Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which one compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states. Although not accepted, disproportionation is sometimes used to describe any desymmetrizing reaction of the following type: 2 A → A' + A", regardless of any redox process. Mercury chloride disproportionates upon UV-irradiation: Hg2Cl2 → Hg + HgCl2Phosphorous acid disproportionates upon heating to give phosphoric acid and phosphine: 4 H3PO3 → 3 H3PO4 + PH3As mentioned above, desymmetrizing reactions are sometimes referred to as disproportionation, as illustrated by the thermal degradation of bicarbonate: 2 HCO−3 → CO2−3 + H2CO3The oxidation numbers remain constant in this acid-base reaction; this process is called autoionization. Another variant on disproportionation is radical disproportionation, in which two radicals form an alkane and alkene; the reverse of disproportionation, when a compound in an intermediate oxidation state is formed from precursors of lower and higher oxidation states, is called comproportionation known as synproportionation.
The first disproportionation reaction to be studied in detail was: 2 Sn2+ → Sn4+ + SnThis was examined using tartrates by Johan Gadolin in 1788. In the Swedish version of his paper he called it'söndring'. Chlorine gas reacts with dilute sodium hydroxide to form sodium chlorate and water; the ionic equation for this reaction is as follows:3 Cl2 + 6 OH− → 5 Cl− + ClO3− + 3 H2O The chlorine gas reactant is in oxidation state 0. In the products, the chlorine in the Cl− ion has an oxidation number of −1, having been reduced, whereas the oxidation number of the chlorine in the ClO3− ion is +5, indicating that it has been oxidized. Bromine fluoride undergoes disproportionation reaction to form bromine trifluoride and bromide:3 BrF → BrF3 + Br2The dismutation of superoxide free radical to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, catalysed in living systems by the enzyme superoxide dismutase:2 O2− + 2 H+ → H2O2 + O2 The oxidation state of oxygen is −1/2 in the superoxide free radical anion, −1 in hydrogen peroxide and 0 in dioxygen.
In the Cannizzaro reaction, an aldehyde is converted into a carboxylic acid. In the related Tishchenko reaction, the organic redox reaction product is the corresponding ester. In the Kornblum -- DeLaMare rearrangement, a peroxide is converted to an alcohol; the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen catalysed by either potassium iodide or the enzyme catalase:2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2The Boudouard reaction is for example used in the HiPco method for producing carbon nanotubes, high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionates when catalysed on the surface of an iron particle:2 CO → C + CO2Nitrogen has oxidation state +4 in nitrogen dioxide, but when this compound reacts with water, it forms both nitric acid and nitrous acid, where nitrogen has oxidation states +5 and +3 respectively:2 NO2 + H2O → HNO3 + HNO2Dithionite undergoes acid hydrolysis to thiosulfate and bisulfite:2 S2O2−4 + H2O → S2O2−3 + 2 HSO−3 Dithionite undergoes alkaline hydrolysis to sulfite and sulfide: 3 Na2S2O4 + 6 NaOH → 5 Na2SO3 + Na2S + 3 H2O In 1937, Hans Adolf Krebs, who discovered the citric acid cycle bearing his name, confirmed the anaerobic dismutation of pyruvic acid in lactic acid, acetic acid and CO2 by certain bacteria according to the global reaction: 2 pyruvic acid + H2O → lactic acid + acetic acid + CO2The dismutation of pyruvic acid in other small organic molecules is an important step in fermentation reactions.
Fermentation reactions can be considered as disproportionation or dismutation biochemical reactions. Indeed, the donor and acceptor of electrons in the redox reactions supplying the chemical energy in these complex biochemical systems are the same organic molecules acting as reductant or oxidant. Another example of biochemical dismutation reaction is the disproportionation of acetaldehyde into ethanol and acetic acid. While in respiration electrons are transferred from substrate to an electron acceptor, in fermentation part of the substrate molecule itself accepts the electrons. Fermentation is therefore a type of disproportionation, does not involve an overall change in oxidation state of the substrate. Most of the fermentative substrates are organic molecules. However, a rare type of fermentation may involve the disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds in certain sulfate-reducing bacteria. Comproportionation Dismutase Oxidoreductase Fermentation Citric acid cycle
Glanders is a contagious zoonotic infectious disease that occurs in horses and donkeys. It can be contracted by other animals, such as dogs, cats and humans, it is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. Glanders is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, it has been eradicated from North America and most of Europe through surveillance and destruction of affected animals, import restrictions. Glanders has not been reported in the United States since 1945, except in 2000, when an American lab researcher suffered from accidental exposure, it is a notifiable disease in the UK, although it has not been reported there since 1928. The term is from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands. Other terms include Latin: German: Rotz. Glanders is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei by ingestion of contaminated feed or water. B. mallei is able to infect humans. Transmission occurs by direct contact with infected animals and entry is through skin abrasions and oral mucosal surfaces, or by inhalation.
