Carbon is one of Apple’s C-based application programming interfaces for Mac OS X, the operating system that powers Macintosh computers. Carbon provided a good degree of backward compatibility for programs that ran on Mac OS 8 and 9. Developers could use the Carbon APIs to port their “classic” Mac software to the Mac OS X platform with little effort, compared to porting the app to the different Cocoa system, which originated in OPENSTEP. Carbon was an important part of Apple's strategy for bringing Mac OS X to market, offering a path for quick porting of existing software applications, as well as a means of shipping applications that would run on either Mac OS X or the classic Mac OS; as the market has moved to the Cocoa-based frameworks after the release of iOS, the need for a porting library was diluted. Apple did not create a 64-bit version of Carbon while updating their other frameworks in the 2007 time-frame, deprecated the entire API in OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, released on July 24, 2012.
The original Mac OS used Object Pascal as its primary development platform, the APIs were based on Pascal's call semantics. Much of the Macintosh Toolbox consisted of procedure calls, passing information back and forth between the API and program using a variety of data structures based on Pascal's variant record concept. Over time, a number of object libraries evolved on the Mac, notably MacApp and the Think Class Library in Pascal, versions of MacApp and CodeWarrior's PowerPlant in C++. By the mid-1990s, most Mac software was written in C++ using CodeWarrior. With the purchase of NeXT in late 1996, Apple developed a new operating system strategy based on the existing OpenStep platform; the new Rhapsody was simple. When this plan was unveiled at the Worldwide Developers Conference in 1997 there was some push-back from existing Mac OS developers, who were upset that their code bases would be locked into an emulator, unlikely to be updated, they took to calling the Blue Box the "penalty box". Larger developers like Microsoft and Adobe balked outright, refused to consider porting to OpenStep, so different from the existing Mac OS that there was little or no compatibility.
Apple took these concerns to heart. When Steve Jobs announced this change in direction at the 1998 WWDC, he stated that "what developers wanted was a modern version of the Mac OS, Apple going to deliver it"; the statement was met with thunderous applause. The original Rhapsody concept was released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, the only release of its type. In order to offer a real and well supported upgrade path for existing Mac OS code bases, Apple introduced the Carbon system. Carbon consists of many libraries and functions that offer a Mac-like API, but running on top of the underlying Unix-like OS, rather than a copy of the Mac OS running in emulation; the Carbon libraries are extensively cleaned up, modernized and better "protected". While the Mac OS was filled with APIs that shared memory to pass data, under Carbon all such access was re-implemented using accessor subroutines on opaque data types; this allowed Carbon to support true multitasking and memory protection, features Mac developers had been requesting for a decade.
Other changes from the pre-existing API removed features which were conceptually incompatible with Mac OS X, or obsolete. For example, applications could no longer install interrupt handlers or device drivers. In order to support Carbon, the entire Rhapsody model changed. Whereas Rhapsody would be OpenStep with an emulator, under the new system both the OpenStep and Carbon API would, where possible, share common code. To do this, many of the useful bits of code from the lower-levels of the OpenStep system, written in Objective-C and known as Foundation, were re-implemented in pure C; this code became known as CF for short. A version of the Yellow Box ported to call CF became the new Cocoa API, the Mac-like calls of Carbon called the same functions. Under the new system and Cocoa were peers; this conversion would have slowed the performance of Cocoa as the object methods called into the underlying C libraries, but Apple used a technique they called toll-free bridging to reduce this impact. As part of this conversion, Apple ported the graphics engine from the licence-encumbered Display PostScript to the licence-free Quartz.
