University of Western Australia
The University of Western Australia is a public research university in the Australian state of Western Australia. The university's main campus is in Perth, the state capital, with a secondary campus in Albany and various other facilities elsewhere. UWA was established in 1911 by an act of the Parliament of Western Australia, began teaching students two years later, it is the sixth-oldest university in Australia, was Western Australia's only university until the establishment of Murdoch University in 1973. Because of its age and reputation, UWA is classed one of the "sandstone universities", an informal designation given to the oldest university in each state; the university belongs to several more formal groupings, including the Group of Eight and the Matariki Network of Universities. In recent years, UWA has been ranked either in the bottom half or just outside the world's top 100 universities, depending on the system used. Alumni of UWA include one Prime Minister of Australia, five Justices of the High Court of Australia, one Governor of the Reserve Bank, various federal cabinet ministers, seven of Western Australia's eight most recent premiers.
In 2018 alumnus mathematician Akshay Venkatesh was a recipient of the Fields Medal. In 2014, the university produced its 100th Rhodes Scholar. Two members of the UWA faculty, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, won Nobel Prizes as a result of research at the university; the university was established in 1911 following the tabling of proposals by a royal commission in September 1910. The original campus, which received its first students in March 1913, was located on Irwin Street in the centre of Perth, consisted of several buildings situated between Hay Street and St Georges Terrace. Irwin Street was known as "Tin Pan Alley" as many buildings featured corrugated iron roofs; these buildings served as the university campus until 1932, when the campus relocated to its present-day site in Crawley. The founding chancellor, Sir John Winthrop Hackett, died in 1916, bequeathed property which, after being managed for ten years, yielded £425,000 to the university, a far larger sum than expected; this allowed the construction of the main buildings.
Many buildings and landmarks within the university bear his name, including Winthrop Hall and Hackett Hall. In addition, his bequest funded many scholarships, because he did not wish eager students to be deterred from studying because they could not afford to do so. During UWA's first decade there was controversy about whether the policy of free education was compatible with high expenditure on professorial chairs and faculties. An "old student" publicised his concern in 1921 that there were 13 faculties serving only 280 students. A remnant of the original buildings survives to this day in the form of the "Irwin Street Building", so called after its former location. In the 1930s it was transported to the new campus and served a number of uses till its 1987 restoration, after which it was moved across campus to James Oval; the building has served as the Senate meeting room and is in use as a cricket pavilion and office of the university archives. The building has been heritage-listed by both the National Trust and the Australian Heritage Council.
The university introduced the Doctorate of Philosophy degree in 1946 and made its first award in October 1950 to Warwick Bottomley for his research of the chemistry of native plants in Western Australia. UWA is one of the largest landowners in Perth as a result of government and private bequests, is expanding its infrastructure. Recent developments include the $22 million University Club, opened in June 2005, the UWA Watersports Complex, opened in August 2005. In addition, in September 2005 UWA opened its $64 million Molecular and Chemical Sciences building as part of a commitment to nurturing and developing high quality research and development. In May 2008, a $31 million Business School building opened. In August 2014 a $9 million new CO2 research facility was completed, providing modern facilities for carbon research; the Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, a $62 million research facility on campus, was completed in October 2016. The 65-hectare Crawley campus sits on the Swan River, about five kilometres west of the Perth central business district.
Many of the buildings are coastal limestone and Donnybrook sandstone, including the large and iconic Winthrop Hall with its Romanesque Revival architecture. These buildings are dotted amongst expansive lawns and thickets of trees, such as the Sunken Garden and the Tropical Grove; the beauty of the grounds and rich history of the campus make it a popular spot for weddings. The Arts Faculty building encompasses the New Fortune Theatre; this open-air venue is a replica of the original Elizabethan Fortune Theatre and has hosted regular performances of Shakespeare's plays co-produced by the Graduate Dramatic Society and the University Dramatic Society. The venue is home to a family of peafowl donated to the University by the Perth Zoo in 1975 after a gift by Sir Laurence Brodie-Hall; the Berndt Museum of Anthropology, located in the Lawrence Wilson Art Gallery, contains one of the world's finest collection of Aboriginal art, according to the Collections Australia Network. Its Asian and Melanesian collections are of strong interest.
