An arcade is a succession of contiguous arches, with each arch supported by columns, piers. Exterior arcades are designed to provide a sheltered walkway for pedestrians; the walkway may be lined with retail stores. An arcade may feature arches on both sides of the walkway. Alternatively, a blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall. Blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture. In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest part of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral, or on the exterior, in which they are part of the walkways that surround the courtyard and cloisters. Many medieval arcades housed shops or stalls, either in the arcaded space itself, or set into the main wall behind. From this, "arcade" has become a general word for a group of shops in a single building, regardless of the architectural form; the word "arcade" comes from French arcade from Provençal arcada or Italian arcata, based on Latin arcus, ‘bow’.
Arcades go back to at least the Ancient Greek architecture of the Hellenistic period, were much used by the Romans, for example at the base of the Colosseum. Church cloisters often use arcading. Islamic architecture often uses arcades in and outside mosques in particular. In Renaissance architecture elegant arcading was used as a prominent feature of facades, for example in the Ospedale degli Innocenti or the courtyard of the Palazzo Bardi, both by Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence; the French architect, Bertrand Lemoine, described the period, 1786 to 1935, as l’Ère des passages couverts. He was referring to the grand shopping "arcades". A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space; the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural light and to reduce the need for candles or electric lighting. The 18th and 19th century arcades were designed to attract the genteel middle classes. In time, these arcades became to be the place to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets.
As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated. By the mid-nineteenth century, they had become prominent centres of fashion and social life. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth-century pastime for the emerging middle classes; the inspiration for the grand shopping arcades may have derived from the fashionable open loggias of Florence however medieval vernacular examples known as'butterwalks' were traditional jettied colonnades in British and North European marketplaces. During the 16th-century, a pattern of market trading using mobile stalls under covered arcades was established in Florence, from where it spread throughout Italy. Examples of the earliest open loggias include: Mercato Nuovo by Giovanni Battista del Tasso. Arcades soon spread across North America and the Antipodes. Examples of these grand shopping arcades include: Palais Royal in Paris. Other notable nineteenth century grand arcades include the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert in Brussels, inaugurated in 1847 and Istanbul's Çiçek Pasajı opened in 1870.
Shopping arcades were the precursor to the modern shopping mall, the word "arcade" is now used for malls which do not use the architectural form at all. The Palais-Royal, which opened in 1784 and became one of the most important marketplaces in Paris, is regarded as the earliest example of the grand shopping arcades. A royal palace, the complex consisted of gardens and entertainment venues situated under the original colonnades; the area boasted some 145 boutiques, cafés, hair salons, bookshops and numerous refreshment kiosks as well as two theatres. The retail outlets specialised in luxury goods such as fine jewellery, furs and furniture designed to appeal to the wealthy elite. Retailers operating out of the Palais complex were among the first in Europe to abandon the system of bartering, adopt fixed-prices thereby sparing their clientele the hassle of bartering. Stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies when they may not have been able to afford the high retail prices.
Thus, the Palais-Royal became one of the first examples of a new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes. It developed a reputation as being a site of sophisticated conversation, revolving around the salons, cafés, bookshops, but became a place frequented by off-duty soldiers and was a favourite haunt of prostitutes, many of whom rented apartments in the building. One of the earliest British examples of a shopping arcade, the Covered Market, England was opened on 1 November 1774 and is still active today; the Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear "untidy and unsavoury stalls" from the main streets of central Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew up the plans and designed the High Street front with its four entrances. In 1772, the newly formed Marke
Retrofuturism is a movement in the creative arts showing the influence of depictions of the future produced in an earlier era. If futurism is sometimes called a'science' bent on anticipating what will come, retrofuturism is the remembering of that anticipation." Characterized by a blend of old-fashioned "retro styles" with futuristic technology, retrofuturism explores the themes of tension between past and future, between the alienating and empowering effects of technology. Reflected in artistic creations and modified technologies that realize the imagined artifacts of its parallel reality, retrofuturism can be seen as "an animating perspective on the world". However, it has manifested in the worlds of fashion, design, literature and video games. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, an early use of the term appears in a Bloomingdales advertisement in a 1983 issue of The New York Times; the ad talks of jewellery, "silverized steel and sleek grey linked for a retro-futuristic look". In an example more related to retrofuturism as an exploration of past visions of the future, the term appears in the form of “retro-futurist” in a 1984 review of the film Brazil in The New Yorker.
