number marking and noun categorization in Nilo-Saharan languages.” Anthropological Linguistics 42: 214-261. —. 1993. “On Tirma, Chai and Mursi.” SLLE Linguistic Reports 4: 26-27. —. 2002. “Sociolinguistic survey report on Tirma, Chai and Mursi.” SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-033. Https://web.archive.org/web/20131229025313/http://www-01.sil.org/silesr/2002/033/SILESR2002-033.pdf. Yigezu, Moges. 2005. “Convergence of Baale: A Southwest Surmic Language to the Southeast Surmic group, lexical evidence.” APAL 3: 49-66. Yigezu and Gerrit Jan Dimmendaal.

1998. “Notes on Baale.” In Surmic Languages and Cultures, edited by Gerrit J. Dimmendal and Marco Last, 237-317. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. Endangered Languages Profile Baale basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database Baleesi Numeral System Audio of a Surmic language Baleesi Video of Christian missionaries visiting the Kachepo people BBC clip on the Donga stick fighting festival

Ilha da Moela Lighthouse

Ilha da Moela Lighthouse is an active lighthouse on the namesake island 1.84 kilometres from Ponta do Munduba at the entrance of Santos Bay, Brazil. Ilha da Moela Lighthouse is the oldest lighthouse on the State of São Paulo coast and the entire island is a Brazilian Navy base; the first lighthouse, lit on July 31, 1830, was a white masonry cylindrical tower, 9.5 metres high, with balcony and lantern. The lantern was equipped with a white fixed-light catoptrics equipment built by Barbier, Benard, et Turenne with a range of 19 nautical miles. A new torch was installed in 1862 to accommodate a new 1st order of Fresnel lens built by BBT. On May 13, 1895, a new tower entered in service and it is still in use. In 1953 the lighthouse underwent restoration works; the lighthouse emits an alternate occulting light white or red every 60 seconds) visible up to 40 nautical miles for the white light and 39 nautical miles for the red. The lighthouse is managed by Brazilian Navy and is identified by the country code number BR-3288.

List of lighthouses in Brazil Centro de Sinalização Náutica Almirante Moraes Rego Picture of the lighthouse