Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships. Clinical neuropsychologists use this knowledge in the assessment, treatment, or rehabilitation of patients across the lifespan with neurological, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning disorders; the branch of neuropsychology associated with children and young people is pediatric neuropsychology. Clinical neuropsychology is a specialized form of clinical psychology. Strict rules are in place to maintain evidence as a focal point of treatment and research within clinical neuropsychology; the assessment and rehabilitation of neuropsychopathologies is the focus for a clinical neuropsychologist. A clinical neuropsychologist must be able to determine whether a symptom may be caused by an injury to the head through interviewing a patient in order to determine what actions should be taken to best help the patient. Another duty of a clinical neuropsychologist is to find cerebral abnormalities and possible correlations.
Evidence based practice in both research and treatment is paramount to appropriate clinical neuropsychological practice. Assessment is by way of neuropsychological tests, but includes patient history, qualitative observation and may draw on findings from neuroimaging and other diagnostic medical procedures. Clinical neuropsychology requires an in-depth knowledge of: neuroanatomy, psychopharmacology and neuropathology. During the late 1800s, brain–behavior relationships were interpreted by European physicians who observed and identified behavioural syndromes that were related with focal brain dysfunction. Clinical neuropsychology is a new practice in comparison to other specialty fields in psychology with history going back to the 1960s; the specialty focus of clinical neuropsychology evolved into a more defined whole as interest grew. Threads from neurology, clinical psychology, cognitive psychology, psychometrics all have been woven together to create the intricate tapestry of clinical neuropsychology, a practice, much so still evolving.
The history of clinical neuropsychology is long and complicated due to its ties to so many older practices. Researchers like Thomas Willis, credited with creating neurology, John Hughlings Jackson who theorized that cognitive processes occurred in specific parts of the brain, Paul Broca and Karl Wernicke who studied the human brain in relation to psychopathology, Jean Martin Charcot who apprenticed Sigmund Freud who created the psychoanalytic theory all contributed to clinical medicine which contributed to clinical neuropsychology; the field of psychometrics contributed to clinical neuropsychology through individuals such as Francis Galton who collected quantitative data on physical and sensory characteristics, Karl Pearson who established the statistics which psychology now relies on, Wilhelm Wundt who created the first psychology lab, his student Charles Spearman who furthered statistics through discoveries like factor analysis, Alfred Binet and his apprentice Theodore Simon who together made the Binet-Simon scale of intellectual development, Jean Piaget who studied child development.
Studies in intelligence testing made by Lewis Terman who updated the Binet-Simon scale to the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale, Henry Goddard who developed different classification scales, Robert Yerkes, in charge of the Army Alpha and Beta tests all contributed to where clinical neuropsychology is today. Clinical neuropsychology goes back to the beginning of the 20th century; as a clinician a clinical neuropsychologist offers their services by addressing three steps. The term clinical neuropsychologist was first made by Sir William Osler on April 16, 1913. While clinical neuropsychology was not a focus until the 20th century evidence of brain and behavior treatment and studies are seen as far back as the neolithic area when trephination, a crude surgery in which a piece of the skull is removed, has been observed in skulls; as a profession, clinical neuropsychology is a subspecialty beneath clinical psychology. During World War I the early term shell shock was first observed in soldiers; this was the beginning of efforts how they affected people.
During the great depression further stressors caused shell shock like symptoms to emerge. In World War II the term shell shock was changed to battle fatigue and clinical neuropsychology became more involved with attempting to solve the puzzle of peoples' continued signs of trauma and distress; the Veterans Administration or VA was created in 1930 which increased the call for clinical neuropsychologists and by extension the need for training. The Korean and Vietnam Wars further solidified the need for treatment by trained clinical neuropsychologists. In 1985 the term post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD was coined and the understanding that traumatic events of all kinds could cause PTSD started to evolve; the relationship between human behavior and the brain is the focus of clinical neuropsychology as defined by Meir in 1974. There are two subdivisions of clinical neuropsychology. Ralph M. Reitan, Arthur L. Benton, A. R. Luria are all past neuropsychologists whom believed and studied the organic nature of clinical neuropsychology.
On the other side, environmental nature of clinical neuropsyc
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as competence in a specific area; the concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, images and other basic means to understand, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture; the concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate; the key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills which begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, which culminates in the deep understanding of text.