Critic Pauline Kael writes, " presents a retro-futurist fantasy."Several websites have referenced a 1967 book published by Pelican Books called "Retro-Futurism" by T. R. Hinchliffe as the originator of the term, but this account is unverified. There exist no records of this author. Retrofuturism builds on ideas of futurism, but the latter term functions differently in several different contexts. In avant-garde artistic and design circles, futurism is a long-standing and well established term, but in its more popular form, futurism is "an early optimism that focused on the past and was rooted in the nineteenth century, an early-twentieth-century'golden age' that continued long into the 1960s' Space Age". Retrofuturism is first and foremost based on modern but changing notions of "the future"; as Guffey notes, retrofuturism is "a recent neologism", but it "builds on futurists' fevered visions of space colonies with flying cars, robotic servants, interstellar travel on display there. It took its current shape in the 1970s, a time when technology was changing.
From the advent of the personal computer to the birth of the first test tube baby, this period was characterized by intense and rapid technological change. But many in the general public began to question whether applied science would achieve its earlier promise—that life would improve through technological progress. In the wake of the Vietnam War, environmental depredations, the energy crisis, many commentators began to question the benefits of applied science, but they wondered, sometimes in awe, sometimes in confusion, at the scientific positivism evinced by earlier generations. Retrofuturism "seeped into academic and popular culture in the 1960s and 1970s", inflecting George Lucas's Star Wars and the paintings of pop artist Kenny Scharf alike". Surveying the optimistic futurism of the early twentieth century, the historians Joe Corn and Brian Horrigan remind us that retrofuturism is "a history of an idea, or a system of ideas—an ideology; the future, or course, does not exist except as an act of belief or imagination."
Retrofuturism incorporates two overlapping trends which may be summarized as the future as seen from the past and the past as seen from the future. The first trend, retrofuturism proper, is directly inspired by the imagined future which existed in the minds of writers and filmmakers in the pre-1960 period who attempted to predict the future, either in serious projections of existing technology or in science fiction novels and stories; such futuristic visions are refurbished and updated for the present, offer a nostalgic, counterfactual image of what the future might have been, but is not. The second trend is the inverse of the first: futuristic retro, it starts with the retro appeal of old styles of art, clothing and grafts modern or futuristic technologies onto it, creating a mélange of past and future elements. Steampunk, a term applying both to the retrojection of futuristic technology into an alternative Victorian age, the application of neo-Victorian styles to modern technology, is a successful version of this second trend.
In the movie Space Station 76, mankind has reached the stars, but clothes, technology and above all social taboos are purposely reminiscent of the mid-1970s. In practice, the two trends cannot be distinguished, as they mutually contribute to similar visions. Retrofuturism of the first type is influenced by the scientific and social awareness of the present, modern retrofuturistic creations are never copies of their pre-1960 inspirations. In the same way, futuristic retro owes much of its flavor to early science fiction, in a quest for stylistic authenticity may continue to draw on writers and artists of the desired period. Both retrofuturistic trends in themselves refer to no specific time; when a time period is supplied for a story, it might be a counterfactual present with unique technology. Examples include the film Sky Captain and the World of
Disney Village is a shopping and entertainment complex in Disneyland Paris, located in the town of Marne-la-Vallée, France. Named Festival Disney, it opened on April 12, 1992, covering an area of 18,000 square metres inside what was known as Euro Disney Resort. Based on Walt Disney World's Disney Springs, Disney Village was designed by architect Frank Gehry with towers of oxidized silver and bronze-colored stainless steel under a canopy of lights, it is adjacent to the two theme parks of the Lake Disney hotel area. Disney specified, it was envisioned as an attraction inside of the Euro Disney Resort, as well as a free transitional space for visitors of the Euro Disneyland theme park and train passengers from the RER/TGV train station traveling to the resort hotels. The space would include numerous shops, concerts and nightclubs; the original concept was a open space full of life and music. It would be lit from all sides around a central avenue and include a starry sky as its crowning feature; the columns that would support this sky would be the remnants of an old power station, left standing after the site had been converted.
