Edwin Anderson Jr.
Edwin Alexander Anderson Jr. was a United States Navy officer who received the Medal of Honor for actions during the 1914 American intervention at Veracruz. He retired from the Navy as an admiral. Anderson was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, he was appointed a cadet midshipman to the United States Naval Academy from the 3rd Congressional District of North Carolina, on 28 June 1878, graduated with the Class of 1882, receiving his ensign's stripe on 1 July 1884, after the customary two year's sea duty. Anderson advanced up the promotion ladder, such advancements in those times being received on basis of seniority. Detached from the cruiser Columbia, Anderson reported on board the cruiser Marblehead on 28 January 1897, was serving in that ship at the time of the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in the spring of 1898. At that time, the United States Navy threw a blockade around Cuba. By early May 1898, Marblehead was operating off the south coast of Cuba, off the port of Cienfuegos—a cable terminus important to Spanish communications—in company with the converted yacht Eagle, the gunboat Nashville, the revenue cutter Windom and the collier Saturn.
To sever this vital link, Captain Bowman H. McCalla, senior officer in the group, planned an operation to cut the cable at Cienfuegos, designating Lieutenant Cameron McRae Winslow as the commanding officer, with Lieutenant, Anderson as his second-in-command. Winslow accordingly gave Anderson command of the sailing launches from Marblehead. After the guns of the two warships smashed Spanish positions ashore, the boats moved in to carry out the operation. Anderson's boat snatched up the first cable and, assisted by Nashville's boat, cut it, they soon grapneled a second cable and were in the process of cutting it, when the Spaniards opened a slow fire that soon grew to volley proportions, from rifles, automatic weapons and one-pounders. After a Spanish bullet felled the coxswain of Anderson's boat, Anderson took the helm and began steering the boat seaward, directing his men to keep down between the thwarts; the Spanish fire, however holed the boat in many places. After the action, Anderson had nothing but praise for his sailors and marines, commending their intelligent and cheerful work in the exhausting labor of picking up and cutting the heavy cables, working under heavy fire until ordered to stop.
The operation proved successful in another aspect. The ships gunfire decimated a large Spanish force sent to the area to contest the operation. Subsequently, Anderson delivered the prize steamer Adula to Savannah, Georgia, in July 1898, was given command of another Spanish prize, the gunboat Alvarado. Recommended for advancement in grade for his heroism at Cienfuegos in August 1898, this advancement came on 11 February 1901. Anderson commanded the gunboat Callao from 13 April 1901 - 24 December 1903, in the Philippines, in Hong Kong. During the remainder of the 1900s, Anderson advanced to commander, he commanded the battleship Iowa during the assemblage the fleet in New York City before being detached for duty as Captain of the Yard at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Late in 1913, Anderson was given command of the battleship New Hampshire, while in command of that ship, took part in the American intervention at Veracruz, Mexico, in April 1914. Given command of the Second Seaman Regiment, Anderson led that bluejacket landing force ashore and so distinguished himself in the fighting that followed that he received the Medal of Honor.
Subsequently attending the Naval War College, Anderson served as Supervisor of Naval Auxiliary Reserves, as Commander, Squadron Three, Patrol Force, assigned defense duties out of Key West, during World War I, with Dolphin as his flagship. He was promoted to rear admiral and took command of Squadron One, Patrol Force, Atlantic Fleet, for the duration of the First World War. Over the next few years, Anderson flew his flag as Commander Division 1, Cruiser Squadrons, Atlantic Fleet, as Commandant, Sixth Naval district, headquartered at Charleston, South Carolina, before assuming command of United States Naval Forces in European Waters, with the rank of vice admiral, he was soon redesignated as Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet, however from 28 August 1922. Continued turmoil in China had occasioned the presence of substantial numbers of foreign warships in Chinese waters including the Asiatic Fleet. Anderson's ships carried out the usual kinds of peacetime operations ready to perform protective service for American nationals.
During his tour, however the Fleet distinguished itself in quite an unexpected fashion. A severe earthquake rocked Japan, causing heavy damage to such cities as Yokohama; as Secretary of the Navy Edwin C. Denby reported in 1923, "One of the brightest pages in the history of the Navy has been written by the Asiatic Fleet in its mission of mercy to the stricken people of Japan." Admiral Anderson promptly placed his fleet at the disposal of the Japanese dispatched a division of destroyer from Chinese waters to Yokohama with medical supplies to render assistance. The ships of Destroyer Division 38, led by the destroyer Stewart, were in fact the first ships to render assistance to the city of Yokohama. All available naval vessels were laden with clothing, food and supplies, rushed to Japanese waters. Admiral Anderson himself arrived at Yokohama in his flagship the armore
Ted N. Branch
Ted N. "Twig" Branch retired as a Vice Admiral in the United States Navy on October 1, 2016, after serving the last three years of his 37-year career as the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for information warfare. In that capacity, he was the resource sponsor for the N2N6 portfolio which includes program investments for assured command and control, battlespace awareness, integrated fires, he was the Navy’s Chief Information Officer, the Director of Navy Cybersecurity, the leader of the Information Warfare Community, the Director of Naval Intelligence. Admiral Branch was questioned by the Department of Justice regarding the Glenn Defense Marine Asia investigation in November 2013 and his access to classified information was suspended by the Secretary of the Navy. After a three-year investigation, Branch was cleared of all charges. Bachelor of Science, United States Naval Academy, 1979 Master of international relations, Naval War College Branch was a career naval aviator, specializing in A-7 Corsairs and F/A-18 Hornets.