Quartz provided native calls that could be used from either Carbon or Cocoa, as well as offering Java 2D-like interfaces as well. The underlying operating system itself was further released as Darwin. Carbon was introduced in incomplete form in 2000, as a shared library backward-compatible with 1997's Mac OS 8.1. This version allowed developers to port their code to Carbon without losing the ability for those programs to run on existing Mac OS machines. Porting to Carbon became known as "Carbonization". Official Mac OS X support arrived in 2001 with the release of Mac OS X v10.0, the first public version of the new OS. Carbon was widely used in early versions of Mac OS X by all major software houses by Apple; the Finder, for instance, remained a Carbon application for many years, only being ported to Cocoa with the release of Mac OS 10.6 in 2009. The transition to 64-bit Macintosh applications beginning with M
Silicon Graphics, Inc. was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software. Founded in Mountain View, California in November 1981 by Jim Clark, its initial market was 3D graphics computer workstations, but its products and market positions developed over time. Early systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at Stanford University, were derived from Clark's broader background in computer graphics; the Geometry Engine was the first very-large-scale integration implementation of a geometry pipeline, specialized hardware that accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images. For much of its history, the company focused on 3D imaging and was a major supplier of both hardware and software in this market. Silicon Graphics reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in January 1990. Through the mid to late-1990s, the improving performance of commodity Wintel machines began to erode SGI's stronghold in the 3D market.
The porting of Maya to other platforms is a major event in this process. SGI made several attempts to address this, including a disastrous move from their existing MIPS platforms to the Intel Itanium, as well as introducing their own Linux-based Intel IA-32 based workstations and servers that failed in the market. In the mid-2000s the company repositioned itself as a supercomputer vendor, a move that failed. On April 1, 2009, SGI filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and announced that it would sell all of its assets to Rackable Systems, a deal finalized on May 11, 2009, with Rackable assuming the name Silicon Graphics International; the remains of Silicon Graphics, Inc. became Graphics Properties Holdings, Inc. James H. Clark left his position as an electrical engineering associate professor at Stanford University to found SGI in 1982 along with a group of seven graduate students and research staff from Stanford: Kurt Akeley, David J. Brown, Tom Davis, Rocky Rhodes, Marc Hannah, Herb Kuta, Mark Grossman.
Ed McCracken was CEO of Silicon Graphics from 1984 to 1997. During those years, SGI grew from annual revenues of $5.4 million to $3.7 billion. The addition of 3D graphic capabilities to PCs, the ability of clusters of Linux- and BSD-based PCs to take on many of the tasks of larger SGI servers, ate into SGI's core markets; the porting of Maya to Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows further eroded the low end of SGI's product line. In response to challenges faced in the marketplace and a falling share price Ed McCracken was fired and SGI brought in Richard Belluzzo to replace him. Under Belluzzo's leadership a number of initiatives were taken which are considered to have accelerated the corporate decline. One such initiative was trying to sell workstations running Windows NT called Visual Workstations instead of just ones which ran IRIX, the company's version of UNIX; this put the company in more direct competition with the likes of Dell, making it more difficult to justify a price premium. The product line abandoned a few years later.
SGI's premature announcement of its migration from MIPS to Itanium and its abortive ventures into IA-32 architecture systems damaged SGI's credibility in the market. In 1999, in an attempt to clarify their current market position as more than a graphics company, Silicon Graphics Inc. changed its corporate identity to "SGI", although its legal name was unchanged. At the same time, SGI announced a new logo consisting of only the letters "sgi" in a proprietary font called "SGI", created by branding and design consulting firm Landor Associates, in collaboration with designer Joe Stitzlein. SGI continued to use the "Silicon Graphics" name for its workstation product line, re-adopted the cube logo for some workstation models. In November 2005, SGI announced that it had been delisted from the New York Stock Exchange because its common stock had fallen below the minimum share price for listing on the exchange. SGI's market capitalization dwindled from a peak of over seven billion dollars in 1995 to just $120 million at the time of delisting.