Gehry noted: The idea of a station in the U. S. made me think of power stations which are found this close to a railway line. Festival Disney is a bright place full of life; the power stations are illuminated at night, hence my idea of a network of 3,600 low-intensity bulbs that cover all of the structures. The lights will be suspended between towers and, as a measure of the design process, I blew and embellished the towers that I wanted to sparkle without being decorative. Once the sky and towers were imagined, I disposed of buildings and other parts of a normal avenue... Although the starry sky was well-received, the same could not be said for many other aspects of Festival Disney. From the beginning and cast members alike criticized the project, perceiving it as having a cold and soulless atmosphere; as a result, many changes were made to Gehry's original concept. Metal frames, placed on many of the pylons were removed and replaced with statues and food counters. In 1996, just four years after opening, Festival Disney was renamed Disney Village.
Popular restaurant chain Planet Hollywood opened in front of the Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show building, the following year an eight-screen Gaumont multiplex cinema complex opened next door to Planet Hollywood, blocking the Wild West Show's original entrance. Many changes and adjustments took place in existing buildings over the next 10 years, such as the opening of Café Mickey in 2002, the opening of King Ludwig's Castle in 2003, the opening of the Rainforest Café in 1999. On January 25, 1999, a large McDonald’s fast food restaurant opened with a theme based on Italy's Commedia dell'arte. In 2004, a 570-seat IMAX cinema opened as part of the Gaumont multiplex. On December 3, 2004, an Art Deco themed multi-story parking structure called VINCI Park opened. In 2004, the resort management team began renovations; the neon lights, oversized signs, central stage were all removed from the main area. Colorfully lit. PanoraMagique, one of the largest captive balloons in the world, opened in April 2005.
It carries up to 30 passengers 100 metres into the sky. In 2008, resort management added large planters that contained trees and flowers to the main thoroughfare. Terraces were added to restaurants and cafés, the facades of buildings were updated. In the same year, a new beverage stand/snack bar was added near the entrance to Disney Village, the tourist kiosk nearby was rebuilt in more of a neo-industrial Parisian style. In 2009, the Buffalo Trading Company closed and the premises are now occupied by a Starbucks coffee house; as part of a €2 billion expansion of the Disneyland Resort, it has been confirmed that Disney Village will receive an overhaul and potential expansion. Further details have not yet been confirmed. Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show with Mickey & Friends: an original show re-enacted twice nightly in a purpose-built arena since 1992. Despite technological production elements, the show retains a high degree of authenticity, including bison, Longhorn cattle, quarter horses imported from North America.