Signs of glanders include the formation of nodular lesions in the lungs and ulceration of the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. The acute form results in coughing and the release of an infectious nasal discharge, followed by septicaemia and death within days. In the chronic form and subcutaneous nodules develop ulcerating; the mallein test is a specific clinical test for glanders. Mallein, a protein fraction of the glanders organism, is injected intradermopalpebrally or given by eye drop. In infected animals, the eyelid swells markedly in 1 to 2 days. Glanders has been known since antiquity, with a description by Hippocrates around 425 BCE. However, historian Lise Wilkinson has described the incredible difficulty of studying outbreaks of glanders in history. From the Middle Ages to the 1900s, glanders was a significant threat to armies. Before the Battle of Blenheim in 1704, glanders may have afflicted and diminished the horses of Marshal Tallard's cavalry, helping the Duke of Marlborough win the battle.
Glanders was a significant problem for civilian use of horses, as well. In the eighteenth-century veterinary hospital at the École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, glanders was the most common disease among their equine patients and the one most to cause death. Due to the high mortality rate in humans and the small number of organisms required to establish infection, B. mallei is regarded as a potential biological warfare or bioterrorism agent, as is the related organism, B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. During World War I, glanders was believed to have been spread deliberately by German agents to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the Eastern Front. Other agents attempted to introduce the disease in the United States and Argentina; this had an effect on troop and supply convoys, as well as on artillery movement, which were dependent on horses and mules. Human cases in Russia increased with the infections during and after WWI; the Japanese deliberately infected horses and prisoners of war with B. mallei at the Unit 731 Pingfang Institute and Unit 100 facilities during World War II.
The U. S. did not weaponize it. U. S. interest in glanders continued through the 1950s, except it had an inexplicable tendency to lose virulence in the lab, making it difficult to weaponize. Between 1982 and 1984, the Soviet Union used weaponized B. mallei during the Soviet–Afghan War. No vaccine is licensed for use in the U. S. Infection with either of these bacteria results in nonspecific symptoms and can be either acute or chronic, impeding rapid diagnosis; the lack of a vaccine for either bacterium makes them potential candidates for bioweaponization. Together, with their high rate of infectivity by aerosols and resistance to many common antibiotics, both bacteria have been classified as category B priority pathogens by the US NIH and US CDC, which has spurred a dramatic increase in interest in these microorganisms. Attempts have been made to develop vaccines for these infections, which would not only benefit military personnel, a group most to be targeted in an intentional release, but individuals who may come in contact with glanders-infected animals or live in areas where melioidosis is endemic.
CDC list of articles on glanders Current status of Glanders worldwide at OIE. WAHID Interface - OIE World Animal Health Information Database Disease card Animal health aspects of glanders Center for Biosecurity Agent Fact Sheet Burkholderia mallei genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Notes On Glander Disease in Horse
Kottayan Katankot Venugopal, known as K. K. Venugopal is an Indian constitutional lawyer and a senior advocate in the Supreme Court of India. On 30 June 2017, he was appointed as the Attorney General of India. Venugopal was born to a Nair family in Kanhangad, a town in the erstwhile South Canara district of Madras Presidency of British India, grew up in Mangalore. Venugopal did his B. Sc in Physics from the prestigious Madras Christian College at Tambaram and law from Raja Lakhamgouda Law College, Karnataka, his father, M. K. Nambiar, was a barrister. Venugopal studied at St. Aloysius College in Mangalore, he is the father of three children: 1 daughter and 2 sons. He is a keen collector of antiquarian books and has a fine collection of old books. Venugopal served as President of the Union Internationale des Avocats from 1996 to 1997. Venugopal has appeared in many high-profile cases. Most he was appointed by the Royal Government of Bhutan to serve as the Constitutional adviser for drafting of the Constitution of Bhutan.
On 30 June 2017, he was appointed as the Attorney General of India under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The 88-year-old succeeded Mukul Rohatgi. Venugopal held the office of Additional Solicitor General in Morarji Desai’s Government, he has appeared in a variety of cases in the last 50 years. Venugopal was appointed as amicuscuriae to assist the Supreme Court in the high profile 2G spectrum case, he appeared for BJP leader L K Advani in the Demolition of the Babri Masjid case, in which the apex court clubbed the two trials and held that BJP leaders, including Advani, Uma Bharti and Murli Manohar Joshi, will have to face trial along with karsevaks for demolition of the disputed structure. In 2015, he was conferred Padma Vibhushan award by Government of India; this is the second-highest civilian honour in India. In 2002, he was awarded the third-highest civilian honour. Venugopal is one of the main advocates for judicial reforms in India, he is against the creation of regional benches of the Supreme Court of India.
