Bias against left-handed people
Bias based on handedness is bias or design, unfavorable against people who are left-handed. Part of this is due to design in the world, right-hand biased. Handwriting is one of the biggest sources of actual disadvantage for left-handed people, other than for those forced to work with certain machinery. About ten percent of the world's population is left-handed, yet many common articles are designed for efficient use by right-handed people, may be inconvenient, painful, or dangerous for left-handed people to use; these may include school desks, kitchen implements, tools ranging from simple scissors to hazardous machinery such as power saws. Beyond being inherently disadvantaged by a right-handed bias in the design of tools, left-handed people have been subjected to deliberate discrimination and discouragement. In certain societies, they may be considered unlucky or malicious by the right-handed majority. Many languages still contain references to left-handedness to convey awkwardness, stupidity, or other undesirable qualities.
In advanced societies, left-handed people were forced as children to use their right hands for tasks which they would perform with the left, such as eating or writing. Among Incas left-handers were called lloq' e. Peoples of the Andes consider left-handers to possess special spiritual abilities, including magic and healing; the Third Sapa Inca—Lloque Yupanqui—was left-handed. His name, when translated from Quechua, means "the glorified lefthander." In the Chinese language, the character for "left", 左, depicts a left hand attending to its work. In contrast, the character for "right", 右, depicts a right hand in relation to the mouth, suggesting the act of eating. In tantra Buddhism, the left hand represents wisdom. In early Roman times, the left side retained a positive connotation, as the Augures proceeded from the eastern side; the negative meaning was subsequently borrowed into Latin from Greek, since in all Roman languages. In Russian, "levsha" became a common noun for skilled craftsman, after the title character from "The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea" written in 1881 by Nikolai Leskov.
The unfavorable associations and connotations of the use of the left hand among cultures are varied. In some areas, in order to preserve cleanliness where sanitation was an issue, the right hand, as the dominant hand of most individuals, was used for eating, handling food, social interactions; the left hand would be used for personal hygiene after urination and defecation. These rules were imposed on no matter their dominant hand. Through these practices, the left hand became known as the "unclean" hand. Amongst Muslims and in some societies including Nepal and India it is still customary to use the left hand for cleaning oneself with water after defecating; the right hand is known in contradistinction from the left, as the hand used for eating. In many religions, including Christianity, the right hand of God is the favored hand. For example, Jesus sits at God's right side. God's left hand, however, is the hand of judgement; the Archangel Gabriel is sometimes called "God's left hand", sits at God's left side, is one of six angels of death.
Those who fall from favor with God are sent to left, as described in Matthew 25: 32–33, in which sheep represent the righteous and goats represent the fallen: "And he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats. And he shall set the sheep on his right, but the goats on his left." In 19th-century Europe, homosexuals were referred to as "left-handed". In Protestant-majority parts of the United Kingdom, Catholics were called "left-footers", vice versa in Catholic-majority parts of Ireland and Irish America. Black magic is sometimes referred to as the "left-hand path", associated with Satanism. Various innocuous activities and experiences become rude or signs of bad luck when the left hand becomes involved. In some parts of Scotland, it is considered bad luck to meet a left-handed person at the start of a journey. In Ghana, gesturing, giving or receiving items with the left hand is considered taboo or rude. A person giving directions will put their left hand behind them and physically strain to point with their right hand if necessary.
In some Asian countries, holding eating utensils in the left hand is considered impolite. Due to cultural and social pressures, many left-handed children were encouraged or forced to write and perform other activities with their right hands; this conversion can cause multiple problems in the developing left-handed child, including learning disorders, dyslexia and other speech disorders. Shifts from left- to right-handed are more to be successful than right to left, though neither have a high success rate to begin with. Successful shifters are more to become ambihanded than unsuccessful ones. Conversions can be successful with consistent daily practice in a variety of manual activities, but though activity in the non-dominant left-hemisphere of the brain will increase during tasks, so too will activity in the dominant right-hemisphere. Consistent left-handers have no higher activity in these task centers than converted left-handers, so it may be inferred that "attempts to switch handedness by educational training far from weakening the functional expression of lefthandedness in higher-order motor areas of the right hemisphere in fact enhance it."Many Asian countries encourage or force their children to become right-handed due to cultural perceptions of bad luck as
Black supremacy or black supremacism is a racial supremacist belief which maintains that black people are superior to people of other races. The term has been used by the Southern Poverty Law Center, an American legal advocacy organization, to describe several fringe religious groups in the United States. Several fringe groups have been described as either promoting black supremacist beliefs. A source described by historian David Mark Chalmers as being "the most extensive source on right-wing extremism" is the Southern Poverty Law Center, an American nonprofit organization that monitors all kinds of hate groups and extremists in the United States. Authors of the SPLC's quarterly Intelligence Reports described the following groups as holding black supremacist views: The Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ, headquartered in New York City, was described in 2008 by the SPLC as an American "black supremacist sect" and part of the growing "black supremacist wing of the Hebrew Israelite movement".