Reading development involves a range of complex language-underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds, spelling patterns, word meaning and patterns of word formation, all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired, a reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis and synthesis; the inability to do so is called "illiteracy" or "analphabetism". Experts at a United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization meeting have proposed defining literacy as the "ability to identify, interpret, create and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts"; the experts note: "Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, to participate in their community and wider society". Literacy emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8000 BCE.
Script developed independently at least five times in human history Mesopotamia, the Indus civilization, lowland Mesoamerica, China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Serbia, followed by Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE. During this era, literacy was "a functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production; the token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites; the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems; the earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, animals hunted, which were activities of the elite; these oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. Indus script is pictorial and has not been deciphered yet, it may not include abstract signs. It is thought that the script is thought to be logographic; because it has not been deciphered, linguists disagree on whether it is a complete and independent writing system. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, less than 1% of the population was literate, as it was confined to a small ruling elite.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet. Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels, but Goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones, developed earlier in Western Asia". Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain an alphabet, as well as references to the Canaanite goddess Asherah.
In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence, discovered subsequent to G
In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses and words in any given natural language. The term refers to the study of such rules, this field includes phonology and syntax complemented by phonetics and pragmatics. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules for using that language, these rules constitute that language's grammar; the vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood. Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use; the term "grammar" can be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", may have several meanings, it may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation.
Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers. Or it may refer to the rules of a particular well-defined variety of English. A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may be referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or "a grammar". A explicit grammar that exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a particular lect is called a descriptive grammar; this kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense, or in reference to a standard variety. For example, preposition stranding occurs in Germanic languages, has a long history in English, is considered standard usage. John Dryden, objected to it, leading other English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use. Outside linguistics, the term grammar is used in a rather different sense.
In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography, the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to a set of prescriptive norms only and excluding those aspects of a language's grammar that are not subject to variation or debate on their normative acceptability. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "Grammar is a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to." The word grammar is derived from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη, which means "art of letters", from γράμμα, "letter", itself from γράφειν, "to draw, to write". The same Greek root appears in graphics and photograph. Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest language known to the world; the grammatical rules were formulated by Indra, etc. but the modern systematic grammar, of Sanskrit, originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska, Pāṇini and his commentators Pingala and Patanjali.
Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is dated to before the 5th century AD. The Babylonians made some early attempts at language description,In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd century BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace; the oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar, a succinct guide to speaking and writing and written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax, a student of Aristarchus of Samothrace who established a school on the Greek island of Rhodes. Dionysius Thrax's grammar book remained the primary grammar textbook for Greek schoolboys until as late as the twelfth century AD; the Romans based their grammatical writings on it and its basic format remains the basis for grammar guides in many languages today. Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, Aemilius Asper.
A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces. Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali in the 7th century; the first treatises on Hebrew grammar appeared in the context of Mishnah. The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad; the Diqduq is one of the earliest grammatical commentaries on the Hebrew Bible. Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition. Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars began during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
During the 16th-century Italian Ren
Tip of the tongue
Tip of the tongue is the phenomenon of failing to retrieve a word from memory, combined with partial recall and the feeling that retrieval is imminent. The phenomenon's name comes from the saying, "It's on the tip of my tongue." The tip of the tongue phenomenon reveals. People experiencing the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon can recall one or more features of the target word, such as the first letter, its syllabic stress, words similar in sound and/or meaning. Individuals report a feeling of being seized by the state, feeling something like mild anguish while searching for the word, a sense of relief when the word is found. While many aspects of the tip-of-the-tongue state remain unclear, there are two major competing explanations for its occurrence, the direct-access view and the inferential view; the direct-access view posits that the state occurs when memory strength is not enough to recall an item, but is strong enough to trigger the state. The inferential view claims that TOTs aren't based on inaccessible, yet activated targets.
Emotional-induced retrieval causes more TOT experiences than an neutral retrieval, such as asking where a famous icon was assassinated rather than asking the capital city of a state. Emotional TOT experiences have a longer retrieval time than non-emotional TOT experiences; the cause of this is unknown but possibilities include using a different retrieval strategy when having an emotional TOT experience rather than a non-emotional TOT experience, fluency at the time of retrieval, strength of memory. TOT states should be separated from FOK states. FOK, in contrast, is the feeling that one will be able to recognize - from a list of items - an item, inaccessible. There are still opposing articles of the separability of the process underlying these concepts. However, there is some evidence that FOKs draw on different parts of the brain. TOTs are associated with the anterior cingulate, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior cortex while FOKs are not. An occasional tip-of-the-tongue state is normal for people of all ages.
