National Historic Sites of Canada
Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program. As of 2016, there are 976 National Historic Sites,171 of which are administered by Parks Canada, the sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons and National Historic Events, Sites and Persons are each typically marked by a federal plaque, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given. The Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site, while the Welland Canal is a National Historic Event, emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canadas historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries, in the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that countrys historic and natural heritage. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canadas historic sites.
He was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, at the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of sites in Canada. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a historic park in 1914. The fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. On Harkins recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, an authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Boards first chairman. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943,105 represented military history,52 represented the fur trade and exploration, and 43 represented famous individuals.
There was a strong bias in favour of commemorating sites in Ontario over other parts of the country, at one point, some members of the HSMBC concluded that there were no sites at all in Prince Edward Island worthy of designation. Lawrence, and in Niagara, promoting a loyalist doctrine of unity with Britain. Proposals to designate sites related to the immigration of Jews and Ukrainians to Canada were rejected, such was the view of Canadian history by the Board in the first half of the 20th century. As time passed and the system grew, the scope of the program, by the 1930s, the focus of the heritage movement in Canada had shifted from commemoration to preservation and development
Ontario Heritage Act
Part V of the Act allows for the designation of heritage conservation districts. Until 2005, a designation of a property under the Act allowed a municipality to delay, but not ultimately prevent, in 2005, the provincial government enacted changes to strengthen the Act. Under the amended legislation, a landowner who is refused a permit under the Act no longer has an automatic right to demolish a designated building once the cooling off period has expired. Where the OMB refuses to issue a permit, the landowner would have no choice, the amended legislation contains provisions which enable municipalities to enact by-laws to require owners of designated buildings to maintain the structures and their heritage elements. Such by-laws are intended to prevent demolition by neglect, although the collapse of Walnut Hall in Toronto demonstrates that such buildings are still at risk, experience with the new provisions of the Act has been mixed. Municipalities, who were significantly greater authority with the amendments, have, in some cases, used the authority to prevent or delay development proposals.
In one case a golf course was designated when the local Council received a proposal to develop it for housing, another flashpoint has been proposals to develop or significantly alter church properties. The Guide to Conserving Heritage Places of Worship in Ontario Communities is part of the Ontario Heritage Toolkit, the Guide provides an understanding of how religious and heritage preservation goals can be balanced. Properties under federal jurisdiction are problematic, enterprises such as banking, various federal private members bills attempt to restrict demolition of historic properties, but all are narrow in scope and provide no protection against demolition by neglect
Pan American Games
The Pan-American or Pan American Games is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, the only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. The Pan American Sports Organization is the body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure. The XVII Pan American Games were held in Toronto from July 10–26,2015, since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games, in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another. The Parapan American Games are held following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games Movement consists of sports federations, National Olympic Committees that are recognized by PASO. As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games, the host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter and rules.
The Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO, the celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, and the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in 36 sports, the first and third-place finishers in each event receive gold and bronze medals, respectively. At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games. The second games were held in Mexico City, competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports. The Pan American Games were held every four years in the cities of Chicago, United States in 1959, São Paulo, Brazil in 1963 and Winnipeg.
While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, during the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village. This village is intended to be a home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression, PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand. As a result and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees, examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being legally under the jurisdiction of another power. There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to two countries, the United States and Canada
Liberty Village is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada. Liberty Village is located on one of Torontos oldest settlements, fort York, on the south edge of community, was established by the British military in 1793. Provincial Secretary William John Hanna forced the closure of Central Prison in 1915, Liberty Street, for which Liberty Village is named, was the first street both male and female convicts would walk once freed. The areas proximity to the tracks led to its growth as an industrial area. In 1884, John Inglis and Company opened a factory to manufacture machinery, boilers. Inglis success led to its expansion onto Central Prison lands, in 1891, Massey-Harris built a factory to produce agricultural implements. Other companies which established in the late 19th century included Toronto Carpet Manufacturing, St. David’s Wine, industry continued to flourish during the early 20th century due to the areas excellent railway access and many spur lines, as well as a plentiful labour supply from nearby Parkdale.
New companies included Brunswick-Balke-Collender, Irwin Toy, Canada Metal, Simmons Bedding and Dauch Paper, many of the factories produced armaments and weapons during both world wars, and much of the soil pollution in the area dates from those periods. In 1990, the Toronto Carpet Manufacturing plant on Liberty Street shut down, the Inglis factory and Massey-Harris factory were demolished. Decreased industrial activity and lower property values caused many Liberty Village buildings to fall into neglect, the Liberty Village name was introduced as a positive brand by the property owners and developers in the area in conjunction with the City of Toronto. The neighbourhood aims to distinguish itself from Parkdale, which now begins west of Dufferin Street, the Liberty Village BIA Business Improvement Area was founded in 2001 and represents over 600 member businesses which employ more than 10,000 people. The ongoing gentrification of downtown Toronto has been pushing farther outwards from downtown and it has become a trendy neighbourhood for young professionals and artists pushing farther west for less established areas, while still remaining a short walk or streetcar ride from the core.