The ICGJC accepts the Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha as inspired Scripture and has an apocalyptic view of the end of the world. The Israelite School of Universal Practical Knowledge, based in the Upper Darby Township of Philadelphia; the Nation of Yahweh is a religious group based in the United States described as black supremacist by the SPLC. It is an offshoot of the Black Hebrew Israelite line of thought, it was founded by American Yahweh ben Yahweh. The Nation of Yahweh grew throughout the 1980s and at its height had headquarters in Miami and temples in 22 states; the United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors was founded by the American Dwight York, described by the SPLC as advocating the belief that black people are superior to white people. The SPLC reported that York's teachings included the belief that "whites are'devils', devoid of both heart and soul, their color the result of leprosy and genetic inferiority"; the SPLC described the Nuwaubianism belief system as "mix black supremacist ideas with worship of the Egyptians and their pyramids, a belief in UFOs and various conspiracy theories related to the Illuminati and the Bilderbergers".
The Associated Press described the teachings of the Nation of Islam as having been black supremacist until 1975, when W. Deen Mohammed succeeded his father as its leader. Afrocentrism Black nationalism Black separatism Racial formation theory
Anti-Masonry is "avowed opposition to Freemasonry". However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of radically differing criticisms from sometimes incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form; the earliest anti-Masonic document was a leaflet printed in 1698 by a Presbyterian minister named Winter. It reads: TO ALL GODLY PEOPLE, In the Citie of London. Having thought it needful to warn you of the Mischiefs and Evils practiced in the Sight of God by those called Freed Masons, I say take Care lest their Ceremonies and secret Swearings take hold of you. For this devilish Sect of Men are Meeters in secret, they are the Anti Christ, to come leading Men from Fear of God. For how should Men meet in secret Places and with secret Signs taking Care that none observed them to do the Work of GOD. Knowing how that God observeth privilly them that sit in Darkness they shall be smitten and the Secrets of their Hearts layed bare. Mingle not among this corrupt People lest you be found so at the World's Conflagration.
In 1826, William Morgan disappeared from the small town of Batavia, New York, after threatening to expose Freemasonry's "secrets" by publishing its rituals. His disappearance caused some Anti-masons to claim that he had been kidnapped and murdered by Masons. Morgan's disappearance sparked a series of protests against Freemasonry, which spread to the political realm. Under the leadership of anti-Masonic Thurlow Weed, an Anti-Jacksonist movement became the Anti-Masonic Party; this political Party ran presidential candidates in 1828 and 1832, but by 1835 the party had disbanded everywhere except Pennsylvania. In the United Kingdom, anti-Masonic sentiment grew following the publication of Martin Short's 1989 book, Inside the Brotherhood; the allegations made by Short led several members of the British Government to propose laws requiring Freemasons who join the police or judiciary to declare their membership publicly to the government amid accusations of Freemasons performing acts of mutual advancement and favour-swapping.
This movement was led by Jack Straw, Home Secretary from 1997 until 2001. In 1999, the Welsh Assembly became the only body in the United Kingdom to place a legal requirement on membership declaration for Freemasons. Existing members of the police and judiciary in England are asked to voluntarily admit to being Freemasons. However, all first time successful judiciary candidates had to "declare their freemasonry status" before appointment until 2009, when – following a successful challenge in the European Court by Italian Freemasons – Jack Straw accepted that the policy was "disproportionate" and revoked it. Conversely, new members of the police are not required to declare their status. In 2004, Rhodri Morgan, the First Minister of the Welsh Assembly, in Great Britain, said that he blocked Gerard Elias' appointment to counsel general because of links to hunting and freemasonry, although it was claimed by non-Labour politicians that the real reason was in order to have a Labour supporter, Malcolm Bishop, in the role.