TOT becomes more frequent as people age. TOT is only a medical condition when it becomes frequent enough to interfere with learning or daily life; this disorder is called anomic aphasia when acquired by brain damage from a head injury, stroke, or dementia. The tip of the tongue phenomenon has implications for research in psycholinguistics and metacognition; the term "tip of the tongue" is borrowed from colloquial usage, a calque from the French phrase avoir le mot sur le bout de la langue. The tip of the tongue phenomenon was first described as a psychological phenomenon in the text The Principles of Psychology by William James, although he did not label it as such. Sigmund Freud discussed unconscious psychological factors, such as unconscious thoughts and impulses that might cause forgetting familiar words; the first empirical research on this phenomenon was undertaken by Harvard researchers Roger Brown and David McNeill and published in 1966 in the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior.
Brown and McNeill wanted to determine whether the feeling of imminent retrieval experienced in the tip of the tongue state was based on actual retrieval ability or was just an illusion. In their study, Brown and McNeill read out definitions of rare words to the study participants and asked them to name the object being defined, the target word was read by the experimenter. Participants were instructed to report. Three types of positive TOT states were identified by Brown and McNeill: the participant recognized the word read by the experimenter as the word he had been seeking, the participant recalled the word before it was read by the experimenter, subject recalled the word they were seeking before the target word was read by the experimenter, but the recalled word was not the intended target. If a participant indicated a tip of the tongue state, they were asked to provide any information about the target word they could recall. Brown and McNeill found that participants could identify the first letter of the target word, the number of syllables of the target word, words of similar sound, words of similar meaning, syllabic pattern, the serial position of some letters in the target word better than would be expected by chance.
Their findings demonstrated the legitimacy of the feeling of knowing experienced in a tip of the tongue state. This study was the foundation for subsequent research about tip of the tongue phenomenon. Tip of the tongue experiences occur in people regardless of gender; the tip of the tongue phenomenon is known to occur in young adulthood, middle age, older adulthood. Tip of the tongue experiences in childhood have not been studied. Education level is not thought to be a factor in the experience of tip of the tongue states. Monolinguals and multilinguals all experience tip of the tongue states, although with varying frequencies. Many languages other than English have equivalent colloquial terms for the tip of the tongue experience, suggesting that it is a common experience across cultures. In a study by B. L. Schwartz, 45 of the 51 languages surveyed have an idiom referring to the tip of the tongue phenomenon that references the tongue, mouth, or throat as a metaphor; the direct English translations of these idioms are "on the tongue", "on the tip/point/head of the tongue", "on the top of the tongue", "on the front of the tongue", "
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand. Handwriting includes both printing and cursive styles and is separate from formal calligraphy or typeface; because each person's handwriting is unique and different, it can be used to verify a document's writer. The deterioration of a person's handwriting is a symptom or result of certain diseases; the inability to produce clear and coherent handwriting is known as dysgraphia. Each person has their own unique style of handwriting, whether it is everyday handwriting or their personal signature. Identical twins who share appearance and genetics do not have the same handwriting; the place where one grows up and the first language one learns melt together with the different distribution of force and ways of shaping words to create a unique style of handwriting for each person. Characteristics of handwriting include: specific shape of letters, e.g. their roundness or sharpness regular or irregular spacing between letters the slope of the letters the rhythmic repetition of the elements or arrhythmia the pressure to the paper the average size of letters the thickness of letters Children with ADHD have been found to be more to have less legible handwriting, make more spelling errors, more insertions and/or deletions of letters and more corrections.
In children with these difficulties, the letters tend to be larger with wide variability of letters, letter spacing, word spacing, the alignment of letters on the baseline. Variability of handwriting increases with longer texts. Fluency of the movement is normal but children with ADHD were more to make slower movements during the handwriting task and hold the pen longer in the air between movements when they had to write complex letters, implying that planning the movement may take longer. Children who have ADHD were more to have difficulty parameterising movements in a consistent way; this has been explained with motor skill impairment either due to lack of attention or lack of inhibition. To anticipate a change of direction between strokes constant visual attention is essential. With inattention, changes will occur too late, resulting in higher letters and poor alignment of letters on the baseline; the influence of medication on the quality of handwriting is not clear. Because handwriting is stable, a change in the handwriting can be indicative of the nervousness or intoxication of the writer.