Many old factories have been repurposed as lofts while others have become restaurants, furniture stores and galleries, as this area was primarily a former heavy industrial area. The industrial building used to house a paper company and up until 2003. Old storage and factory spaces at Liberty Street and Hanna Avenue were converted into commercial spaces in the 1980s and 1990s, the Market houses design firms and collectives, media and marketing firms, and an eclectic mix of retail stores. Structures from the old Inglis Factory and the former Massey Ferguson Head Office surround the heart of Liberty Village and its influence can be seen throughout the neighbourhood and maintains the valued tradition of a neighbourhood that was once dominated by artists searching for affordable living and studio spaces. Liberty Village is known for its successful Art and Design studios, many Canadian and US design and technology firms have located to Liberty Village, creating many jobs for the increasing number of citizens that have moved into the growing neighbourhood.
Offices are mostly concentrated in the west end of Liberty Village, New residential developments are currently focused on East Liberty Street, which begins east of Hanna Avenue
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a place may be described as a souk, bazaar. Some markets operate on most days, others may be once a week. The term, market comes from the Latin mercatus, the exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun, ” which roughly translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town. ”Markets have existed since ancient times. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria and these markets were typically situated in the towns centre where they were surrounded by alleyways occupied by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, in ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum. In the Graeco-Roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. They would sell small surpluses from their farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment.
Major producers such as the estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting, the nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. At Pompeii multiple markets served the population of approximately 12,000, produce markets were located in the vicinity of the Forum, while livestock markets were situated on the citys perimeter, near the amphitheatre. A long narrow building at the north-west corner of the Forum was some type of market, on the opposite corner stood the macellum, thought to have been a meat and fish market. Market stall-holders paid a tax for the right to trade on market days. Some archaeological evidence suggests that markets and street vendors were controlled by local government, a graffito on the outside of a large shop documents a seven-day cycle of markets, Saturn’s day at Pompeii and Nuceria, Sun’s day at Atella and Nola, Moon’s day at Cumae. etc.
The presence of an official commercial calendar suggests something of the importance to community life. Markets were important centres of social life, in early Western Europe, markets developed close to monasteries, castles or royal residences. Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities and these centres of trade attracted sellers and would stimulate the growth of the town. A charter would protect trading privileges in return for an annual fee, from the 11th and 12th century, the number of markets and fairs burgeoned
Dufferin Gate Loop
Dufferin Gate Loop is a Toronto Transit Commission bus station and turning loop for streetcars near the southern end of Dufferin Street in Toronto. During the Canadian National Exhibition this becomes an access point for visitors entering Exhibition Place via the Dufferin Gates. This west entrance to the CNE can be reached by the Dufferin Street bridges across the Lakeshore West railway corridor, buses on layover park at the west end of the station, south of the tracks. The loop was constructed in 1922 by the newly created Toronto Transportation Commission, the original wood frame structure has been rebuilt and renovated after 1960. The current structure has a semi enclosed waiting area, gates. The most recent renewal of the tracks was in 2013. 29 Dufferin from Wilson station via Dufferin station is the only regular TTC bus route, the loop is used to short turn streetcar service on the 504 King and 501 Queen routes. The nearby loops would ensure that riders from Liberty Village, in the west, or from the Canary District, the TTC announced that they planned to use the new, low-floor Flexity vehicles on the route.
Those vehicles are twice as long as the TTCs older vehicles, media related to Dufferin Gate Loop at Wikimedia Commons Toronto Then and Now, Old Parkdale, part four
Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, to yet another destination. One possible reason for transshipment is to change the means of transport during the journey, another reason is to combine small shipments into a large shipment, dividing the large shipment at the other end. Transshipment usually takes place in transport hubs, much international transshipment takes place in designated customs areas, thus avoiding the need for customs checks or duties, otherwise a major hindrance for efficient transport. An item handled as a movement is not generally considered transshipped. Previously, it was not distinguished from transloading, since each leg of such a trip was typically handled by a different shipper. Transshipment is normally fully legal and a part of world trade. However, it can be a used to disguise intent, as is the case with illegal logging, smuggling. The exact definition of transshipment may differ between ports, mostly depending on the inclusion of water transport.