Soviet Russia outlawed all secret societies, including Masonry, in 1922. At one of the Second International meetings Grigory Zinoviev demanded to purge it of masons. Freemasonry did not exist in China, or most other Communist states. Postwar revivals of Freemasonry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary were suppressed in 1950. However, Freemasonry in Cuba continued to exist following the Cuban Revolution, according to Cuban folklore, Fidel Castro is said to have "developed a soft spot for the Masons when they gave him refuge in a Masonic Lodge" in the 1950s. However, when in power, Castro was said to have "kept them on a tight leash" as they were considered a subversive element in Cuban society. Fascists treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition. Masonic writers state that the language used by the totalitarian regimes is similar to that used by other modern critics of Freemasonry. Considered an ideological foe of Nazism in their world perception, Concentration Camp inmates who were Freemasons were graded as "Political" prisoners, wore an inverted red triangle.
In 1943, the Propaganda Abteilung, a delegation of Nazi Germany's propaganda ministry within occupied France, commissioned the propaganda film Forces occultes. The film virulently denounces Freemasonry, parliamentarianism and Jews as part of Vichy's drive against them and seeks to prove a Jewish-Masonic plot; the number of Freemasons from Nazi occupied countries who were killed is not known, but it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons perished under the Nazi regime. The Government of the United Kingdom established Holocaust Memorial Day to recognise all groups who were targets of the Nazi regime, counter Holocaust denial. Freemasons are listed as being among those. In 1980, the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein and the ruling Ba'ath Party, thereby making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including freemasonry, or who associate with Zionist organizations." Freemasonry has been alleged to hold back its members from committing to their nation.
Critics claim that compared to Operative Masonry's clear denunciations of treachery, Speculative Masonry was far more ambiguous. The old Catholic Encyclopedia alleges that Masonic disapproval of treachery is not on moral grounds but on the grounds of inconvenience to other Masons, it argues that the adage "Loyalty to freedom
Discrimination against atheists
Discrimination against atheists, both at present and includes persecution of and discrimination against people identified as atheists. Discrimination against atheists may comprise negative attitudes, hostility, fear, or intolerance towards atheists and atheism; because atheism can be defined in various ways, those discriminated against or persecuted on the grounds of being atheists might not have been considered atheists in a different time or place. 13 Muslim countries punish atheism or apostasy by death, while "the overwhelming majority" of the 192 United Nation member countries "at best discriminate against citizens who have no belief in a god and at worst can jail them for offences dubbed blasphemy". In some Muslim-majority countries, atheists face persecution and severe penalties such as the withdrawal of legal status or, in the case of apostasy, capital punishment. Sometimes such discrimination is called atheophobia, anti-atheist discrimination. Scholars have argued that some small underdeveloped glimpses of atheism existed in the ancient world, though not in a modern sense because people had not developed a language for nonbelief.
Lucien Febvre has referred to the "unthinkability" of atheism in its strongest sense before the sixteenth century, because of the "deep religiosity" of that era. Karen Armstrong has concurred, writing "from birth and baptism to death and burial in the churchyard, religion dominated the life of every single man and woman; every activity of the day, punctuated by church bells summoning the faithful to prayer, was saturated with religious beliefs and institutions: they dominated professional and public life—even the guilds and the universities were religious organizations.... If an exceptional man could have achieved the objectivity necessary to question the nature of religion and the existence of God, he would have found no support in either the philosophy or the science of his time." As governmental authority rested on the notion of divine right, it was threatened by those who denied the existence of the local god. Those labeled as atheist, including early Christians and Muslims, were as a result targeted for legal persecution.
During the early modern period, the term "atheist" was used as an insult and applied to a broad range of people, including those who held opposing theological beliefs, as well as those who had committed suicide, immoral or self-indulgent people, opponents of the belief in witchcraft. Atheistic beliefs were seen as threatening to order and society by philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas. Lawyer and scholar Thomas More said that religious tolerance should be extended to all except those who did not believe in a deity or the immortality of the soul. John Locke, a founder of modern notions of religious liberty, argued that atheists should not be granted full citizenship rights. During the Inquisition, several of those accused of atheism or blasphemy, or both, were tortured or executed; these included the priest Giulio Cesare Vanini, strangled and burned in 1619 and the Polish nobleman Kazimierz Łyszczyński, executed in Warsaw, as well as Etienne Dolet, a Frenchman executed in 1546. Though heralded as atheist martyrs during the nineteenth century, recent scholars hold that the beliefs espoused by Dolet and Vanini are not atheistic in modern terms.