A sample of a person's writing can be compared to that of a written document to determine and authenticate the written document's writer. Graphology is the pseudoscientific study and analysis of handwriting in relation to human psychology. Graphology is used as a recruiting tool in the applicant screening process for predicting personality traits and job performance, despite research showing negative results for these uses. Asemic writing Block letters Book hand Calligraphy Cursive Handwriting movement analysis Penmanship Signature History of writing Gaze, T. & Jacobson, M.. An Anthology of Asemic Handwriting. Uitgeverij. ISBN 978-9081709170 Giesbrecht, Josh. "How The Ballpoint Pen Killed Cursive". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Kaiser, M.-L.. M.. H.. "What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Systematic review of the literature". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 36: 338–357. Doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.09.023.
PMID 25462494. Retrieved January 1, 2015
Multisensory integration known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, touch, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system. A coherent representation of objects combining modalities enables us to have meaningful perceptual experiences. Indeed, multisensory integration is central to adaptive behavior because it allows us to perceive a world of coherent perceptual entities. Multisensory integration deals with how different sensory modalities interact with one another and alter each other's processing. Multimodal perception is a scientific term that describes how animals form coherent and robust perception by processing sensory stimuli from various modalities. Surrounded by multiple objects and receiving multiple sensory stimulations, the brain is faced with the decision of how to categorize the stimuli resulting from different objects or events in the physical world; the nervous system is thus responsible for whether to integrate or segregate certain groups of temporally coincident sensory signals based on the degree of spatial and structural congruence of those stimulations.
Multimodal perception has been studied in cognitive science, behavioral science, neuroscience. There are four attributes of stimulus: modality, intensity and duration; the neocortex in the mammalian brain has parcellations that process sensory input from one modality. For example, primary visual area, V1, or primary somatosensory area, S1; these areas deal with low-level stimulus features such as brightness, intensity, etc. These areas have extensive connections to each other as well as to higher association areas that further process the stimuli and are believed to integrate sensory input from various modalities; however multisensory effects have been shown to occur in primary sensory areas as well. The relationship between the binding problem and multisensory perception can be thought of as a question – the binding problem, potential solution – multisensory perception; the binding problem stemmed from unanswered questions about how mammals generate a unified, coherent perception of their surroundings from the cacophony of electromagnetic waves, chemical interactions, pressure fluctuations that forms the physical basis of the world around us.
It was investigated in the visual domain in the auditory domain, in the multisensory areas. It can be said therefore. However, considerations of how unified conscious representations are formed are not the full focus of multisensory Integration research, it is important for the senses to interact in order to maximize how efficiently people interact with the environment. For perceptual experience and behavior to benefit from the simultaneous stimulation of multiple sensory modalities, integration of the information from these modalities is necessary; some of the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon and its subsequent effects on cognitive and behavioural processes will be examined hereafter. Perception is defined as one's conscious experience, thereby combines inputs from all relevant senses and prior knowledge. Perception is defined and studied in terms of feature extraction, several hundred milliseconds away from conscious experience. Notwithstanding the existence of Gestalt psychology schools that advocate a holistic approach to the operation of the brain, the physiological processes underlying the formation of percepts and conscious experience have been vastly understudied.
Burgeoning neuroscience research continues to enrich our understanding of the many details of the brain, including neural structures implicated in multisensory integration such as the superior colliculus and various cortical structures such as the superior temporal gyrus and visual and auditory association areas. Although the structure and function of the SC are well known, the cortex and the relationship between its constituent parts are presently the subject of much investigation. Concurrently, the recent impetus on integration has enabled investigation into perceptual phenomena such as the ventriloquism effect, rapid localization of stimuli and the McGurk effect. Studies of sensory processing in humans and other animals has traditionally been performed one sense at a time, to the present day, numerous academic societies and journals are restricted to considering sensory modalities separately. However, there is a long and parallel history of multisensory research. An example is the Stratton's experiments on the somatosensory effects of wearing vision-distorting prism glasses.
Multisensory interactions or crossmodal effects in which the perception of a stimulus is influenced by the presence of another type of stimulus are referred since early in the past. They were reviewed by Hartmann in a fundamental book where, among several references to different types of multisensory interactions, reference is made to the work of Urbantschitsch in 1888 who reported on the improvement of visual acuity by auditive stimuli in subjects with damaged brain; this effect was found latter in normals by Krakov and Hartmann, as well as the fact that the visual acuity could be improved by other type of stimuli. It is noteworthy the amount of work in the early thirties on intersensory relations in Soviet Union, reviewed by London. A remarkable multisensory research is the extensive work of Gonzalo in the forties on the characterization of a multisensory sy
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte