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Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories and friaries, in England and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, provided for their former personnel and functions. Although the policy was envisaged as increasing the regular income of the Crown, much former monastic property was sold off to fund Henry's military campaigns in the 1540s, he was given the authority to do this in England and Wales by the Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament in 1534, which made him Supreme Head of the Church in England, thus separating England from Papal authority, by the First Suppression Act and the Second Suppression Act. Professor George W. Bernard argues: The dissolution of the monasteries in the late 1530s was one of the most revolutionary events in English history. There were nearly 900 religious houses in England, around 260 for monks, 300 for regular canons, 142 nunneries and 183 friaries.

If the adult male population was 500,000, that meant that one adult man in fifty was in religious orders. At the time of their suppression, a small number of English and Welsh religious houses could trace their origins to Anglo-Saxon or Celtic foundations before the Norman Conquest, but the overwhelming majority of the 625 monastic communities dissolved by Henry VIII had developed in the wave of monastic enthusiasm that had swept western Christendom in the 11th and 12th centuries. Few English houses had been founded than the end of the 13th century. 11th- and 12th-century founders had endowed monastic houses with both'temporal' income in the form of revenues from landed estates, and'spiritual' income in the form of tithes appropriated from parish churches under the founder's patronage. In consequence of this, religious houses in the 16th century controlled appointment to about two-fifths of all parish benefices in England, disposed of about half of all ecclesiastical income, owned around a quarter of the nation's landed wealth.

An English medieval proverb said that if the Abbot of Glastonbury married the Abbess of Shaftesbury, the heir would have more land than the King of England. The 200 houses of friars in England and Wales constituted a second distinct wave of foundations all occurring in the 13th century. Friaries, for the most part, were concentrated in urban areas. Unlike monasteries, friaries had eschewed income-bearing endowments; the Dissolution of the Monasteries in England and Ireland took place in the political context of other attacks on the ecclesiastical institutions of Western Roman Catholicism, under way for some time. Many of these were related to the Protestant Reformation in Continental Europe. By the end of the 16th century, monasticism had entirely disappeared from those European states whose rulers had adopted Lutheran or Reformed confessions of faith, they continued in those states that remained Catholic, new community orders such as the Jesuits and Capuchins emerged alongside the older orders.

But, the religious and political changes in England under Henry VIII and Edward VI were of a different nature from those taking place in Germany, France and Geneva. Across much of continental Europe, the seizure of monastic property was associated with mass discontent among the common people and the lower level of clergy and civil society against powerful and wealthy ecclesiastical institutions; such popular hostility against the church was rare in England before 1558. These changes were met with widespread popular suspicion. Dissatisfaction with the general state of regular religious life, with the gross extent of monastic wealth, was near to universal amongst late medieval secular and ecclesiastical rulers in the Latin West. Bernard says there was widespread concern in the 15th and early 16th centuries about the condition of the monasteries. A leading figure here is the scholar and theologian Desiderius Erasmus who satirized monasteries as lax, as comfortably worldly, as wasteful of scarce resources, as superstitious.

At that time, quite a few bishops across Europe had come to believe that resources expensively deployed on an unceasing round of services by men and women in theory set apart from the world be better spent on endowing grammar schools and university colleges to train men who would serve the laity as parish priests, on reforming the antiquated structures of over-large dioceses such as that of Lincoln. Pastoral care was seen as much more important and vital than the monastic focus on contemplation and performance of the daily office. Erasmus had made a threefold criticism of the monks and nuns of his day, saying that: in withdrawing from the world into their own communal life, they elevated man-made monastic vows of poverty and obedience above the

Debt Exchange

The Debt Exchange, Inc. is one of the world's largest loan sale advisers for the sale of commercial and specialty finance debt. Since its founding, DebtX has expanded to offer other products and services including loan valuation, analytics and CECL solutions as well as web-based deal management platforms for use by syndication and loan sale professionals. According to its website, DebtX prices nearly $1 trillion in loans per month; the Debt Exchange is based in the Financial District of Boston, with additional U. S. offices in New York City and San Francisco, European offices in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom. It also had an office in McLean, Virginia. Founded in 2000, DebtX began by selling loans in an online auction format. In 2006 and 2009, The Debt Exchange was awarded patent numbers 7,035,820 and 7,584,139 by the United States Patent and Trademark Office for its online loan sale and debt trading exchange system. In 2014, DebtX was awarded a third U. S. Patent No. 8,639,614 for its DXSyndicate product.