During the nineteenth century, British atheists, though few in number, were subject to discriminatory practices. The poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was expelled from the University of Oxford and denied custody of his two children after publishing a pamphlet titled The Necessity of Atheism; those unwilling to swear Christian oaths during judicial proceedings were unable to give evidence in court to obtain justice until this requirement was repealed by Acts passed in 1869 and 1870. Atheist Charles Bradlaugh was elected as a Member of the British Parliament in 1880, he was denied the right to affirm rather than swear his oath of office, was denied the ability to swear the oath as other Members objected that he had himself said it would be meaningless. Bradlaugh was re-elected three times before he was able to take his seat in 1886 when the Speaker of the House permitted him to take the oath. In Germany during the Nazi era, a 1933 decree stated that "No National Socialist may suffer detriment... on the ground that he does not make any religious profession at all".
However, the regime opposed "godless communism", all of Germany's atheist and left-wing freethought organizations such as the German Freethinkers League were banned the same year. In a speech made in 1933, Hitler claimed to have "stamped out" the atheistic movement. During the negotiations leading up to the Nazi-Vatican Concordat of April 26, 1933 Hitler stated that "Secular schools can never be tolerated" because of their irreligious tendencies. Hitler disregarded this undertaking, the Reich concordat as a whole, by 1939, all Catholic denominational schools had been disbanded or converted to public facilities. By 1939, 94.5% of Germans still called themselves Protestant or Catholic, while 3.5% were so-called "Gottgläubigen" and 1.5% were without faith. According to historian Richard J. Evans, those members of the affiliation gottgläubig "were convinced Nazis who had left their Church at the behest of the Party, trying since the mid-1930s to reduce the influence of Christianity in society".
Heinrich Himmler was a strong prom
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls. Misogyny manifests in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, androcentrism, male privilege, belittling of women, disenfranchisement of women, violence against women, sexual objectification. Misogyny can be found within sacred texts of religions and Western philosophy and Eastern philosophy; the inverse is misandry. According to sociologist Allan G. Johnson, "misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female". Johnson argues that: Misogyny.... is a central part of sexist prejudice and ideology and, as such, is an important basis for the oppression of females in male-dominated societies. Misogyny is manifested in many different ways, from jokes to pornography to violence to the self-contempt women may be taught to feel toward their own bodies. Sociologist Michael Flood at the University of Wollongong defines misogyny as the hatred of women, notes: Though most common in men, misogyny exists in and is practiced by women against other women or themselves.
Misogyny functions as an ideology or belief system that has accompanied patriarchal, or male-dominated societies for thousands of years and continues to place women in subordinate positions with limited access to power and decision making. Aristotle contended that women exist as natural deformities or imperfect males Ever since, women in Western cultures have internalised their role as societal scapegoats, influenced in the twenty-first century by multimedia objectification of women with its culturally sanctioned self-loathing and fixations on plastic surgery and bulimia. Dictionaries define misogyny as "hatred of women" and as "hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women". In 2012 in response to events occurring in the Australian Parliament, the Macquarie Dictionary expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but "entrenched prejudices against women"; the counterpart of misogyny is the hatred or dislike of men. Misogynous or misogynist can be used as adjectival forms of the word.
In his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, J. W. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod; the term misogyny itself comes directly into English from the Ancient Greek word misogunia, which survives in several passages. The earlier and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as On Marriage by the stoic philosopher Antipater of Tarsus. Antipater argues that marriage is the foundation of the state, considers it to be based on divine decree, he uses misogunia to describe the sort of writing the tragedian Euripides eschews, stating that he "reject the hatred of women in his writing". He offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised; the other surviving use of the original Greek word is by Chrysippus, in a fragment from On affections, quoted by Galen in Hippocrates on Affections. Here, misogyny is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women and humanity.
Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own. What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity and hatred of wine. "It was the prevailing medical opinion of his day that wine strengthens body and soul alike." So Chrysippus, like his fellow stoic Antipater, views misogyny negatively, as a disease. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions, philosophically contentious to the ancient writers. Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that " man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other."Aristotle has been accused of being a misogynist. According to Cynthia Freeland: Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; the Timaeus warns men. The Republic contains a number of comments in the same spirit, evidence of nothing so much as of contempt toward women. Socrates' words for his bold new proposal about marriage... suggest that the women are to be "held in common" by men.