The cast includes Native American members, as well as trained rodeo cowboys. Most of the more famous elements of the original show remain, including the Pony Express, Indian Attack, Stagecoach Robbery. A dinner show entry includes a themed menu of chili and barbecue ribs; the show is approaching world-record attendance with over 10,000 shows performed in front of 8.5 million guests. Since 2009, the show has starred his friends. Gaumont Disney Village: Cinema with IMAX, 4DX and D-Box Technologies Dôme Disney Village: Conference center for professional event and evenings, it sometimes hosts public events like the 2005 production of Grease, concerts or sports competitions. NEX Fun Bowling & Games PanoraMagique Disney Village Marina Lake Disney Road Train Annette's Diner Ben & Jerry's Kiosque De Glaces Billy Bob's Country Western Saloon Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show with Mickey and Friends Café Mickey Earl of Sandwich Five Guys King Ludwig's Castle La Grange (buffe
A fireplace is a structure made of brick, stone or metal designed to contain a fire. Fireplaces are used for heating a room. Modern fireplaces vary depending on the design, they were used for heating a dwelling and heating water for laundry and domestic uses. A fire is contained in a firepit. A fireplace may have the following: a hearth, a firebox, a mantelpiece. On the exterior there is a corbeled brick crown, in which the projecting courses of brick act as a drip course to keep rainwater from running down the exterior walls. A cap, hood, or shroud serves to keep rainwater out of the exterior of the chimney; some chimneys have a spark arrestor incorporated into the cap. Organizations like the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington Department of Ecology warn that, according to various studies, fireplaces can pose a significant health risk; the EPA writes "Smoke may smell good, but it's not good for you." Manufactured fireplaces are made with sheet glass fire boxes. Electric fireplaces can be built-in replacements for wood or gas or retrofit with log inserts or electric fireboxes.
A few types are, wall mounted electric fireplaces, electric fireplace stoves, electric mantel fireplaces and fixed or free standing electric fireplaces. Masonry and prefabricated fireplaces can be fueled by wood, natural gas and propane fuel sources. Ventless Fireplaces are fueled by liquid propane, bottled gas or natural gas. In the United States, some states and local counties have laws restricting these types of fireplaces, they must be properly sized to the area to be heated. There are air quality control issues due to the amount of moisture they release into the room air, oxygen sensor and carbon monoxide sensors are safety essentials. Direct vent fireplaces are fueled by natural gas, they are sealed from the area, heated, vent all exhaust gasses to the exterior of the structure. Chimney and flue types: Masonry with or without tile-lined flue. Reinforced concrete chimneys. Fundamental design flaws made the design obsolete; these chimneys show vertical cracks on the exterior. Metal-lined flue: Double or triple walled metal pipe running up inside a new or existing wood-framed or masonry chase.
Newly constructed flues may feature a chase cover, a cap, a spark arrestor at the top to keep small animals out and to prevent sparks from being broadcast into the atmosphere. All fireplaces require trained gas service members to carry out installations. A wide range of accessories are used with fireplaces, which range between countries and historical periods. For the interior, common in recent Western cultures include grates, log boxes, pellet baskets, fire dogs, all of which cradle fuel and accelerate burning. A grate is a frame of iron bars, to retain fuel for a fire. Heavy metal firebacks are sometimes used to capture and re-radiate heat, to protect the back of the fireplace, as decoration. Fenders are low metal frames set in front of the fireplace to contain embers and ash. For fireplace tending, tools include pokers, tongs, shovels and tool stands. Other wider accessories can include log baskets, companion sets, coal buckets, cabinet accessories and more. Ancient fire pits were sometimes built in the ground, within caves, or in the center of a hut or dwelling.
Evidence of prehistoric, man-made fires exists on all five inhabited continents. The disadvantage of early indoor fire pits was that they produced toxic and/or irritating smoke inside the dwelling. Fire pits developed into raised hearths in buildings, but venting smoke depended on open windows or holes in roofs; the medieval great hall had a centrally located hearth, where an open fire burned with the smoke rising to the vent in the roof. Louvers were developed during the Middle Ages to allow the roof vents to be covered so rain and snow would not enter. During the Middle Ages, smoke canopies were invented to prevent smoke from spreading through a room and vent it out through a wall or roof; these could be placed against stone walls, instead of taking up the middle of the room, this allowed smaller rooms to be heated. Chimneys were invented in northern Europe in the 11th or 12th centuries and fixed the problem of fumes, more reliably venting smoke outside, they made it possible to give the fireplace a draft, made it possible to put fireplaces in multiple rooms in buildings conveniently.