The definition of transshipment may, include only seaborne transfers, or include both seaborne and inland waterway ship transfers, most coastal container ports in China have a large proportion of riverside transshipment to the hinterland. In both cases, a single, transhipped container is counted twice in the performance, since it is handled twice by the waterside cranes. Variable-gauge axles can eliminate this inconvenience, cross-docking Customs area Entrepôt List of free ports List of worlds busiest transshipment ports Milk run Transshipment problem What Is Transshipment. From Informed Trade website E. Rojas, MCS Observers on board at-sea Transshipment Vessels. In, APO Mail Buoy Vol.10
Toronto Transit Commission
The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, rapid transit and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. Established in 1921, the TTC comprises four rapid transit lines with 69 stations, over 149 bus routes, and 10 streetcar lines. In 4th quarter 2012, the daily ridership was 2.76 million passengers,1,425,300 by bus,271,100 by streetcar,46,400 by intermediate rail. The TTC operates paratransit service for the elderly and disabled. The TTC is the third most heavily used urban mass transit system in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority, public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a privately operated transit service. In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes, during this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone.
On February 17,2008, the TTC made many improvements, finally reversing more than a decade of service reductions. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, another common slogan is The Better Way. The TTC has recovered about 70% of its costs from the fare box in recent years. From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s, partly attributable to recession. Since then, the TTC has consistently been in financial difficulties, Service cuts were averted in 2007, when the Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC. As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies, the TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009. The TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America, for the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion.
Revenue from fares covered approximately 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city, in 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives approximately 10% of its budget from the provincial government. The fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens, the TTC operated the ferry service to the Toronto Islands from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department. Gray Coach Lines was a suburban and regional intercity bus operator founded in 1927 by the TTC, Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario
Parliament Street (Toronto)
Parliament Street is a north-south street in the eastern part of downtown Toronto, Canada. The street runs from Bloor Street to Queens Quay and is the first major street west of the Don River, the street is named for the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada, built in 1794 on the south side of Front Street just west of Parliament Street. Berkeley Street was the first Parliament Street, until the city moved Parliament Street one block east, the street route follows a trail originally cut through the woods by Governor John Graves Simcoe to his summer house on the Don River, Castle Frank. While Parliament Street was originally one of the most important boulevards in the city, named after legislative buildings burned to the ground by invading American forces, Parliament Street has been a setting for growth and change for more than 200 years. Shaped by a combination of features and the built environment, Parliament Street is a reflection not only of the history of Toronto. Established in 1791, the Province of Upper Canada moved its capital to York in 1793, needing a place to house his new government, the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada commissioned the construction of two modest Georgian buildings that were dubbed the “Palaces of Government”.
Ontario’s first Parliament was located on the shore of the bay, just east of Berkeley, completed in 1797, the red-brick structures were plagued by bad luck. They were burned by invading American forces in 1813, rebuilt in 1820, the fires and the “marshy” air by the lake influenced the relocation of the parliament buildings, although the name of the street remains to this day. Parliament Street evolved as a Victorian main street serving nearby neighbourhoods, during the time of William Lyon Mackenzie, development was concentrated south of Queen Street, it moved northward to Winchester Street by about 1885 and Bloor Street by 1895. The Victorian character of these buildings, supplemented by Edwardian commercial structures, underlies today’s streetscape, for several decades, the area between Gerrard and Wellesley Streets offered the attractions of downtown in a residential area. The Eclipse Theatre, the Winchester Hotel and clothier Harry Rosen offered entertainment, grocery and jewelry stores and barbershops served the community, making it a thriving part of Toronto.
As upscale businesses moved to the downtown core, Parliament Street became less glamorous. Major change came to Parliament Street in the mid-20th century, the construction of Regent Park, Moss Park, and St. James Town brought tower block development, new businesses and a multicultural population. Equally important was local resistance to demolishing remaining Victorian buildings to make way for more high-rises, the result is a mixed-use, mixed-income community still focused on its main street. The last 15 years have brought new life to Parliament Street, Parliament Street begins at Queens Quay, close to the lake shore and Toronto Harbour in an area once the centre of Toronto industry but now largely abandoned. To the east of Parliament is the Distillery District, a cluster of Victorian industrial buildings that have converted into a commercial and cultural centre. North of Queen Street, Parliament passes by the Moss Park, both are a series of apartment towers built during the slum clearance programs of the 1950s and 1960s.
Regent Park was the first such project in Toronto, but has been beset by high crime, between Gerrard and Wellesley, Parliament serves as the main commercial area for the Cabbagetown neighbourhood
Hiram Walker was an American entrepreneur and founder of the Hiram Walker and Sons Ltd. distillery Windsor, Canada. Walker was born in East Douglas and moved to Detroit in 1838 and he purchased land across the Detroit River, just east of what is Windsor and established a distillery in 1858 in what would become Walkerville, Ontario. Walker began selling his whisky as Hiram Walkers Club Whisky, in containers that were clearly marked and he used a process to make his whisky that was vastly different from all other distillers. It became very popular, angering American distillers, who forced the U. S. Government to pass a law requiring that all foreign whiskeys state their country of origin on the label, from this point forward, Hiram Walkers famous Canadian Club Whisky was Canadas top export whisky. The Hiram Walker & Sons Distillery remained in the Walker family until 1926 when they sold it to Harry C, Canadian Club whisky is still produced at the distillery site Walker founded. The company has gone through several owners and is now part of Pernod Ricard, the Canadian Club brand is owned by Beam Suntory, a subsidiary of Suntory Holdings of Japan.