He never says that the men might be held in common by the women... We have to acknowledge Socrates' insistence that men surpass women at any task that both sexes attempt, his remark in Book 8 that one sign of democracy's moral failure is the sexual equality it promotes. Misogyni
Persecution of Bahá'ís
Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated, the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world. The origins of persecution stem from a variety of Bahá'í teachings inconsistent with traditional Islamic belief, including the finality of Muhammad's prophethood, the placement of Bahá'ís outside the Islamic faith. Thus, Bahá'ís are seen as apostates from Islam, according to some Islamists, must choose between repentance and death. Bahá'í spokespeople, as well as the United Nations, Amnesty International, the European Union, the United States, peer-reviewed academic literature have stated that the members of the Bahá'í community in Iran have been subjected to unwarranted arrests, false imprisonment, torture, unjustified executions and destruction of property owned by individuals and the Bahá'í community, denial of employment, denial of government benefits, denial of civil rights and liberties, denial of access to higher education.
The Bahá'í Faith was established in 1863 by Bahá'u'lláh in Iran. Eighty-nine percent of Iranians adhere to the Twelver branch of Shi'a Islam, which holds as a core doctrine the expected advent of a messianic figure known as the Qa'im or as the Imam Mahdi; the Báb claimed he was the Imam Mahdi and thus he had equal status to Muhammad with the power, which he exercised, to abrogate the final provisions of Islamic law. Bahá'u'lláh, a Bábí who claimed to be the one foretold by the Báb, claimed a similar station for himself in 1863 as a Manifestation of God and as the promised figure foretold in the sacred scriptures of the major religious traditions of the past and founded what came to be known as the Bahá'í Faith. Concerning the historical context of the persecutions, Friedrich W. Affolter in "War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity" writes: Bahá'u'lláh's writings deal with a variety of themes that challenge long-cherished doctrines of Shí'i Islam. In addition to making the'heretic' claim of being a'Manifestation of God,' he suggested that school curricula should include'Western Sciences,' that the nation states should establish a world federal government, that men and women were equal.
Bahá'u'lláh wrote that in this time and age, priests were no longer necessary for religious guidance. Humanity, he argued, had reached an age of maturity where it was incumbent upon every individual to search for God and truth independently; these principles did not only call into question the need for a priesthood, but the entire Shí'i ecclesiastical structure and the vast system of endowments and fees that sustained it. No surprise that in the following decades until the overthrow of the Qájár dynasty in 1925, it was the mullas who instigated attacks against the Bahá'ís in cities or villages where the clerical establishment was influential. In addition to this, the Bábí religion, the forerunner of the Bahá'í Faith had a violent history in Iran. Friedrich W. Affolter writes: Initially, the mullas hoped to stop the Bábí movement from spreading by denouncing its followers as apostates and enemies of God; these denouncements torture of early Bábís. When the Bábís organized to defend themselves, the government sent troops into a series of engagements that resulted in heavy losses on both sides.
The Báb himself was imprisoned from 1846 until 1850 and publicly executed. In August 1852, two deranged Bábís attempted to kill the Shah in revenge for the execution of the Báb; this resulted in an extensive pogrom during which more than 20,000 Bábís – among them 400 Shí'i mullas who had embraced the Bábí teachings – lost their lives. Others have stated that the Bábís armed themselves and prepared for a holy war that became defensive when they encountered state troops in several locations and that two to three thousand Bábís were killed. Bahá ` u ` lláh took a more conciliatory position. Instead, he attempted to engage various governments in dialog. To this day, Bahá'ís are a persecuted minority group in Iran and other predominantly Muslim countries, since they are seen as apostates from Islam, supporters of the West and Israel; the Iranian constitution, drafted during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906 set the groundwork for the institutionalized persecution of Bahá'ís. While the constitution was modelled on Belgium's 1831 constitution, the provisions guaranteeing freedom of worship were omitted.
Subsequent legislation provided some recognition to Zoroastrians and Christians as equal citizens under state law, but it did not guarantee freedom of religion and "gave unprecedented institutional powers to the clerical establishment."The Islamic Republic of Iran, established after the Iranian revolution, recognizes four religions, whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam. Members of the first three minority religions receive special treatment under Iranian law. For example, their members are allowed to drink alcohol, representatives of several minority communities are guaranteed seats in parliament. However, religious freedom in Iran is far from absolute. Conversion away from Islam is forbidden, with both missionaries risking prison; those seeking to start a new religious group face severe restrictions. The Bahá' í Faith faces an technical hurdle. Iranian law recognizes all those who accept the existence of God and the prophethood of Muhammad as Muslims. Bahá'ís accept both of thes