They did not come into general use however, as they were expensive to build and maintain. In 1678 Prince Rupert, nephew of Charles I, raised the grate of the fireplace, improving the airflow and venting system; the 18th century saw two important developments in the history of fireplaces. Benjamin Franklin developed a convection chamber for the fireplace that improved the efficiency of fireplaces and wood stoves, he improved the airflow by pulling air from a basement and venting out a longer area at the top. In the 18th century, Count Rumford designed a fireplace with a tall, shallow firebox, better at drawing the smoke up and out o
Marceline is a city in Chariton and Linn counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. The population was 2,221 at the 2010 census. Marceline was laid out in 1887, named after the wife of a railroad man. A post office called Marceline has been in operation since 1887. Marceline is located at 39°42′52″N 92°56′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.32 square miles, of which 3.28 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,233 people, 970 households, 606 families residing in the city; the population density was 680.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,151 housing units at an average density of 350.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.0% White, 0.3% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 970 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.5% were non-families.
34.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,558 people, 1,079 households, 690 families residing in the city; the population density was 787.1 people per square mile. There were 1,237 housing units at an average density of 380.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 98.20% White, 0.12% African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.20% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 1,079 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families.
32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,164, the median income for a family was $35,948. Males had a median income of $26,786 versus $17,382 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,086. About 9.0% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over. Walt Disney and founder of The Walt Disney Company, spent four years of his childhood on a farm near Marceline. Main Street, U. S. A. A land found in Disneyland as well as in other Disney theme parks worldwide, was inspired by Disney's childhood growing up in Marceline.
The Walt Disney Hometown Museum is located in the former Santa Fe rail depot in Marceline. Barrier, J. Michael. "The Pet in the Family: On the Farm and in the City, 1901-1923", The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520241176 Official website Historic maps of Marceline in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri
Walt Disney Studios Park
Walt Disney Studios Park is the second of two theme parks built at Disneyland Paris in Marne-la-Vallée, which opened on March 16, 2002. It is dedicated to show business, themed after movies and behind-the-scenes. In 2017, the park hosted 5.200 million guests, making it the third-most visited amusement park in Europe and the 22nd-most visited in the world, though it has the lowest attendance figures of all twelve Walt Disney parks. Its sister park is Disney's Hollywood Studios at Walt Disney World in Florida; the park is represented by the Earffel Tower, a water tower similar to one, installed at the Walt Disney Studios lot in Burbank, California. On February 27, 2018, Bob Iger announced a Transformative Multi Year Expansion, opening in phases from 2021 to 2025, which will transform the park; the cost of this expansion is €2 billion. It will feature Star Wars and Frozen themed areas, all surrounding a new man-made lake. To all who enter this studio of dreams...welcome. Walt Disney Studios is dedicated to our timeless fascination and affection for cinema and television.
Here we celebrate the art and the artistry of storytellers from Europe and around the world who create magic. May this special place stir our own memories of the past, our dreams of the future. Initial plans for a second theme park, named Disney-MGM Studios Europe or Disney-MGM Studios Paris, were scheduled to open in 1996, though these plans were cancelled around mid-1992 due to the resort's financial crisis at the time. After the resort began to make a profit, these plans were revived on a much smaller scale. Walt Disney Studios Park opened on March 16, 2002. In June 2007, a new "studio lot" opened in the Animation Courtyard area of the park, named Toon Studio, it is themed as a "toon backlot", representing the film studio work place of animated characters, where they produce their animated films, including The Little Mermaid, 101 Dalmatians, The Jungle Book. The concept has been created for Walt Disney Studios Park and features two rides not seen in any other Disney theme park, along with small merchandising locations and many character meet-and-greets.