Established in 1976 by Ronald and Catherine Berndt, it is planned to be incorporated in a purpose-built permanent structure, the Aboriginal Cultures Museum, designed and is awaiting funding. The Cultural Precinct of the University is located in the Northern part of the Crawley campus. University Theatres
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Fiber Distributed Data Interface is a standard for data transmission in a local area network. It uses optical fiber as its standard underlying physical medium, although it was later specified to use copper cable, in which case it may be called CDDI, standardized as TP-PMD referred to as TP-DDI. FDDI provides a 100 Mbit/s optical standard for data transmission in local area network that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers. Although FDDI logical topology is a ring-based token network, it did not use the IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol as its basis. In addition to covering large geographical areas, FDDI local area networks can support thousands of users. FDDI offers both a Dual-Attached Station, counter-rotating token ring topology and a Single-Attached Station, token bus passing ring topology. FDDI, as a product of American National Standards Institute X3T9.5, conforms to the Open Systems Interconnection model of functional layering using other protocols. The standards process started in the mid 1980s.
FDDI-II, a version of FDDI described in 1989, added circuit-switched service capability to the network so that it could handle voice and video signals. Work started to connect FDDI networks to synchronous optical networking technology. A FDDI network contains two rings; the primary ring offers up to 100 Mbit/s capacity. When a network has no requirement for the secondary ring to do backup, it can carry data, extending capacity to 200 Mbit/s; the single ring can extend the maximum distance. FDDI had a larger maximum-frame size than the standard Ethernet family, which only supports a maximum-frame size of 1,500 bytes, allowing better effective data rates in some cases. Designers constructed FDDI rings in a network topology such as a "dual ring of trees". A small number of devices infrastructure devices such as routers and concentrators rather than host computers, were "dual-attached" to both rings. Host computers connect as single-attached devices to the routers or concentrators; the dual ring in its most degenerate form collapses into a single device.
A computer-room contained the whole dual ring, although some implementations deployed FDDI as a metropolitan area network. FDDI requires this network topology because the dual ring passes through each connected device and requires each such device to remain continuously operational; the standard allows for optical bypasses, but network engineers consider these unreliable and error-prone. Devices such as workstations and minicomputers that might not come under the control of the network managers are not suitable for connection to the dual ring; as an alternative to using a dual-attached connection, a workstation can obtain the same degree of resilience through a dual-homed connection made to two separate devices in the same FDDI ring. One of the connections becomes active. If the first connection fails, the backup link takes over with no perceptible delay; the FDDI data frame format is: Where PA is the preamble, SD is a start delimiter, FC is frame control, DA is the destination address, SA is the source address, PDU is the protocol data unit, FCS is the frame check Sequence, ED/FS are the end delimiter and frame status.
The Internet Engineering Task Force defined a standard for transmission of the Internet Protocol over FDDI. It was first proposed in June 1989 and revised in 1990; some aspects of the protocol were compatible with the IEEE 802.2 standard for logical link control. For example, the 48-bit MAC addresses, thus other protocols such as the Address Resolution Protocol could be common as well. FDDI was considered an attractive campus backbone network technology in the early to mid 1990s since existing Ethernet networks only offered 10 Mbit/s data rates and token ring networks only offered 4 Mbit/s or 16 Mbit/s rates, thus it was a high-speed choice of that era. By 1994, vendors included Cisco Systems, National Semiconductor, Network Peripherals, SysKonnect, 3Com. FDDI was made obsolete in local networks by Fast Ethernet which offered the same 100 Mbit/s speeds, but at a much lower cost and, since 1998, by Gigabit Ethernet due to its speed, lower cost, ubiquity. FDDI standards included: ANSI X3.139-1987, Media Access Control — ISO 9314-2 ANSI X3.148-1988, Physical Layer Protocol — ISO 9314-1 ANSI X3.166-1989, Physical Medium Dependent — ISO 9314-3 ANSI X3.184-1993, Single Mode Fiber Physical Medium Dependent — ISO 9314-4 ANSI X3.229-1994, Station Management — ISO 9314-6 This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later
Token Ring local area network technology is a communications protocol for local area networks. It uses a special three-byte frame called a "token" that travels around a logical "ring" of workstations or servers; this token passing is a channel access method providing fair access for all stations, eliminating the collisions of contention-based access methods. Introduced by IBM in 1984, it was standardized with protocol IEEE 802.5 and was successful in corporate environments, but eclipsed by the versions of Ethernet. A wide range of different local area network technologies were developed in the early 1970s, of which one, the Cambridge Ring had demonstrated the potential of a token passing ring topology, many teams worldwide began working on their own implementations. At the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory Werner Bux and Hans Müller in particular worked on the design and development of IBM's Token Ring technology, while early work at MIT led to the Proteon 10 Mbit/s ProNet-10 Token Ring network in 1981 – the same year that workstation vendor Apollo Computer introduced their proprietary 12 Mbit/s Apollo Token Ring network running over 75-ohm RG-6U coaxial cabling.