In February 2006, SGI noted. In mid-2005, SGI hired Alix Partners to advise it on returning to profitability and received a new line of credit. SGI announced it was postponing its scheduled annual December stockholders meeting until March 2006, it proposed a reverse stock split to deal with the de-listing from the New York Stock Exchange. In January 2006, SGI hired Dennis McKenna as its new chairman of the board of directors. Mr. McKenna succeeded Robert Bishop. On May 8, 2006, SGI announced that it had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection for itself and U. S. subsidiaries as part of a plan to reduce debt by $250 million. Two days the U. S. Bankruptcy Court approved its first day motions and its use of a $70 million financing facility provided by a group of its bondholders. Foreign subsidiaries were unaffected. On September 6, 2006, SGI announced the end of development for the MIPS/IRIX line and the IRIX operating system. Production would end on December 29 and the last orders would be fulfilled by March 2007.
Support for these products would end after December 2013. SGI emerged from bankruptcy protection on October 17, 2006, its stock symbol at that point, SGID.pk, was canceled, new stock was issued on the NASDAQ exchange under the symbol SGIC. This new stock was distributed to the company's creditors, the SGID common stockh
A computer font is implemented as a digital data file containing a set of graphically related glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats. Although the term font first referred to a set of movable metal type pieces in one style and size, since the 1990s it is used to refer to a set of digital shapes in a single style, scalable to different sizes. A font family or typeface refers to the collection of related fonts across sizes. There are three basic kinds of computer font file data formats: Bitmap fonts consist of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image of each glyph in each face and size. Vector fonts use Bézier curves, drawing instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph, which make the character outlines scalable to any size. Stroke fonts use a series of specified lines and additional information to define the profile, or size and shape of the line in a specific face, which together describe the appearance of the glyph. Bitmap fonts are faster and easier to use in computer code, but non-scalable, requiring a separate font for each size.
Outline and stroke fonts can be resized using a single font and substituting different measurements for components of each glyph, but are somewhat more complicated to render on screen than bitmap fonts, as they require additional computer code to render the outline to a bitmap for display on screen or in print. Although all types are still in use, most fonts seen and used on computers are outline fonts. Fonts are created using font editors. Fonts designed for the computer screen and not printing are known as screen fonts. Fonts can be proportional. However, the particular font-handling application can affect the spacing when doing justification. A bitmap font is one, it is less known as a raster font. Bitmap fonts are collections of raster images of glyphs. For each variant of the font, there is a complete set of glyph images, with each set containing an image for each character. For example, if a font has three sizes, any combination of bold and italic there must be 12 complete sets of images. Advantages of bitmap fonts include: Extremely fast and simple to render Easier to create than other kinds.
Unscaled bitmap fonts always give the same output when displayed on the same specification display Best for low-quality or small-size displays where the font needs to be fine-tuned to display clearlyThe primary disadvantage of bitmap fonts is that the visual quality tends to be poor when scaled or otherwise transformed, compared to outline and stroke fonts, providing many optimized and purpose-made sizes of the same font increases memory usage. The earliest bitmap fonts were only available in certain optimized sizes such as 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 points, with custom fonts available in only one specific size, such as a headline font at only 72 points; the limited processing power and memory of early computer systems forced exclusive use of bitmap fonts. Improvements in hardware have allowed them to be replaced with outline or stroke fonts in cases where arbitrary scaling is desirable, but bitmap fonts are still in common use in embedded systems and other places where speed and simplicity are considered important.
Bitmap fonts are used in the Linux console, the Windows recovery console, embedded systems. Older dot matrix printers used bitmap fonts. Bitmap fonts may be used in cross-stitch. To draw a string using a bitmap font, means to successively output bitmaps of each character that the string comprises, performing per-character indentation. Digital bitmap fonts may use monochrome or shades of gray; the latter is anti-aliased. When displaying a text an operating system properly represents the "shades of gray" as intermediate colors between the color of the font and that of the background. However, if the text is represented as an image with transparent background, "shades of gray" require an image format allowing partial transparency. Bitmap fonts look best at their native pixel size; some systems using bitmap fonts can create some font variants algorithmically. For example, the original Apple Macintosh computer could produce bold by widening vertical strokes and oblique by shearing the image. At non-native sizes, many text rendering systems perform nearest-neighbor resampling, introducing rough jagged edges.