He has flown combat missions over Grenada, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Iraq. He has served as the commanding officer of VFA-15, the USS Coronado, the USS Nimitz, Carrier Strike Group One, Naval Air Force Atlantic, he has served on the Joint Staff at the Pentagon. As the commander of the USS Nimitz, then-Captain Branch was featured prominently in the Emmy award-winning documentary television series Carrier. In January 2010, as the Commander of CARL VINSON Strike Group, Branch led the initial US Navy response to the Haiti earthquake. From February 2011 to July 2013, Branch served as the Commander of Naval Air Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet, headquartered in Norfolk, VA. In that role he was responsible for manning and equipping all elements of Naval Air Force, Atlantic — over 1000 aircraft, 40 thousand personnel, six nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. While there, he established the Interoperability Coordination Office for the United Kingdom's new aircraft carriers and the introduction of the F35 aircraft. On 16 May 2013, Branch was nominated by Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel to become the Director of Naval Intelligence and the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance.
He was confirmed by the United States Senate in July 2013 and automatically promoted to Vice Admiral. While serving in the DCNO/DNI roles, he took on the position of Directory of Navy Cybersecurity, becoming the Navy's leading proponent for cybersecurity. In this role, he stood up a year-long matrixed organization called Task Force Cyber Awakening to develop and implement Navy’s cybersecurity strategy; that group developed the CYBERSAFE program to design and build in cyber resiliency, inculcate an enhanced culture of cybersecurity throughout the U. S. Navy; when the Task Force completed their efforts, he stood up the Navy Cybersecurity Division within N2N6 so the process of instituting CYBERSAFE and a culture of cybersecurity could continue. On November 8, 2013, the Navy suspended Branch's access to classified information in connection with a Department of Justice investigation involving Singapore-based defense contractor, Glenn Defense Marine Asia; the investigation as to Branch involves a non-criminal accusation of "inappropriate conduct" associated with his acceptance of gifts from Glenn Marine during his tour as commanding officer of USS Nimitz on a western Pacific/Persian Gulf deployment in 2005.
Although Branch remained in his post during the lengthy Justice Department investigation, his access to classified information remained suspended, relegating him to unclassified duties. In September 2015, the Navy formally nominated Rear Admiral Elizabeth L. Train to succeed Branch as Director of Naval Intelligence. In January 2016, the Washington Post reported that Branch was still functioning in his role, yet was "barred from reading, seeing or hearing classified information since November 2013", due to the suspension tied to the investigation. In January 2016, the Daily Mail reported, "Branch is yet to be charged, but he has not been cleared either - leaving the Navy in the bizarre predicament of having an intelligence chief, unable to read top secret documents."On April 1, 2016, the Navy Times reported that the Navy had withdrawn Elizabeth Train's nomination to succeed Branch in favor of Vice Admiral Jan E. Tighe commander of the Navy’s Fleet Cyber Command and Commander, U. S. Tenth Fleet.
Vice Admiral Tighe relieved Branch as Deputy CNO for Information Warfare/Director of Naval Intelligence in July 2016. Branch's access to classified information remained. Both the Navy and the Department of Justice cleared Branch of any wrong doing in September 2017 and declined to prosecute Branch after a three-year investigation that resulted in no charges being brought. Official Navy Biography
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Military awards and decorations
Military awards and decorations are a distinction given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service or achievement. It is a medal consisting of a ribbon and a medallion. While the United States Government does not consider all its military awards and medals as being "decorations", other countries tend to refer to all their military awards and medals as "decorations". Civil decorations awarded to military personnel should not be considered military decorations, although some orders of chivalry have civil and military divisions. Decorations received by police and fire brigade personnel may sometimes be considered alongside military decorations, on which they may be modelled, although they are not military awards. Decorations have been known since ancient times; the Egyptian Old Kingdom had the Order of the Golden Collar while the New Kingdom awarded the Order of the Golden Fly. Celts and Romans wore a torc or received other military decorations such as the hasta pura, a spear without a tip.