Proteon evolved a 16 Mbit/s version that ran on unshielded twisted pair cable. IBM launched their own proprietary Token Ring product on October 15, 1985, it ran at 4 Mbit/s, attachment was possible from IBM PCs, midrange computers and mainframes. It used a convenient star-wired physical topology, ran over shielded twisted-pair cabling, shortly thereafter became the basis for the /IEEE standard 802.5. During this time, IBM argued that Token Ring LANs were superior to Ethernet under load, but these claims were fiercely debated. In 1988 the faster 16 Mbit/s Token Ring was standardized by the 802.5 working group, an increase to 100 Mbit/s was standardized and marketed during the wane of Token Ring's existence. However it was never used, while a 1000 Mbit/s standard was approved in 2001, no products were brought to market and standards activity came to a standstill as Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet dominated the local area networking market. Ethernet and Token Ring have some notable differences: Token Ring access is more deterministic, compared to Ethernet's contention-based CSMA/CD Ethernet supports a direct cable connection between two network interface cards by the use of a crossover cable or through auto-sensing if supported.
Token Ring does not inherently support this feature and requires additional software and hardware to operate on a direct cable connection setup. Token Ring eliminates collision by the use of a single-use token and early token release to alleviate the down time. Ethernet alleviates collision by carrier sense multiple access and by the use of an intelligent switch. Token Ring network interface cards contain all of the intelligence required for speed autodetection and can drive themselves on many Multistation Access Units that operate without power. Ethernet network interface cards can theoretically operate on a passive hub to a degree, but not as a large LAN and the issue of collisions is still present. Token Ring employs ` access priority'. Unswitched Ethernet does not have provisioning for an access priority system as all nodes have equal contest for traffic. Multiple identical MAC addresses are supported on Token Ring. Switched Ethernet cannot support duplicate MAC addresses without reprimand.
Token Ring was more complex than Ethernet, requiring a specialized processor and licensed MAC/LLC firmware for each interface. By contrast, Ethernet included both the lower licensing cost in the MAC chip; the cost of a token Ring interface using the Texas Instruments TMS380C16 MAC and PHY was three times that of an Ethernet interface using the Intel 82586 MAC and PHY. Both networks used expensive cable, but once Ethernet was standardized for unshielded twisted pair with 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX, it had a distinct advantage and sales of it increased markedly. More significant when comparing overall system costs was the much-higher cost of router ports and network cards for Token Ring vs Ethernet; the emergence of Ethernet switches may have been the final straw. Stations on a Token Ring LAN are logically organized in a ring topology with data being transmitted sequentially from one ring station to the next with a control token circulating around the ring controlling access. Similar token passing mechanisms are used by ARCNET, token bus, 100VG-AnyLAN and FDDI, they have theoretical advantages over the CSMA/CD of early Ethernet.
A Token Ring network can be modeled as a polling system where a single server provides service to queues in a cyclic order. The data transmission process goes as follows: Empty information frames are continuously circulated on the ring; when a computer has a message to send, it seizes the token. The computer will be able to send the frame; the frame is examined by each successive workstation. The workstation that identifies itself to be the destination for the message copies it from the frame and changes the token back to 0; when the frame gets back to the originat
General Services Administration
The General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U. S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually, it contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U. S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D. C. – the largest U. S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center. GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service, as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, the Office of Mission Assurance.
As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov platform, Data.gov, Performance.gov, Challenge.gov. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement. In 1947 President Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations: U. S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply U. S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement National Archives Establishment All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration War Assets AdministrationGSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
General Jess Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first Administrator. The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA was a complete renovation of the White House; the structure had fallen into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time said the historic structure was standing "purely from habit." Larson explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by saying, "In order to make the White House structurally sound, it was necessary to dismantle, I mean dismantle, everything from the White House except the four walls, which were constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a roof, was stripped down, that's where the work started." GSA worked with President Truman and First Lady Bess Truman to ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success. GSA completed the renovation in 1952. In 1986 GSA headquarters, U. S. General Services Administration Building, located at Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, at the time serving as Interior Department offices.
In 1960 GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962 the Ad Hoc Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D. C. resulting in the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence Avenue. In 1970 the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product Information Coordinating Center, now part of USAGov. In 1974 the Federal Buildings Fund was initiated, allowing GSA to issue rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972 GSA established the Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which became the Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973 GSA created the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA's Office of Acquisition Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. GSA was responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred to the newly-created Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984 GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in 1985; the same year, GSA began to provide governmentwide policy oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan. In 2003 the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of Homeland Security. In 2005 GSA reorganized to merge the Federal Supply Service and Federal Technology Service business lines into the Federal Acquisition Service. On April 3, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson to serve as GSA Administrator. After a nine-month delay, the United States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April 2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions" training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las Vegas.
In July 1991 GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that buildin