Dispute resolution or dispute settlement is the process of resolving disputes between parties. The term dispute resolution is sometimes used interchangeably with conflict resolution, although conflicts are more deep-rooted and lengthy than disputes. Dispute resolution techniques assist the resolution of antagonisms between parties that can include citizens and governments. Methods of dispute resolution include: lawsuits arbitration collaborative law mediation conciliation negotiation facilitation AvoidanceOne could theoretically include violence or war as part of this spectrum, but dispute resolution practitioners do not do so. Dispute resolution processes fall into two major types: Adjudicative processes, such as litigation or arbitration, in which a judge, jury or arbitrator determines the outcome. Consensual processes, such as collaborative law, conciliation, or negotiation, in which the parties attempt to reach agreement. Not all disputes those in which skilled intervention occurs, end in resolution.
Such intractable disputes form a special area in dispute resolution studies. Dispute resolution is an important requirement in international trade, including negotiation, mediation and litigation; the legal system provides resolutions for many different types of disputes. Some disputants will not reach agreement through a collaborative process; some disputes need the coercive power of the state to enforce a resolution. More many people want a professional advocate when they become involved in a dispute if the dispute involves perceived legal rights, legal wrongdoing, or threat of legal action against them; the most common form of judicial dispute resolution is litigation. Litigation is initiated. In the United States, litigation is facilitated by the government within federal and municipal courts; the proceedings are formal and are governed by rules, such as rules of evidence and procedure, which are established by the legislature. Outcomes are decided by an impartial judge and/or jury, based on the factual questions of the case and the application law.
The verdict of the court is binding, not advisory. Judicial dispute resolution is adversarial in nature, for example, involving antagonistic parties or opposing interests seeking an outcome most favorable to their position. Retired judges or private lawyers become arbitrators or mediators. In the United States, many states now have mediation or other ADR programs annexed to the courts, to facilitate settlement of lawsuits; some use the term dispute resolution to refer only to alternative dispute resolution, that is, extrajudicial processes such as arbitration, collaborative law, mediation used to resolve conflict and potential conflict between and among individuals, business entities, governmental agencies, states. ADR depends on agreement by the parties to use ADR processes, either before or after a dispute has arisen. ADR has experienced increasing acceptance and utilization because of a perception of greater flexibility, costs below those of traditional litigation, speedy resolution of disputes, among other perceived advantages.
However, some have criticized these methods as taking away the right to seek redress of grievances in the courts, suggesting that extrajudicial dispute resolution may not offer the fairest way for parties not in an equal bargaining relationship, for example in a dispute between a consumer and a large corporation. In addition, in some circumstances and other ADR processes may become as expensive as litigation or more so. Sherwyn, Tracey, Bruce & Zev Eigen, "In Defense of Mandatory Arbitration of Employment Disputes: Saving the Baby, Tossing out the Bath Water, Constructing a New Sink in the Process", 2 U. Pa. J. Lab. & Emp. L. 73 Ury, William, 2000. The Third Side: Why We Fight and How We Can Stop. New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-14-029634-4Alés, Javier y Mata, Juan Diego " manual práctico para mediadores: el misterio de la mediacion" éxito Atelier. Barcelona 2016 Dispute Resolution Center at City University of New York National Conflict Resolution Center National Mediation Training Registry New York State Dispute Resolution Association Peacemakers Trust Straus Institute for Dispute Resolution at Pepperdine University School of Law
Takamitsu Station is a railway station on the Yosan Line in Uwajima, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by JR Shikoku and has the station number "U26"; the station is served by the JR Shikoku Yosan Line and is located 287.6 km from the beginning of the line at Takamatsu. Only local trains serve the station. Eastbound local trains terminate at Matsuyama. Connections with other services are needed to travel further east of Matsuyama on the line; the station consists of a side platform serving a single track. There is only a shelter for waiting passengers. Limited parking is available at the station forecourt. A bike shed is available; the station was opened on 2 July 1941 as part of the Uwajima Line which ran from Uwajima to Unomachi. Subsequently, the track of the Yosan Mainline was extended westwards from Yawatahama and linked up with the Uwajima Line at Unomachi on 20 June 1945; the Uwajima Line and its stations, including Takamitsu became part of the Yosan Mainline from that date. At that time, the station was operated by Japanese Government Railways becoming Japanese National Railways.
Action was a Canadian English language specialty channel owned by Corus Entertainment which ran from 2001 to 2019 and classified as a discretionary service. Established as a spin-off of Showcase, the channel aired action-adventure-oriented films and television series, though channel drift due to changes with the action-adventure genre overall saw it carry reality television content with little relation to the intended format; the channel was launched on September 7, 2001 and relaunched under its final name on August 31, 2009. The channel was shut down and replaced by Adult Swim on April 1, 2019 at midnight Eastern Time. In November 2000, Showcase Television Inc. a division of Alliance Atlantis, was granted approval by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to launch a television channel called Action Television, described as "a national English-language Category 2 specialty television service devoted to action movies and series driven by a fast-paced fictional plot featuring car chases, special effects, or martial arts."
The channel launched on September 7, 2001 as Showcase Action, a spin-off of another Alliance Atlantis television channel, Showcase. On January 18, 2008, a joint venture between Canwest and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners known as CW Media, acquired control of Showcase Action through its purchase of Alliance Atlantis' broadcasting assets, which were placed in a trust in August 2007; the channel was renamed Action on August 31, 2009. On October 27, 2010, ownership changed once again as Shaw Communications gained control of Action as a result of its acquisition of Canwest and Goldman Sachs' interest in CW Media. In 2011, Action would begin airing two original programs, The Drunk and On Drugs Happy Funtime Hour and Kenny Hotz's Triumph of the Will, both of which were cancelled after one season. By this time, Action's programming would begin to diverge and incorporate reality shows acquired from U. S. network TruTV. Another original series, But I'm Chris Jericho, starring Canadian-born professional wrestler Chris Jericho, premiered as a webseries in 2013 on Action's YouTube channel.
But I'm Chris Jericho would be picked up by CBC Television for their online vertical, CBC Comedy, receive a second season. On May 1, 2015, an HD feed of Action was launched. During this time, the channel was made available as a free preview. On April 1, 2016, Shaw Media was sold to Corus Entertainment. On March 4, 2019, it was announced that Action would be replaced by a Canadian version of Adult Swim on April 1, 2019, marking the first time that the brand has been used for a 24-hour channel; the channel launched with a two-month free preview on linear television, an on-demand free preview to the end of 2019. As a result of the relaunch, both Cartoon Network and Teletoon ended their respective adult programming blocks and shifted full-time into age-appropriate, family-oriented programming, while Télétoon carried on with its Télétoon la nuit block; the Canadian Adult Swim block was discontinued on March 3, 2019, while Teletoon at Night did so on April 1, 2019. The new channel held an unannounced soft launch at midnight ET on April 1, unexpectedly interrupting scheduled airings of The Visit and The World's End to air the anime parody Gēmusetto Machu Picchu, followed by an episode of NTSF:SD:SUV::.
The channel did not formally launch until 6:00 a.m. ET, with the aforementioned programs being co-branded with an alternating logo bug; the first program broadcast with the formal launch was Rick and Morty