The Distinguished Flying Cross is a military decoration awarded to any officer or enlisted member of the United States Armed Forces who distinguishes himself or herself in support of operations by "heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial flight, subsequent to November 11, 1918." The first award of the Distinguished Flying Cross was made by President Calvin Coolidge on May 2, 1927, to ten aviators of the U. S. Army Air Corps who had participated in the Army Pan American Flight which took place from December 21, 1926, to May 2, 1927. Two of the airmen died in a mid-air collision trying to land at Buenos Aires on February 26, 1927, received their awards posthumously; the award had only been authorized by Congress the previous year and no medals had yet been struck, so the Pan American airmen received only certificates. Among the ten airmen were Major Herbert Dargue, Captains Ira C. Eaker and Muir S. Fairchild, 1st Lt. Ennis C. Whitehead. Charles Lindbergh received the first presentation of the actual medal about a month from Coolidge during the Washington, D.
C. homecoming reception on June 1927, from his trans-Atlantic flight. The medal had hurriedly been readied just for that occasion; the 1927 War Department General Order authorizing Lindbergh's DFC states that it was awarded by the President, while the General Order for the Pan American Flyers' DFC citation notes that the War Department awarded it "by direction of the President." The first Distinguished Flying Cross to be awarded to a Naval aviator was received by Commander Richard E. Byrd, USN for his trans-Atlantic flight from June 29 to July 1, 1927, from New York City to the coast of France. Byrd and his pilot Machinist Floyd Bennett had received the Medal of Honor for their historic flight to the North Pole on May 9, 1926. Numerous recipients of the medal earned greater fame in other occupations. DFC awards can be retroactive to cover notable achievements back to the beginning of World War I. On February 23, 1929, Congress passed special legislation to allow the award of the DFC to the Wright brothers for their December 17, 1903, flight.
Other civilians who have received the award include Wiley Post, Jacqueline Cochran, Roscoe Turner, Amelia Earhart, Glenn H. Curtiss, Eugene Ely, it was limited to military personnel by an Executive Order. Amelia Earhart became the first woman to receive the DFC on July 29, 1932, when it was presented to her by Vice President Charles Curtis in Los Angeles for her solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean earlier that year. During World War II, the medal's award criteria varied depending on the theater of operations, aerial combat, engaged in, the missions that were accomplished. In the Pacific, commissioned officers were awarded the DFC, while enlisted men were given the Air Medal. In Europe, some crews received it for their overall performance through a tour of duty; the criteria used was however not consistent over time. Individual achievement could result in the medal being awarded. For example, George McGovern received one for completing a bombing mission after his aircraft lost an engine, landing it safely.
The Distinguished Flying Cross was authorized by Section 12 of the United States Army Air Corps Act enacted by Congress on July 2, 1926, as amended by Executive Order 7786 on January 8, 1938. This act provided for award to any person who distinguishes himself "by heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial flight" while serving in any capacity with the Air Corps; the Distinguished Flying Cross was designed by Arthur E. DuBois; the medal is a bronze cross pattee, on whose obverse is superimposed a four-bladed propeller, 1 11/16 inches in width. Five rays extend from the reentrant angles; the reverse is blank. The cross is suspended from a rectangular bar; the suspension and service ribbon of the medal is 1 3/8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 3/32 inch Ultramarine Blue 67118. DevicesAdditional awards of the Distinguished Flying Cross are shown with bronze or silver Oak Leaf Clusters for the Army and Air Force, gold and silver 5⁄16 Inch Stars for the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard.
