In geometry, a polyhedron is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices. The word polyhedron comes from as poly - + - hedron. A convex polyhedron is the convex hull of finitely many points on the same plane. Cubes and pyramids are examples of convex polyhedra. A polyhedron is a 3-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. Convex polyhedra are well-defined, with several equivalent standard definitions. However, the formal mathematical definition of polyhedra that are not required to be convex has been problematic. Many definitions of "polyhedron" have been given within particular contexts, some more rigorous than others, there is not universal agreement over which of these to choose; some of these definitions exclude shapes that have been counted as polyhedra or include shapes that are not considered as valid polyhedra. As Branko Grünbaum observed, "The Original Sin in the theory of polyhedra goes back to Euclid, through Kepler, Poinsot and many others... at each stage... the writers failed to define what are the polyhedra".
There is general agreement that a polyhedron is a solid or surface that can be described by its vertices, edges and sometimes by its three-dimensional interior volume. One can distinguish among these different definitions according to whether they describe the polyhedron as a solid, whether they describe it as a surface, or whether they describe it more abstractly based on its incidence geometry. A common and somewhat naive definition of a polyhedron is that it is a solid whose boundary can be covered by finitely many planes or that it is a solid formed as the union of finitely many convex polyhedra. Natural refinements of this definition require the solid to be bounded, to have a connected interior, also to have a connected boundary; the faces of such a polyhedron can be defined as the connected components of the parts of the boundary within each of the planes that cover it, the edges and vertices as the line segments and points where the faces meet. However, the polyhedra defined in this way do not include the self-crossing star polyhedra, their faces may not form simple polygons, some edges may belong to more than two faces.
Definitions based on the idea of a bounding surface rather than a solid are common. For instance, O'Rourke defines a polyhedron as a union of convex polygons, arranged in space so that the intersection of any two polygons is a shared vertex or edge or the empty set and so that their union is a manifold. If a planar part of such a surface is not itself a convex polygon, O'Rourke requires it to be subdivided into smaller convex polygons, with flat dihedral angles between them. Somewhat more Grünbaum defines an acoptic polyhedron to be a collection of simple polygons that form an embedded manifold, with each vertex incident to at least three edges and each two faces intersecting only in shared vertices and edges of each. Cromwell gives a similar definition but without the restriction of three edges per vertex. Again, this type of definition does not encompass the self-crossing polyhedra. Similar notions form the basis of topological definitions of polyhedra, as subdivisions of a topological manifold into topological disks whose pairwise intersections are required to be points, topological arcs, or the empty set.
However, there exist topological polyhedra. One modern approach is based on the theory of abstract polyhedra; these can be defined as ordered sets whose elements are the vertices and faces of a polyhedron. A vertex or edge element is less than an edge or face element when the vertex or edge is part of the edge or face. Additionally, one may include a special bottom element of this partial order and a top element representing the whole polyhedron. If the sections of the partial order between elements three levels apart have the same structure as the abstract representation of a polygon these ordered sets carry the same information as a topological polyhedron. However, these requirements are relaxed, to instead require only that sections between elements two levels apart have the same structure as the abstract representation of a line segment. Geometric polyhedra, defined in other ways, can be described abstractly in this way, but it is possible to use abstract polyhedra as the basis of a definition of geometric polyhedra.
A realization of an abstract polyhedron is taken to be a mapping from the vertices of the abstract polyhedron to geometric points, such that the points of each face are coplanar. A geometric polyhedron can be defined as a realization of an abstract polyhedron. Realizations that forgo the requirement of planarity, that impose additional requirements of symmetry, or that map the vertices to higher dimensional spaces have been considered. Unlike the solid-based and surface-based definitions, this works well for star polyhedra. However, without additional restrictions, this definition allows degenerate or unfaithful polyhedra (for instance, by mapp
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, relative position of figures, the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC. Islamic scientists expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. Since and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, describing spaces that lie beyond the normal range of human experience.
While geometry has evolved throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, planes, surfaces and curves, as well as the more advanced notions of manifolds and topology or metric. Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. Contemporary geometry has many subfields: Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense; the mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, planes, triangles, similarity, solid figures and analytic geometry. Euclidean geometry has applications in computer science and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of linear algebra to study problems in geometry, it has applications in physics, including in general relativity. Topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, such as connectedness and compactness.
Convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis and functional analysis and important applications in number theory. Algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques, it has applications including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned with questions of relative position of simple geometric objects, such as points and circles, it shares many principles with combinatorics. Computational geometry deals with algorithms and their implementations for manipulating geometrical objects. Although being a young area of geometry, it has many applications in computer vision, image processing, computer-aided design, medical imaging, etc; the earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt in the 2nd millennium BC. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction and various crafts.
The earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, or frustum. Clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiter's position and motion within time-velocity space; these geometric procedures anticipated the Oxford Calculators, including the mean speed theorem, by 14 centuries. South of Egypt the ancient Nubians established a system of geometry including early versions of sun clocks. In the 7th century BC, the Greek mathematician Thales of Miletus used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. Pythagoras established the Pythagorean School, credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the theorem has a long history.
Eudoxus developed the method of exhaustion, which allowed the calculation of areas and volumes of curvilinear figures, as well as a theory of ratios that avoided the problem of incommensurable magnitudes, which enabled subsequent geometers to make significant advances. Around 300 BC, geometry was revolutionized by Euclid, whose Elements considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time, introduced mathematical rigor through the axiomatic method and is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today, that of definition, axiom and proof. Although most of the contents of the Elements were known, Euclid arranged them into a single, coherent logical framework; the Elements was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th century and its contents are still taught in geometry classes today. Archimedes of Syracuse used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, gave remarkably accurate approximations of Pi.
He studied the sp
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. The cube is one of the five Platonic solids, it has 6 faces, 12 edges, 8 vertices. The cube is a square parallelepiped, an equilateral cuboid and a right rhombohedron, it is a regular square prism in three orientations, a trigonal trapezohedron in four orientations. The cube is dual to the octahedron, it has octahedral symmetry. The cube is the only convex polyhedron; the cube has four special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, edges and normal to its vertex figure. The first and third correspond to the B2 Coxeter planes; the cube can be represented as a spherical tiling, projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. For a cube centered at the origin, with edges parallel to the axes and with an edge length of 2, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are while the interior consists of all points with −1 < xi < 1 for all i.
In analytic geometry, a cube's surface with center and edge length of 2a is the locus of all points such that max = a. For a cube of edge length a: As the volume of a cube is the third power of its sides a × a × a, third powers are called cubes, by analogy with squares and second powers. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with a given surface area. A cube has the largest volume among cuboids with the same total linear size. For a cube whose circumscribing sphere has radius R, for a given point in its 3-dimensional space with distances di from the cube's eight vertices, we have: ∑ i = 1 8 d i 4 8 + 16 R 4 9 = 2. Doubling the cube, or the Delian problem, was the problem posed by ancient Greek mathematicians of using only a compass and straightedge to start with the length of the edge of a given cube and to construct the length of the edge of a cube with twice the volume of the original cube, they were unable to solve this problem, in 1837 Pierre Wantzel proved it to be impossible because the cube root of 2 is not a constructible number.
The cube has three uniform colorings, named by the colors of the square faces around each vertex: 111, 112, 123. The cube has three classes of symmetry, which can be represented by vertex-transitive coloring the faces; the highest octahedral symmetry Oh has all the faces the same color. The dihedral symmetry D4h comes from the cube being a prism, with all four sides being the same color; the lowest symmetry D2h is a prismatic symmetry, with sides alternating colors, so there are three colors, paired by opposite sides. Each symmetry form has a different Wythoff symbol. A cube has eleven nets: that is, there are eleven ways to flatten a hollow cube by cutting seven edges. To color the cube so that no two adjacent faces have the same color, one would need at least three colors; the cube is the cell of the only regular tiling of three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is unique among the Platonic solids in having faces with an number of sides and it is the only member of that group, a zonohedron; the cube can be cut into six identical square pyramids.
If these square pyramids are attached to the faces of a second cube, a rhombic dodecahedron is obtained. The analogue of a cube in four-dimensional Euclidean space has a special name—a tesseract or hypercube. More properly, a hypercube is the analogue of the cube in n-dimensional Euclidean space and a tesseract is the order-4 hypercube. A hypercube is called a measure polytope. There are analogues of the cube in lower dimensions too: a point in dimension 0, a line segment in one dimension and a square in two dimensions; the quotient of the cube by the antipodal map yields the hemicube. If the original cube has edge length 1, its dual polyhedron has edge length 2 / 2; the cube is a special case in various classes of general polyhedra: The vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four, each forming a regular tetrahedron. These two together form the stella octangula; the int
David Arthur Eppstein is an American computer scientist and mathematician. He is a Chancellor's Professor of computer science at the University of Irvine, he is known for his work in computational geometry, graph algorithms, recreational mathematics. In 2012, he was named an ACM Fellow. Eppstein received a B. S. in Mathematics from Stanford University in 1984, an M. S. and Ph. D. in computer science from Columbia University, after which he took a postdoctoral position at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center. He joined the UC Irvine faculty in 1990, was co-chair of the Computer Science Department there from 2002 to 2005. In 2014, he was named a Chancellor's Professor. In October 2017, Eppstein was one of 396 members elected as Fellows of the Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In computer science, Eppstein's research is focused in computational geometry: minimum spanning trees, shortest paths, dynamic graph data structures, graph coloring, graph drawing and geometric optimization.