Throughout the financial crisis of 2007–2009, the U. S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation used DebtX as one of the primary companies to sell loans from failed banks. Loan Loan sale Secondary market Market liquidity Capital market Financial technology

Gerry James

Gerald Edwin James is a former professional Canadian football running back and professional ice hockey player. He played for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League and the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League, his is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, like his father, Eddie James, who played for the Blue Bombers. James was born in Saskatchewan. In a period overlapping the 1959 CFL season and 1959–60 NHL season, James became the only player to play in the CFL's Grey Cup and the NHL's Stanley Cup in the same season. A graduate of Kelvin High School in Winnipeg, James started his CFL career in 1952 when he became one of the youngest players to play in the CFL, at only 17 years old.. As a kicker and a running back in the Bombers' powerful "run by committee" system, James helped the team to six Grey Cup appearances, earning four victories; this committee system over the years included Lorne Benson, Tom Casey, Leo Lewis, Bob McNamara and Charlie Shepard.

In the 1957 season James scored 19 touchdowns, one short of the record set a year earlier by Pat Abbruzzi. He did however set a CFL record with 18 rushing touchdowns, which stood alone until it was tied by Jim Germany in 1981 and was surpassed by Mike Pringle with 19 in the 2000 season. James rushed the ball 197 times for 1,192 yards that season, he was part of the Blue Bombers until 1963 played in 1964 with the Saskatchewan Roughriders. When he retired from the CFL, James was the second all-time leading Canadian running back with totals of 994 carries for 5,554 yards and 57 touchdowns, behind only Normie Kwong. James was a two-time winner -- 1957 -- of the CFL's Most Outstanding Canadian award. James was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1981, joining his father, Eddie James, inducted in 1963. James was a professional ice hockey right winger who played a total of 164 games in the National Hockey League for the Toronto Maple Leafs over 5 seasons in the late 50s, playing in 149 regular season games and 15 playoff games, finishing with 41 career points.

At the age of sixteen, James played with the Winnipeg Monarchs junior hockey team in the 1951 Memorial Cup. The Toronto Maple Leafs, who owned James' professional hockey rights, decided to move him to Toronto to play for the Toronto Marlboros, their top junior team. James would win the 1955 Memorial Cup playing with the Marlboros – only a few months after winning the CFL's Most Outstanding Canadian award. A few days after the Memorial Cup win, James played his first NHL game with the Maple Leafs – ending a tremendous series of multi-sport and multi-league achievements within a five-month period. In the 1955–56 NHL season after rushing for a career-high season of 1,205 yards and being chosen a Western All-Star for the 1955 Canadian football season, James rejoined the NHL's Maple Leafs for their last 51 games, including a 5-game run in the Stanley Cup Playoffs. James played a career-high 53 games in the 1956–57 NHL season marking his biggest season for NHL goals, assists and penalty minutes; the following 1957 football season saw James win his second Most Outstanding Canadian award on November 29, play in the CFL's 1957 Grey Cup Championship the afternoon of November 30 in Toronto, that same night play his first game of the 1957–58 NHL season with the Maple Leafs.

James played only 15 games with the Maple Leafs in the 1957–58 NHL season, being sent to the team's Rochester Americans farm team for a further 15 games of ice hockey. He was only able to join the Maple Leafs in a management role for the 1958–59 NHL season, due to a leg injury suffered in the 1958 CFL season. In the 1959–60 NHL season after winning the CFL's 1959 Grey Cup, James rejoined the NHL's Maple Leafs as a player for their last 44 games, including a 10-game run into the 1960 Stanley Cup Championship finals. With his on-field and on-ice play between November, 1959, April, 1960, James became the only player in history to play in the Grey Cup and Stanley Cup finals in the same season; the Maple Leafs did not use James in the 1960-61 season, lending him to the Winnipeg Warriors in the minor pro Western Hockey League for his last year of professional hockey. James would play some senior ice hockey in Saskatchewan over the next few years became a Tier II/Junior A head coach in 1973 in the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League.

Over a twelve-year period, James would coach eight SJHL seasons with the Yorkton Terriers, the Melville Millionaires and the Estevan Bruins. He coached these teams to seven winning seasons and a lifetime record of: 249 wins, 191 losses, 14 ties for a 0.622 winning percentage. He just missed a perfect sweep of winning seasons when his 1979-80 Melville Millionaires finished a half-game below 0.500: 29–30–1. James coached the 1988-89 season with the Moose Jaw Warriors of the major junior Western Hockey League; when he retired from competitive football, James remained active in hockey. In 1963, he coached in Switzerland and managed hockey teams in Yorkton and Moose Jaw of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League in the 1980s. James resides in British Columbia. Gerry has been a member of the Allwood Finishers, Dart Team in Parksville on Vancouver Island, since 2015. In 2017 the Allwood Finishers won the District 69 Dart League "A" Division Championship trophy for the second year in a row. 1955 Memorial Cup Championship winner CFL's Most Outstanding Canadian Award, 1954 and 1957 CFL Grey