Dayaks still wear tattoos, etc.. Necklaces and bracelets were given during the early Middle Ages, evolving into richly jewelled big necklaces with a pendant attached; the oldest military decorations still in use is Sweden's För tapperhet i fält and För tapperhet till sjöss awarded to officers and soldiers of the Swedish Armed Forces who have—as the medal names suggest—shown valour in the field or at sea in wartime. The medal was instituted by Swedish king Gustav III on 1789, during his war against Russia. Whilst technically it is still active, it is for practical purposes inactive, not having been awarded since 1915; the next oldest was the Austro-Hungarian Tapferkeits Medaille Honour Medal for Bravery 1789–1792. This medal was instituted on 19 July, 1789, by the Emperor Joseph II. Another of the oldest military decorations still in use is Poland's War Order of Virtuti Militari, it was first awarded in 1792. Medals have been forged by many people to make the medal appear more valuable or to make one look like a more decorated soldier.
Medal forgeries can include: adding bars, engraving a famous soldier's name on it or creating a whole new medal. Medal forgery can be punishable by imprisonment. Alas many medals are faked, a medal gains value in direct relation to the owner of the medal. A knowledge therefore of the exact styles of naming is a crucial key to purchasing a real medal, however a quick tip is just to look at the medal on a flat surface, is the medal round or does it and have an egg-shaped appearance and thinning of the rim towards the 6 o’clock point, if so this means that the original naming has been removed and a new name impressed or engraved around the rim taking the name of a man, at a famous action to deceive and make the medal worth more money, always make sure the medal is round, the forger will be happy to take your money for a medal he has re-named! If in doubt take your medal to one of the well know reputable dealers or auction houses who specialise in Military Medals, such as Mark Smith - a Military Medals specialist and a familiar face on BBC's Antiques Roadshow - they will and tell you if your medal is real or has come from the forgers workshop.
Today military decorations include: Order of merit. In most NATO militaries, only the service ribbons are worn on everyday occasions. List of military decorations List of highest military decorations Civil decoration State decoration Neck decoration Commonwealth Realms orders and decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military Awards and decorations of the Russian Federation Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Israeli Military decorations Orders and medals of Spain Awards and decorations of the German Armed Forces Orders and medals of the United Kingdom
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
The Defense Distinguished Service Medal is a United States military award, presented for exceptionally distinguished performance of duty contributing to the national security or defense of the United States. The medal was created on July 9, 1970, by President Richard Nixon in Executive Order 11545; the Defense Distinguished Service Medal is the United States's highest non-combat related military award and it is the highest joint service decoration. The Defense Distinguished Service Medal is awarded; such responsibilities deserving of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal are held by the most senior officers such as the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chiefs and Vice Chiefs of the Services, Commanders and Deputy Commanders of the Combatant Commands, the Director of the Joint Staff etc. whose duties bring them into direct contact with the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, other senior government officials. In addition, the medal may be awarded to other service members whose direct and individual contributions to national security or national defense are recognized as being so exceptional in scope and value as to be equivalent to contributions associated with positions encompassing broader responsibilities.
This decoration takes precedence over the Distinguished Service Medals of the separate services and is not to be awarded to any individual for a period of service for which an Army, Air Force or Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal is awarded. The medal is gold in color and on the obverse it features a medium blue enameled pentagon. Superimposed on this is an American bald eagle with wings outspread facing left grasping three crossed arrows in its talons and on its breast is a shield of the United States; the pentagon and eagle are enclosed within a gold pieced circle consisting, in the upper half of 13 five-pointed stars and in the lower half, a wreath of laurel on the left and olive on the right. At the top is a suspender of five graduated gold rays; the reverse of the medal has the inscription "For Distinguished Service" at the top in raised letters, within the pentagon the inscription "From The Secretary of Defense To," all in raised letters. Additional awards of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal are denoted by oak leaf clusters
Charles A. Doyen
Charles Augustus Doyen was an officer in the United States Marine Corps with the rank of Brigadier general and the first recipient of the Navy Distinguished Service Medal. Born in Concord, New Hampshire, Brigadier General Doyen was a member of the Naval Academy class of 1881 commissioned second lieutenant in the Marine Corps, he organized and commanded the 5th Marine Regiment in World War I, in France took command of the 4th Brigade, 2d Division, composed of the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments and the 6th Machine Gun Battalion. From 26 October to 8 November 1917, he served as Commanding General, 2nd Division, the first Marine officer to command a U. S. Army division, he returned to the United States, dying of influenza during the height of the global pandemic on 6 October 1918 at Quantico, Virginia. The 4th Brigade went on to win a historic victory in Belleau Wood. Brigadier General Doyen's contribution to these victories was recognized by the posthumous award of the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, the first to be awarded.
Two ships have been named USS Doyen for him. "Doyen". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command, Department of the Navy. Retrieved 2006-11-19. United States Army records of Russell. "General Charles Augustus Doyen". Publications - Likenesses of New Hampshire War Heroes & Personages in the Collections of the New Hampshire State House & State Library. New Hampshire State Curator. Retrieved 2009-03-27; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Media related to Charles Augustus Doyen at Wikimedia Commons Arlington National Cemetery