He has published in application areas such as finite element meshing, used in engineering design, in computational statistics in robust, nonparametric statistics. Eppstein served as the program chair for the theory track of the ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry in 2001, the program chair of the ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms in 2002, the co-chair for the International Symposium on Graph Drawing in 2009. Eppstein, David. "Finding the k shortest paths". SIAM Journal on Computing. 28: 652–673. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.39.3901. Doi:10.1109/SFCS.1994.365697. ISBN 978-0-8186-6580-6. Eppstein, D.. "Sparsification—a technique for speeding up dynamic graph algorithms". Journal of the ACM. 44: 669–696. Doi:10.1145/265910.265914. Amenta, N.. "The Crust and the β-Skeleton: Combinatorial Curve Reconstruction". Graphical Models and Image Processing. 60: 125–135. Doi:10.1006/gmip.1998.0465. Bern, Marshall. "Mesh generation and optimal triangulation". Technical Report CSL-92-1. Xerox PARC. Republished in Du, D.-Z..
Computing in Euclidean Geometry. World Scientific. Pp. 23–90. Eppstein, D.. Media Theory. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-09083-7. Eppstein's algorithm David Eppstein's profile at the University of California, Irvine David Eppstein at DBLP Bibliography Server David Eppstein publications indexed by Google Scholar David Eppstein's Wikipedia userpage
A dissection puzzle called a transformation puzzle or Richter Puzzle, is a tiling puzzle where a set of pieces can be assembled in different ways to produce two or more distinct geometric shapes. The creation of new dissection puzzles is considered to be a type of dissection puzzle. Puzzles may include various restraints, such as hinged pieces, pieces that can fold, or pieces that can twist. Creators of new dissection puzzles emphasize using a minimum number of pieces, or creating novel situations, such as ensuring that every piece connects to another with a hinge. Dissection puzzles are an early form of geometric puzzle; the earliest known descriptions of dissection puzzles are from the time of Plato in Ancient Greece, involve the challenge of turning two equal squares into one larger square using four pieces. Other ancient dissection puzzles were used as graphic depictions of the Pythagorean theorem. A famous ancient Greek dissection puzzle is the Ostomachion, a mathematical treatise attributed to Archimedes.
In the 10th century, Arabic mathematicians used geometric dissections in their commentaries on Euclid's Elements. In the 18th century, Chinese scholar Tai Chen described an elegant dissection for approximating the value of π; the puzzles saw a major increase in general popularity in the late 19th century when newspapers and magazines began running dissection puzzles. Puzzle creators Sam Loyd in the United States and Henry Dudeney in the United Kingdom were among the most published. Since dissection puzzles have been used for entertainment and maths education, creation of complex dissection puzzles is considered an exercise of geometric principles by mathematicians and math students; the dissections of regular polygons and other simple geometric shapes into another such shape was the subject of Martin Gardner's November 1961 "Mathematical Games column" in Scientific American. The haberdasher's problem shown in the figure below shows how to divide up a square and rearrange the pieces to make an equilateral triangle.
The column included a table of such best known dissections involving the square, hexagon, greek cross, so on. Some types of dissection puzzle are intended to create a large number of different geometric shapes; the tangram is a popular dissection puzzle of this type. The seven pieces can be configured into one of a few home shapes, such as the large square and rectangle that the pieces are stored in, to any number of smaller squares, parallelograms, or esoteric shapes and figures; some geometric forms are easy to create. This variability has ensured the puzzle's popularity. Other dissections are intended to move between a pair of geometric shapes, such as a triangle to a square, or a square to a five-pointed star. A dissection puzzle of this description is the haberdasher's problem, proposed in 1907 by Henry Dudeney; the puzzle is a dissection of a triangle to a square, in only four pieces. It is one of the simplest regular polygon to square dissections known, is now a classic example, it is not known whether a dissection of an equilateral triangle to a square is possible with three pieces.