More advanced systems perform anti-aliasing on bitmap fonts whose size does not match the size that the application requests. This technique works well for making the font smaller but not as well for increasing the size, as it tends to blur the edges; some graphics systems that use bitmap fonts those of emulators, apply curve-sensitive nonlinear resampling algorithms such as 2xSaI or hq3x on fonts and other bitmaps, which avoids blurring the font while introducing little objectionable distortion at moderate increases in size. The difference between bitmap fonts and outline fonts is similar to the difference between bitmap and vector image file formats. Bitmap fonts are like image formats such as Windows Bitmap, Portable Network Graphics and Tagged Image Format, which store the image data as a grid of pixels, in some cases with compression. Outline or stroke image formats such as Windows Metafile format and Scalable Vector Graphics format, store
NeWS is a discontinued windowing system developed by Sun Microsystems in the mid-1980s. Known as "SunDew", its primary authors were James Gosling and David S. H. Rosenthal; the NeWS interpreter was based on PostScript extending it to allow interaction and multiple "contexts" to support windows. Like PostScript, NeWS could be used as a complete programming language, but unlike PostScript, NeWS could be used to make complete interactive programs with mouse support and a GUI. NeWS started by implementing a PostScript interpreter running in a cooperative multitasking fashion, unlike PostScript in a printer, NeWS would be displaying a number of PostScript programs at the same time on one screen, it added a complete view hierarchy, based on viewports known as canvases, a synchronous event distribution system, supporting events, interests and monitors. Like the view system in most GUIs, NeWS included the concept of a tree of embedded views along which events were passed. For instance, a mouse click would generate an event that would be passed to the object directly under the mouse pointer, say a button.
If this object did not respond to the event, the object "under" the button would receive the message, so on. NeWS included a complete model for these events, including timers and other automatic events, input queues for devices such as mice and keyboards, other functionality required for full interaction; the input handling system was designed to provide strong event synchronization guarantees that were not possible with asynchronous protocols like X. To support user interface widgets, NeWS expanded the original PostScript stack-based language into a complete object oriented programming style with inheritance; this eliminated the need for an external OO language to build a complete application. Since all of these additions were implemented as extensions to PostScript, it was possible to write simple PostScript code that would result in a running, interactive program. Two popular demonstration programs were an onscreen clock, which required about two pages of code, a program which drew a pair of eyes that followed the cursor as it moved around the screen.
The eyeball program was shown at SIGGRAPH in 1988, was the inspiration for the well-known X application xeyes. NeWS included several libraries of user interface elements, themselves written in NeWS; these widgets ran all of their behaviour in the NeWS interpreter, only required communications to an outside program when the widget demanded it. For example, a toggle button's display routine can query the button's state and change its display accordingly; the button's PostScript code can react to mouse clicks by changing its state from "pressed" to "not pressed" and vice versa. All this can happen in the windowing server without interaction with the client program, only when the mouse is released on the button will an event be sent off for handling; this was more sophisticated than the X Window System server model, which can only report "mouse was pushed down here", "mouse is now here", "mouse was released here" events to a client, which has to figure out if the event is in the button, switch the state, instruct the server to display the new state.
HyperLook, developed by Arthur van Hoff at The Turing Institute, was an interactive application design system. Don Hopkins developed a NeWS version of SimCity, built with HyperLook. A commercial drawing program, Altsys Virtuoso, was produced for NeWS. Sun announced the end of support for NeWS just as Virtuoso became ready to ship. Compared to X, NeWS was vastly more powerful, but slower; the C API was low level and difficult to use, so that most NeWS programs tended to be written in PostScript. Another factor in the popularity was that Sun charged a fee to license the NeWS source code, while the MIT X11 code was free of cost; the first versions of NeWS emulated the X10 protocol by translating the calls into NeWS PostScript. Speed problems plus the existence of programs that relied on the exact pixel results of X10 calls, the obsolescence of X10, forced Sun to release an X11/NeWS hybrid called Xnews which ran an X11 server in parallel with the PostScript interpreter; this degraded the NeWS interpreter performance and was not considered a good X11 server either.