In this expansion phase are Crush's Coaster, a custom-designed Maurer Söhne SC 2000 indoor spinning roller coaster, Cars: Race Rally themed after the 2006 Disney/Pixar film Cars, with the ride taking the form of an enhanced tea cups ride. Similar rides are found in Mermaid Lagoon at Tokyo DisneySea and A Bug's Land at Disney California Adventure. On December 22, 2007, The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror soft-opened with the new Hollywood Boulevard on Production Courtyard. Stitch Live!, imported from Hong Kong Disneyland, replaced the Disney Channel Studio Tour. In 2009, new entertainment opened at Walt Disney Studios to run alongside Mickey's Magical Party, which began in April 2009. Playhouse Disney Live On Stage! opened next to Stitch Live! and is presented in French and Spanish. Walt Disney Studios opened with a full size parade called'Disney's Cinema Parade', themed after popular Disney animated and live action films. In 2008 the parade was replaced with'Disney's Stars'n' Cars', a smaller version of Disney Stars and Motor Cars Parade, which came from Disney's Hollywood Studios in Walt Disney World in Florida.
In August 2010, Toy Story Playland opened to coincide with the new Disney·Pixar film Toy Story 3, "shrinking" guests to the size of a toy. The three attractions are a Half pipe coaster named RC Racer, a parachute jump style ride named Toy Soldiers Parachute Drop and a Music Express train named Slinky Dog Zigzag Spin, all themed intricately around the first 2 Toy Story films. Walt Disney Studios Park is divided into four "studio lots", representing various aspects of film production present at a Hollywood film studio. Front Lot serves as the park’s main entrance and is home to most shops and services of the park, the Earffel Tower is located here; the entrance courtyard, La Place des Frères Lumière, is designed in Spanish Colonial Revival style, a style common to 1930's Hollywood. It is loosely based on the design of the original Disney Bros. Studios on Hyperion Avenue; the central feature of the courtyard is a large Fantasia fountain. The name of the courtyard is a tribute to the French inventors of cinema.
Front Lot features Disney Studio 1, a covered walkway with shops and restaurants themed after a soundstage with a recreation of a Hollywood street inside. Restaurants: Restaurant en CoulisseShops: Walt Disney Studios Store Les Légends d'Hollywood Studio Photo Toon Studio is inspired by Disney and Pixar animated characters; the lot features such Disney and Pixar characters as Crush, The Genie and Lightning McQueen, Buzz Lightyear, Woody and other characters from Toy Story, in addition to the other Disney characters present in the land’s show and the Magician. When the park opened in 2002, the land was known as Animation Courtyard but in 2007, as part of the park’s 5th Anniversary, two new rides were added. In 2009, the area was expanded with Toy Story Playland. In January 2012, construction began on restaurant. Attractions: Flying Carpets Over Agrabah is a spinner ride similar to Dumbo the Flying Elephant where riders sit in magic carpets and act as extras in Genie’s directorial debut; the attraction is set against a large “movie set” backdrop of Agrabah.
Crush's Coaster is a spinning roller coaster where guests enter the beached sound stage and film set of Finding Nemo, where Crush invites them to climb aboard sea turtle shells for a ride through memorable scenes from the movie. Cars Quatre Roues Rallye is a Zamperla Demolition Derby where guests spin at
Magic Kingdom is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, near Orlando. Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks and Products division, the park opened on October 1, 1971, as the first of four theme parks at the resort; the park was designed by WED Enterprises. Its layout and attractions are based on Disneyland Park in Anaheim and are dedicated to fairy tales and Disney characters; the park is represented by Cinderella Castle, inspired by the fairy tale castle seen in the 1950 film. In 2017, the park hosted 20.450 million visitors, making it the most visited theme park in the world for the twelfth consecutive year and the most visited theme park in North America for at least the past eighteen years. Although Walt Disney had been involved in planning the Florida Project, he died before he could see the vision through. After Walt's death, Walt Disney Productions began construction on Magic Kingdom and the entire resort in 1967; the park was built as a larger, improved version of Disneyland Park in California.