Hiram Walker was born on July 4,1816 on a farm in Douglas. He was the generation of English immigrants, his father was a reputable schoolmaster. His ancestors can be traced back to Thomas Walker of Boston and his father died when he was aged 9. Douglas, Massachusetts was a town, with a population of 1,800, and very few businesses, which include a planing mill. He received a school education in Boston, and began working as a dry goods clerk. He left for Detroit, Michigan, in 1838, at the age of 22 years, Detroit was a vast change from Boston at the time, as Detroit had a smaller population, where Hiram was able to find employment. His first employment in Detroit was as a clerk at a store owned by Augustus Gardner. His general tasks were to order, receive and price out all the goods in which the company dealt with, through this, he gained knowledge and experience of the business world. At this time, Boston was the metropolis of New England, the Eastern Seaboard. Walker, as well as many other youthful New Englanders, were drawn to the opportunity of the Mid-West and beyond, largely in part to the expansion, on October 5,1846, at age thirty, Hiram Walker married Mary Abigail Williams.
Mary Williams and Hiram Walker had 7 children,5 boys and 2 girls, on her mothers side, Mary Abigail was the descendant of French merchants. He had two daughters, Julia Elizabeth and Jennie Melissa, and five sons, Willis Ephraim, Edward Chandler, Franklin Hiram, Edward Chandler was his second son, whom commissioned the development of Willistead Manor
A public space is a social space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public squares and beaches are considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas. Recently, the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space used by automobiles. Public space has become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, visual art, cultural studies, social studies. The term public space is often misconstrued to mean other things such as gathering place. One of the earliest examples of spaces are commons. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry, non-government-owned malls are examples of private space with the appearance of being public space. In Nordic countries like Norway and Finland, all areas are considered public space, due to a law. In the United States the right of the people to engage in speech, the government cannot usually limit ones speech beyond what is reasonable in a public space, which is considered to be a public forum.
This is not to say that the government can control what one says in their own home or to others, malls, waiting rooms, etc. may be closed at night. As this does not exclude any specific group, it is not considered a restriction on public use. Entry to public parks cannot be restricted based upon a users residence, in some cultures, there is no expectation of privacy in a public space, however civil inattention is a process whereby individuals are able to maintain their privacy within a crowd. Public space is shared and created for open usage throughout the community. The area is built for a range of types of recreation. The physical setting is socially constructed, which creates a behavior influence, limitations are imposed in the space to prevent certain actions from occurring--public behavior that is considered obnoxious or out of character --and are supported by law or ordinance. Police forces are involved in moving unwanted members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are excluded from some spaces
Mill Street Brewery
Mill Street Brewery is a brewery in Toronto, Canada that is a part of the global Anheuser–Busch InBev empire. It lost its status as an independent craft brewery in 2015 when it was purchased by industrial brewer Labatt Brewing Company, the brewery was founded in December 2002 in Toronto by Steve Abrams, Jeff Cooper and Michael Duggan. The brewery was named after its location at 55 Mill Street in the historic Distillery District. In early 2006, all brewing was moved to a bigger facility in Scarborough, Ontario. The brewpub features 14 Mill Street beers on draught, including seasonal, in 2007, co-founder Michael Duggan left, believing that new investors were more interested in profit than in quality. In 2011, the company leased a historic grist mill building adjacent to the Chaudière Falls in Ottawa, the building is owned by the National Capital Commission and most recently housed The Mill, a restaurant that closed in 2007 and a 140-year-old former grist mill. Also in 2011, Mill Street became the first craft brewer to open a bar/restaurant in a major Canadian airport, the Mill Street Airport Pub is located in Terminal 1 near gate 20 of Toronto Pearson International Airport.
In Spring 2013, The Beer Hall opened adjacent to the original Brewpub in the Distillery District, the site includes a fully operational still, where the first Canadian-produced bierschnaps is made from beer brewed on site. On October 9,2015, Mill Street was purchased by Labatt, as part of the purchase agreement, Labatt agreed to invest $10 million into brewing operations to help expand into Quebec. Due to the takeover, the Ontario Craft Brewers no longer considered Mill St. to be a craft brewer, similarly the Ontario government will no longer provide the financial support and marketing initiatives that are available to independent craft brewers in the province