Sun implemented the OPEN LOOK user interface specification in several
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent representation of graphics or text on paper. While most output is human-readable, bar code printers are an example of an expanded use for printers; the first computer printer designed was a mechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage for his difference engine in the 19th century. The first electronic printer was the EP-101, invented by Japanese company Epson and released in 1968; the first commercial printers used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. The demand for higher speed led to the development of new systems for computer use. In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similar to typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, dot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced low-quality output; the plotter was used for those requiring high quality line art like blueprints. The introduction of the low-cost laser printer in 1984 with the first HP LaserJet, the addition of PostScript in next year's Apple LaserWriter, set off a revolution in printing known as desktop publishing.
Laser printers using PostScript mixed text and graphics, like dot-matrix printers, but at quality levels available only from commercial typesetting systems. By 1990, most simple printing tasks like fliers and brochures were now created on personal computers and laser printed; the HP Deskjet of 1988 offered the same advantages as laser printer in terms of flexibility, but produced somewhat lower quality output from much less expensive mechanisms. Inkjet systems displaced dot matrix and daisy wheel printers from the market. By the 2000s high-quality printers of this sort had fallen under the $100 price point and became commonplace; the rapid update of internet email through the 1990s and into the 2000s has displaced the need for printing as a means of moving documents, a wide variety of reliable storage systems means that a "physical backup" is of little benefit today. The desire for printed output for "offline reading" while on mass transit or aircraft has been displaced by e-book readers and tablet computers.
Today, traditional printers are being used more for special purposes, like printing photographs or artwork, are no longer a must-have peripheral. Starting around 2010, 3D printing became an area of intense interest, allowing the creation of physical objects with the same sort of effort as an early laser printer required to produce a brochure; these devices have not yet become commonplace. Personal printers are designed to support individual users, may be connected to only a single computer; these printers are designed for low-volume, short-turnaround print jobs, requiring minimal setup time to produce a hard copy of a given document. However, they are slow devices ranging from 6 to around 25 pages per minute, the cost per page is high. However, this is offset by the on-demand convenience; some printers can print documents stored from digital cameras and scanners. Networked or shared printers are "designed for high-volume, high-speed printing", they are shared by many users on a network and can print at speeds of 45 to around 100 ppm.
The Xerox 9700 could achieve 120 ppm. A virtual printer is a piece of computer software whose user interface and API resembles that of a printer driver, but, not connected with a physical computer printer. A virtual printer can be used to create a file, an image of the data which would be printed, for archival purposes or as input to another program, for example to create a PDF or to transmit to another system or user. A barcode printer is a computer peripheral for printing barcode labels or tags that can be attached to, or printed directly on, physical objects. Barcode printers are used to label cartons before shipment, or to label retail items with UPCs or EANs. A 3D printer is a device for making a three-dimensional object from a 3D model or other electronic data source through additive processes in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control, it is called a printer by analogy with an inkjet printer which produces a two-dimensional document by a similar process of depositing a layer of ink on paper.
The choice of print technology has a great effect on the cost of the printer and cost of operation, speed and permanence of documents, noise. Some printer technologies do not work with certain types of physical media, such as carbon paper or transparencies. A second aspect of printer technology, forgotten is resistance to alteration: liquid ink, such as from an inkjet head or fabric ribbon, becomes absorbed by the paper fibers, so documents printed with liquid ink are more difficult to alter than documents printed with toner or solid inks, which do not penetrate below the paper surface. Cheques can be printed with liquid ink or on special cheque paper with toner anchorage so that alterations may be detected; the machine-readable lower portion of a cheque must be printed using MICR ink. Banks and other clearing houses employ automation equipment that relies on the magnetic flux from these specially printed characters to function properly; the following printing technologies are found in modern printers: A laser printer produces high quality text and graphics.