Ostomachion Pizza theorem Puzzle Coffin, Stewart T.. The Puzzling World of Polyhedral Dissections. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-853207-5. Frederickson, Greg N.. Dissections: Plane and Fancy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57197-9. Frederickson, Greg N.. Hinged Dissections: Swinging and Twisting. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81192-9. Frederickson, Greg N.. Piano-hinged Dissections: Time to Fold!. A K Peters. ISBN 1-56881-299-X. Weisstein, Eric W.. "Haberdasher's Problem". MathWorld. Wolfram Web Resources. Retrieved 2006-08-08
In geometry, a honeycomb is a space filling or close packing of polyhedral or higher-dimensional cells, so that there are no gaps. It is an example of the more general mathematical tiling or tessellation in any number of dimensions, its dimension can be clarified as n-honeycomb for a honeycomb of n-dimensional space. Honeycombs are constructed in ordinary Euclidean space, they may be constructed in non-Euclidean spaces, such as hyperbolic honeycombs. Any finite uniform polytope can be projected to its circumsphere to form a uniform honeycomb in spherical space. There are infinitely many honeycombs, which have only been classified; the more regular ones have attracted the most interest, while a rich and varied assortment of others continue to be discovered. The simplest honeycombs to build are formed from stacked layers or slabs of prisms based on some tessellations of the plane. In particular, for every parallelepiped, copies can fill space, with the cubic honeycomb being special because it is the only regular honeycomb in ordinary space.
Another interesting family is the Hill tetrahedra and their generalizations, which can tile the space. A 3-dimensional uniform honeycomb is a honeycomb in 3-space composed of uniform polyhedral cells, having all vertices the same. There are 28 convex examples in Euclidean 3-space called the Archimedean honeycombs. A honeycomb is called regular if the group of isometries preserving the tiling acts transitively on flags, where a flag is a vertex lying on an edge lying on a face lying on a cell; every regular honeycomb is automatically uniform. However, there is just the cubic honeycomb. Two are quasiregular: The tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb and gyrated tetrahedral-octahedral honeycombs are generated by 3 or 2 positions of slab layer of cells, each alternating tetrahedra and octahedra. An infinite number of unique honeycombs can be created by higher order of patterns of repeating these slab layers. A honeycomb having all cells identical within its symmetries is said to be cell-transitive or isochoric.
In the 3-dimensional euclidean space, a cell of such a honeycomb is said to be a space-filling polyhedron. A necessary condition for a polyhedron to be a space-filling polyhedron is that its Dehn invariant must be zero, ruling out any of the Platonic solids other than the cube. Five space-filling polyhedra can tessellate 3-dimensional euclidean space using translations only, they are called parallelohedra: Cubic honeycomb Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb Rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb Elongated dodecahedral honeycomb. Bitruncated cubic honeycomb or truncated octahedraOther known examples of space-filling polyhedra include: The Triangular prismatic honeycomb; the gyrated triangular prismatic honeycomb. The Voronoi cells of the carbon atoms in diamond are this shape; the trapezo-rhombic dodecahedral honeycomb Isohedral tilings. Sometimes, two or more different polyhedra may be combined to fill space. Besides many of the uniform honeycombs, another well known example is the Weaire–Phelan structure, adopted from the structure of clathrate hydrate crystals Weaire–Phelan structure Documented examples are rare.
Two classes can be distinguished: Non-convex cells which pack without overlapping, analogous to tilings of concave polygons. These include a packing of the small stellated rhombic dodecahedron, as in the Yoshimoto Cube. Overlapping of cells whose positive and negative densities'cancel out' to form a uniformly dense continuum, analogous to overlapping tilings of the plane. In 3-dimensional hyperbolic space, the dihedral angle of a polyhedron depends on its size; the regular hyperbolic honeycombs thus include two with four or five dodecahedra meeting at each edge. Apart from this effect, the hyperbolic honeycombs obey the same topological constraints as Euclidean honeycombs and polychora; the 4 compact and 11 paracompact regular hyperbolic honeycombs and many compact and paracompact uniform hyperbolic honeycombs have been enumerated. For every honeycomb there is a dual honeycomb, which may be obtained by exchanging: cells for vertices. Faces for edges; these are just the rules for dualising four-dimensional 4-polytopes, except that the usual finite method of reciprocation about a concentric hypersphere can run into problems.