The Air Force and Marine Corps may authorize the "V" device for wear on the DFC to denote valor in combat. The Army does not authorize the "V" device to be worn on the DFC; the other services can award the DFC for extraordinary achievement without the "V" device. In July 2014, the United States Senate passed the Distinguished Flying Cross National Memorial Act; the act was sponsored by Senator Barbara Boxer, to designate the Distinguished Flying Cross Memorial at March Field Air Museum adjacent to March Air Reserve Base in Riverside, California as a national memorial to recognize members of United States Armed Forces who have distinguished themselves by heroism in aerial flight. The act was signed into law by President Barack Obama on July 25, 2014. Note: the rank indicated is the highest held by the individual. Lieutenant General Thomas P. Stafford, USAF: Flew to the Moon on Apollo 10, commander of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. Major
Robert Ransom Jr. was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. His brother Matt W. Ransom was a Confederate general officer and U. S. Senator. Ransom was born in North Carolina to Robert Ransom Sr. and Priscilla Whitaker Ransom. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1850. Ransom was assigned to the 1st dragoons on July 1, 1850, he attended the cavalry school at Carlisle Barracks in Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1850-51. On October 9, 1851 he was promoted to Second Lieutenant. Ransom performed frontier service in New Mexico from 1851-54. Ransom married Minnie Huntt in 1854, he was assistant instructor of cavalry tactics at West Point from 1854-55. In 1855 he was promoted to First Lieutenant and transferred to the 1st U. S. Cavalry. Ransom served as adjutant of the regiment at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1855–1857, where he took part in the Sioux expedition and in policing the Kansas disturbances; the next few years saw him in the recruiting service and frontier duty in Arkansas and Colorado.
He was promoted to Captain. He resigned his commission on January 31, 1861, with the discussion of secession and the sectional crisis that led to the Civil War, he was appointed as a captain in the North Carolina cavalry in early 1861 and served with his regiment in Northern Virginia, where he fought in several minor skirmishes. On October 13, 1861, he was appointed to the colonelcy of the 1st North Carolina Cavalry Regiment, he commanded the Confederate forces at the skirmish around Vienna on November 26, 1861, was afterward returned to North Carolina. On March 1, 1862, Ransom was promoted to brigadier general and fought on the Peninsula attached to Huger's Division, he led his North Carolina brigade in the September 1862 invasion of Maryland and participated in the capture of Harpers Ferry and the Battle of Antietam. On November 7, he was placed in temporary command of the division and led it through the Battle of Fredericksburg, where Ransom's division had defended Marye's Heights against the attacking Federals.
In January 1863, Ransom and his brigade were sent back to North Carolina. In May he was promoted to major general and performed duty around Richmond, western Virginia, eastern Tennessee. In May 1864 he led a division under General P. G. T. Beauregard in the defense of Drewry's Bluff against Union General Benjamin Butler, he was sent to command the cavalry in the Shenandoah Valley in the summer, under the command of General Jubal A. Early, where he participated in the battles of Monocacy and Fort Stevens, he was never returned to front line service. He ended the war serving on military courts at administrative posts in Kentucky and at Charleston, South Carolina, before surrendering to Federal troops on May 2, 1865. Following the war, he was an express agent and city marshal at Wilmington, North Carolina, was a farmer until 1878, he was a civil engineer in charge of Federal river and harbor works at New Bern, North Carolina. In 1881, his first wife died; the couple had nine children. In 1884, he married Katherine DeWitt Lumpkin and they had three children.
Ransom died in New Bern in 1892. He is buried in Cedar Grove Cemetery. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Find A Grave: Cedar Grove Cemetery Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Confederacy. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9
The Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre is a Regional Correctional Centre, located in the District Municipality of Saanich, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. It lies within British Columbia, in its northwest suburbs; the centre offers grief counseling to the family members of prisoners' deceased victims. On October 26, 1977 20 inmates took a prison officer hostage with a knife, but released him peacefully the next day. A prison riot at Prince George Regional Correctional Centre on April 26, 1983 led to ten prisoners being transferred to VIRCC. A prison riot at VIRCC in January 1985 led to 37 prisoners appearing before a disciplinary review board. On March 26, 2005, five inmates were charged with mischief after having together caused between $40,000 and $50,000 worth of damage to a living unit at the centre. In September 2006, David Johnston, a homeless man imprisoned at the VIRCC due to repeated sleeping on Beacon Hill Park and St. Ann's Academy property, went on a hunger strike to fight for the right to sleep outdoors and was supported by other homeless people who created a tent city.
On February 22, 2007, inmate Wayne Allan Turner was found dead in the centre, hanging from a fire sprinkler head. British Columbia Government and Service Employees' Union corrections and sheriff services component chairman Dean Purdy stated in March 2010 that there had been 63 assaults on the centre's guards by inmates since 2003 when the jail became overcrowded due to the closing of nine other British Columbia jails. An attempted prison escape by two prisoners was foiled in July 2011