As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers, laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in
Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous-tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing, thus generating a gradient-like effect. "Halftone" can be used to refer to the image, produced by this process. Where continuous-tone imagery contains an infinite range of colors or greys, the halftone process reduces visual reproductions to an image, printed with only one color of ink, in dots of differing size or spacing or both; this reproduction relies on a basic optical illusion: when the halftone dots are small, the human eye interprets the patterned areas as if they were smooth tones. At a microscopic level, developed black-and-white photographic film consists of only two colors, not an infinite range of continuous tones. For details, see Film grain. Just as color photography evolved with the addition of filters and film layers, color printing is made possible by repeating the halftone process for each subtractive color – most using what is called the "CMYK color model".
The semi-opaque property of ink allows halftone dots of different colors to create another optical effect, full-color imagery. William Fox Talbot is credited with the idea of halftone printing. In an 1852 patent he suggested using "photographic screens or veils" in connection with a photographic intaglio process. Several different kinds of screens were proposed during the following decades. One of the well known attempts was by Stephen H. Horgan while working for the New York Daily Graphic; the first printed photograph was an image of Steinway Hall in Manhattan published on December 2, 1873. The Graphic published "the first reproduction of a photograph with a full tonal range in a newspaper" on March 4, 1880 with a crude halftone screen; the first successful commercial method was patented by Frederic Ives of Philadelphia in 1881. Although he found a way of breaking up the image into dots of varying sizes, he did not make use of a screen. In 1882, the German Georg Meisenbach patented a halftone process in England.
His invention was based on the previous ideas of Swan. He used single lined screens, he was the first to achieve any commercial success with relief halftones. Shortly afterwards, this time in collaboration with Louis and Max Levy, improved the process further with the invention and commercial production of quality cross-lined screens; the relief halftone process proved immediately to be a success. The use of halftone blocks in popular journals became regular during the early 1890s; the development of halftone printing methods for lithography appears to have followed a independent path. In the 1860s, A. Hoen & Co. focused on methods allowing artists to manipulate the tones of hand-worked printing stones. By the 1880s, Hoen was working on halftone methods that could be used in conjunction with either hand-worked or photolithographic stones. Prior to digitised images, special photographic techniques were developed to break grayscale images down into discrete points; the earliest of these was "screening" where a course-woven fabric screen was suspended before the camera plate to be exposed, breaking the incoming light into a pattern of dots via a combination of interruption and diffraction effects.
The photographic plate could be developed using photo-etching techniques to create a printing plate. Other techniques used a "screen" consisting of horizontal bars, combined with a second exposure with a screen of vertically orientated bars. Another method again was to use a specially designed plate with horizontal lines pre-etched into the surface; the resolution of a halftone screen is measured in lines per inch. This is the number of lines of dots in one inch, measured parallel with the screen's angle. Known as the screen ruling, the resolution of a screen is written either with the suffix lpi or a hash mark; the higher the pixel resolution of a source file, the greater the detail that can be reproduced. However, such increase requires a corresponding increase in screen ruling or the output will suffer from posterization. Therefore, file resolution is matched to the output resolution; when different screens are combined, a number of distracting visual effects can occur, including the edges being overly emphasized, as well as a moiré pattern.
This problem can be reduced by rotating the screens in relation to each other. This screen angle is another common measurement used in printing, measured in degrees clockwise from a line running to the left. Halftoning is commonly used for printing color pictures; the general idea is the same, by varying the density of the four secondary printing colors, magenta and black, any particular shade can be reproduced. In this case there is an additional problem. In the simple case, one could create a halftone using the same techniques used for printing shades of grey, but in this case the different printing colors have to remain physically close to each other to fool the eye into thinking they are a single color. To do this the industry has standardized on a set of known angles, which result in the dots forming into small circles or rosettes; the dots cannot be seen by the naked eye, but can be discerned through a microscope or a magnifying glass. Though round dots are the most used, many dot types are available, each having its own characteristics.
They can be used to avoid the moiré effect. The preferred dot shape is dependent on the printing method or the printing plate. Round dots: most common, su
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s