There are several anecdotes regarding some of the features of Walt Disney World, Magic Kingdom specifically. According to one story, Walt Disney once saw a Frontierland cowboy walking through Tomorrowland at Disneyland, he disliked that the cowboy intruded on the futuristic setting of Tomorrowland and wanted to avoid situations like this in the new park. Therefore, Magic Kingdom was built over a series of tunnels called utilidors, a portmanteau of utility and corridor, allowing employees or VIP guests to move through the park out of sight; because of Florida's high water table, the tunnels could not be put underground, so they were built at the existing grade, meaning the park is built on the second story, giving Magic Kingdom an elevation of 108 feet. The area around the utilidors was filled in with dirt removed from the Seven Seas Lagoon, being constructed at the same time; the utilidors were not extended as the park expanded. The tunnels were intended to be designed into all subsequent Walt Disney World parks, but were set aside because of financial constraints.
Epcot's Future World and Disney Springs' Pleasure Island each have a smaller network of utilidors. Magic Kingdom opened as the first part of the Walt Disney World Resort on October 1, 1971, commencing concurrently with Disney's Contemporary Resort and Disney's Polynesian Village Resort, it opened with twenty-three attractions, three unique to the park and twenty replicas of attractions at Disneyland, split into six themed lands, five copies of those at Disneyland and the Magic Kingdom exclusive of Liberty Square. The Walt Disney Company promised to increase this number with a combination of replicas and unique attractions. While there is no individual dedication to Magic Kingdom, the dedication by Roy O. Disney for the entire resort was placed within its gates; the only land added to the original roster of lands in the park was Mickey's Toontown Fair. The land opened in 1988 as Mickey's Birthdayland to celebrate Mickey Mouse's 60th birthday; the land was renovated as Mickey's Starland and to Mickey's Toontown Fair.
The land was home to attractions such as Mickey's Country House, Minnie's Country House, The Barnstormer at Goofy's Wiseacre Farm, Donald's Boat. It closed on February 2011, to make way for the expansion of Fantasyland; the Walt Disney World Railroad station in Mickey's Toontown Fair, which opened with Mickey's Birthdayland in 1988, was closed for the duration of the construction. In 2012, the space where Mickey's Toontown Fair sat reopened as a part of Fantasyland, in a sub-land called the Storybook Circus, where the Dumbo the Flying Elephant was relocated; the Barnstormer was re-themed to The Great Goofini. Since opening day, Magic Kingdom has been closed temporarily because of seven hurricanes: Floyd, Frances, Wilma and Irma; the only non-hurricane related day the park has closed is on September 11, 2001, due to the terrorist attacks that day. In addition, there are four "phases" of park closure when Magic Kingdom exceeds capacity, ranging from restricted access for most guests to full closure for everyone cast members."Magic Kingdom" was used as an unofficial nickname for Disneyland before Walt Disney World was built.
The official tagline for Disneyland is "The Happiest Place On Earth", while the tagline for Magic Kingdom is "The Most Magical Place On Earth". Up until the early 1990s, Magic Kingdom was known as Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom, was never printed without the Walt Disney World prefix; this purpose was to differentiate between the park and Disneyland in California, is commonly referred to as the Magic Kingdom. In 1994, to differentiate it from Disneyland, the park was renamed Magic Kingdom Park, but is still known as Magic Kingdom or sometimes The Magic Kingdom. Like all Disney theme parks, the official name of the park does not start with an article, though it is referred to that way. Alcoholic beverages had been prohibited from the park since its opening, but this policy has changed in recent years. In 2012, the Be Our Guest restaurant opened selling beer for the first time; this was the only place in the park where alcohol was permitted until December 2016 when four additional restaurants began selling beer and wine including Cinderella's Royal Table, Liberty Tree Tavern, Tony's Town Square Restaurant, the Jungle Navigation Co. Ltd.