Instead, he recommends that Courts of Appeal be established in the four regions of the country, who decide on appeals from the High Court judgments in all cases other than cases of national importance which affect the whole country, disputes between States or between States and the Centre, Presidential references and substantial questions of law relating to interpretation of the Constitution. This will relieve the burden on Supreme Court
Joseph "Joe" Spiteri is an Australian former soccer player who played at both professional and international levels as a striker. Spiteri is of Maltese descent and lives in a Maltese neighbourhood of a Sydney suburb. Spiteri played at club level in Australia, Austria and Sweden for Albion Rovers, Parramatta Eagles, Melbourne Knights, Sturm Graz, Lierse, IFK Norrköping, Sydney Olympic, Marconi Stallions and Kingston City, he earned eight caps for Australia, participated at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Scores and results list Australia's goal tally first
Thomas Walter Butcher was an American educator most notably for serving as president at what is now known as Emporia State University. Before serving as the Kansas State Normal School's president, Butcher served various state-level education administrator jobs. Butcher was born to Boman Rilea Adeline Vail in Macomb, Illinois. Butcher attended The University of Kansas, where he graduated in 1894. Butcher began his career in education as a principal of a couple of high schools in Oklahoma, in 1904, Butcher received his master of arts from Harvard University. Two years after graduating from Harvard, Butcher became Central State Normal School's sixth president in Edmond and served until 1908. After resigning from Central State in 1908, Butcher left for Frederick William University in Germany. In 1909 after a year in Germany, Butcher served as a superintendent in Enid, Oklahoma from 1909 to 1913, was named Kansas State Normal's president in 1913. In 1914, Butcher started a work study program, which would give students on-campus jobs to help them attend school.
1917 saw the completion of Plumb Hall. Albert Taylor Hall, named after the fifth president of KSN, Albert R. Taylor, is an auditorium located within the building. Under Butcher's administration, the Memorial Union was built in 1922, named to honor veterans of World War I. Butcher helped the Normal School transition a name change. In 1938, a new stadium named Francis G. Welch Stadium, opened, as well as a bell tower known today as Silent Joe. Butcher retired on June 30, 1943 as the longest serving president in the history of Emporia State University. Butcher united in marriage with Mary W. Peck on July 3, 1900 in Wellington and had three children. On July 14, 1947, Butcher died in Emporia. Butcher Education Center, which houses the Sociology and Crime and Delinquencies department, is named after him
The Billings Bridge Shopping Centre is a mall located in Ottawa, Canada. It is a medium-sized community mall with about 90 stores. 7.5 million people visit the mall every year and sales were about $527/sq foot. When built it was the first strip mall in Ottawa, it is located south of the Rideau River on the corner of Bank Street and Riverside Drive, beside a large athletic facility, the RA Centre. The anchor stores are Your Independent Grocer, it opened in 1954 as "the first one-stop shopping destination to serve all of the City of Ottawa" according to its owners. At 65,750 sq ft it was Ottawa's first strip plaza; when it was built it had only six stores. CIBC and Fairweather were very early tenants which remain. Twenty stores in the mall were staying open past 6 pm on weekdays, the required time of closure by City of Ottawa by-law; as of 1956, the six units that took the municipality to court lost their appeal in court. The mall opened an expansion in November 1961, another in March 1962, the latter bringing it to 33 stores.
This made it one of Ottawa's largest shopping centres. The parking lot expanded from 500 spots to 1400; the 1962 addition added an Ogilvy's department store, the first in a shopping centre, Steinberg's, a Woolworth's. A 1961 Ottawa Citizen article covering a mall expansion claimed "the new centre by its accessibility to through highways, will become not only one of the largest shopping plazas in the district but one of the finest in the country."Ottawa department store Ogilvy's opened a location at Billings Bridge in the 1962 expansion. Ogilvy's was replaced by Robinson's, replaced by discount retailer Zellers in 1996, by Target Canada in 2013 and Walmart Canada in May 2016, it did not become an enclosed mall until 1972 and a twelve-storey office tower was added during an expansion in 1975. In the late 1990s, a "remerchandizing program" brought in a number of new stores to replace old ones and "provide the proper tenant mix to suit this particular trade area and the shopping centre's customer base."
In 1998–99 extensive renovations were carried out at a cost of $7 million. In July 2006, another major renovation programme was started which expanded the mall by 25,000 sq ft. In 2004 Brian Card, president of Corporate Research Group argued, "Billings Bridge's proximity to public transit, office buildings and growing population centres has helped it to withstand competition from big-box power centres when other shopping centres have been hard-hit." A 2005 article by Ottawa Business Journal quoted'experts' saying that the "lack of a major anchor department store has kept it from becoming a regional centre." In 2004 Barry Nabatian, general manager of Market Research Corporation, argued that the South Keys Shopping Centre had taken the role as'regional mall' in the south of Ottawa, as it was larger, more popular, had higher sales/sq foot. Today the mall is considered a'community' shopping centre. On October 2, 2017, a shooting took place inside the mall following an altercation; the shopping centre is located on the Transitway, serves as a major hub for OC Transpo bus services.
The station is called Billings Bridge. Billings Bridge is named after an original settler of Ottawa; the bridge carrying Bank Street over the river, near the site of the current mall, came to be known as Billings' Bridge as it led to his property. The shopping centre is a popular location for students at Carleton University as it is accessible through public transit. Billings Bridge Transitway Station Billings Bridge Shopping Centre Official website