The more regular honeycombs dualise neatly: The cubic honeycomb is self-dual. That of octahedra and tetrahedra is dual to that of rhombic dodecahedra; the slab honeycombs derived from uniform plane tilings are dual to each other in the same way that the tilings are. The duals of the remaining Archimedean honeycombs are all cell-transitive and have been described by Inchbald. Honeycombs can be self-dual. All n-dimensional hypercubic honeycombs with Schläfli symbols, are self-dual. List of uniform tilings Regular honeycombs Infinite skew polyhedron Plesiohedron Coxeter, H. S. M.: Regular Polytopes. Williams, Robert; the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. pp. 164–199. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. Chapter 5: Polyhedra packing and space filling Critchlow, K.: Order in space. Pearce, P.: Structure in nature is a strategy for design. Goldberg, Michael Three Infinite Families of Tetrahedral Space-Fillers Journal of Combinatorial Theory A, 16, pp. 348–354, 1974.
Goldberg, Michael The space-filling pentahedra, Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A Volume 13, Issue 3, November 1972, Pages 437-443 [
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure, described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed polygonal chain or polygonal circuit. The solid plane region, the bounding circuit, or the two together, may be called a polygon; the segments of a polygonal circuit are called its edges or sides, the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices or corners. The interior of a solid polygon is sometimes called its body. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. A simple polygon is one. Mathematicians are concerned only with the bounding polygonal chains of simple polygons and they define a polygon accordingly. A polygonal boundary may be allowed to cross over itself, creating star polygons and other self-intersecting polygons. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. There are many more generalizations of polygons defined for different purposes; the word polygon derives from the Greek adjective πολύς "much", "many" and γωνία "corner" or "angle".
It has been suggested. Polygons are classified by the number of sides. See the table below. Polygons may be characterized by their convexity or type of non-convexity: Convex: any line drawn through the polygon meets its boundary twice; as a consequence, all its interior angles are less than 180°. Equivalently, any line segment with endpoints on the boundary passes through only interior points between its endpoints. Non-convex: a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice. Equivalently, there exists a line segment between two boundary points that passes outside the polygon. Simple: the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself. All convex polygons are simple. Concave. Non-convex and simple. There is at least one interior angle greater than 180°. Star-shaped: the whole interior is visible from at least one point, without crossing any edge; the polygon must be simple, may be convex or concave. All convex polygons are star-shaped. Self-intersecting: the boundary of the polygon crosses itself.
The term complex is sometimes used in contrast to simple, but this usage risks confusion with the idea of a complex polygon as one which exists in the complex Hilbert plane consisting of two complex dimensions. Star polygon: a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way. A polygon can not be both star-shaped. Equiangular: all corner angles are equal. Cyclic: all corners lie on a single circle, called the circumcircle. Isogonal or vertex-transitive: all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit; the polygon is cyclic and equiangular. Equilateral: all edges are of the same length; the polygon need not be convex. Tangential: all sides are tangent to an inscribed circle. Isotoxal or edge-transitive: all sides lie within the same symmetry orbit; the polygon is equilateral and tangential. Regular: the polygon is both isogonal and isotoxal. Equivalently, it is both equilateral, or both equilateral and equiangular. A non-convex regular polygon is called a regular star polygon. Rectilinear: the polygon's sides meet at right angles, i.e. all its interior angles are 90 or 270 degrees.
Monotone with respect to a given line L: every line orthogonal to L intersects the polygon not more than twice. Euclidean geometry is assumed throughout. Any polygon has as many corners; each corner has several angles. The two most important ones are: Interior angle – The sum of the interior angles of a simple n-gon is π radians or × 180 degrees; this is because any simple n-gon can be considered to be made up of triangles, each of which has an angle sum of π radians or 180 degrees. The measure of any interior angle of a convex regular n-gon is 180 − 360 n degrees; the interior angles of regular star polygons were first studied by Poinsot, in the same paper in which he describes the four regular star polyhedra: for a regular p q -gon, each interior angle is π p radians or 180 p degrees. Exterior angle – The exterior angle is the supplementary angle to the interior angle. Tracing around a convex n-gon, the angle "turned" at a corner is external angle. Tracing all the way around the polygon makes one full turn, so the sum of the exterior angles must be 360°.
This argument can be generalized to concave simple polygons, if external angles that turn in the opposite direction are subtracted from the total turned. Tracing around an n-gon in general, the sum of the exterior angles can be any integer multiple d of 360°, e.g. 720° for a pentagram and 0° for an angular "eight" or antiparallelogram, where d is the density or starriness of the polygon. See orbit. In this section, the vertices of the polygon under consideration are taken to be, ( x 1