President of Nepal
The President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is the head of state of Nepal and commander in chief of the Nepalese Armed Forces. The office was created in May 2008; the first President of Nepal was Ram Baran Yadav. The current president is Bidhya Devi Bhandari, elected in October 2015, she is the first female Nepali head of state. The President is to be formally addressed as "The Right Honourable". Under the Interim Constitution adopted in January 2007, all powers of governance were removed from the King of Nepal, the Nepalese Constituent Assembly elected in the 2008 Constituent Assembly election was to decide in its first meeting whether to continue the monarchy or to declare a republic. During the suspension of the monarchy, Girija Prasad Koirala Prime Minister of Nepal, acted as Head of State. On 28 May 2008, the Assembly voted to abolish the monarchy. Dr. Ram Baran Yadav won the historic election from the Constituent Assembly, was sworn in as the nation's first president ending a 247 year old monarchy.
The President is elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of Nepal and the members of the provincial legislatures. A law shall determine the weight of each of their votes. Whoever receives a majority of the delegates' votes is elected. If no one receives a majority in the first round, runoffs are held between the top two candidates until one receives a majority; the presidential term is five years. A President may be elected any number of times, but not more than twice in succession; the President's powers are entirely ceremonial. In some parliamentary republics, the president is vested with executive powers on paper, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the prime minister and the government. In Nepal, the President is not the nominal chief executive, as the Constitution explicitly vests executive power in the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister. King of Nepal List of heads of state of Nepal, for a comprehensive list of Nepalese heads of state since 1768 List of Prime Ministers of Nepal Vice President of Nepal Office of the President of Nepal
Nepalese Civil War
The Nepalese Civil War, known popularly as the Maoist Conflict, Maoist Insurgency or Maoist Revolution, was a ten-year-long armed conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal and the government of Nepal, fought from 1996 to 2006. The insurgency period was popularly known as Maovadi Dwandakaal in Nepal; the rebellion was launched by the CPN-M on 13 February 1996 with the main aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a People's Republic. It ended with the Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006; the conflict was characterized by lynchings, purges and autonomous rule, spread of communist teachings, conflicts against the authority and crimes against humanity. The revolution resulted in deaths of over 17,000 people involving civilians, insurgents and police personnels, internally displaced hundreds of thousands of people; this revolution succeeded in overthrowing the 240 years old Hindu Shah monarchy of Gorkha and established secular republican regime which resulted in political and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga.
More than 17,000 people were killed during the conflict, including over 4,000 Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996-2005, over 8,200 Nepalis killed by government forces from 1996-2005. In addition, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. Furthermore, this conflict disrupted most rural development activities. On 10 January 1990, the United Left Front was formed, together with the Nepali Congress, was the backbone of the broad-based movement for democratic change. However, communist groups, uncomfortable with the alliance between the ULF and the Congress Party, formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement; the UNPM called for elections to a constituent assembly, rejected compromises made by ULF and the Congress Party with the royal house. In November 1990, the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN, was formed, included key elements of the UNPM. On 21 January 1991, the CPN set up the United People's Front of Nepal, with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front to contest elections.
The CPN held its first convention on 25 November 1991, adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution", decided that the party would remain an underground party. In the 1991 election, the UPFN became the third-largest party in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements within the UPFN surged. One group, led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal, argued for immediate armed revolution, while the other group, led by Nirmal Lama, claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle. On 22 May 1994, the CPN/UPFN was split in two; the militant faction renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN. This faction described the government forces, mainstream political parties, the monarchy, as "feudal forces"; the armed struggle began on 13 February 1996, when the CPN carried out 7 simultaneous attacks over 6 districts. The Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency; the Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for which the police would sustain control.
Controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. On 19 July 2001, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned over his inability to tackle the Maoist insurgency, over the refusal of the army to take part in the conflict. On 25 July 2001, the government of Sher Bahadur Deuba and the Maoist insurgents declared a ceasefire, held peace talks from August–November of that year; the failure of these peace talks resulted in the return to armed conflict, beginning when the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal, on 22 November. Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents, mobilizing artillery; the insurgency situation changed in 2002, as the number of attacks by both sides increased and more people died than in any other year of the war. The government responded to the insurgency by banning anti-monarchy statements, imprisoning journalists, shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary ceasefires, were held between the insurgents and the government.
The government categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for elections to a constituent assembly, for fear that it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected both the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with King Gyanendra rather than via Prime Minister Deuba, the Maoists' request for discussions to be mediated by a third party such as the United Nations. Throughout the war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoists dominated the rural areas; this was a result of the fact that all government institutions were located in either the capital city Kathmandu, or the headquarters of a district. In August 2004 Kathmandu came under rebel control, as the Maoists performed a week-long blockade of the city. Under the aegis of the global War on Terror and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, United Kingdom, India, among other nations, provided extensive m
Ilam district is one of 14 districts of Kirat of eastern Nepal. It is a Hill district and covers 1,703 km2; the 2011 census counted 290,254 population. The municipality of Ilam is about 600 km from Kathmandu. Ilam attracts many researchers who come to study the Red Panda. Ilam stretches from the Terai belt to the upper hilly belt of this Himalayan nation; the name Ilam is derived from the Limbu language. Illam was one of the ten self ruling states of Limbuwan before the reunification of Nepal, its ruler King Hangshu Phuba Lingdom of Lingdom dynasty ruled Illam as a confederate state of Limbuwan until 1813 AD. The treaty between the other Limbuwan states and the King of Gorkha and the conflict of Gorkha and Sikkim led to the unification of Illam with Gorkha. Illam was the last of the ten kingdoms of Limbuwan to be reunified into Nepal; the King of Gorkha gave the ruler of Illam the right of Kipat. Illam was an independent Limbu kingdom until 1813 CE/1869 BS. Ilam is today one of the most developed places in Nepal.
Its ILAM TEA is famous and is exported to many parts of Europe. The main source of income in this district is tea, milk, potato and broom production on a large scale; this place has a religious importance. The devi temples have a great importance attached to them and many people come here just for pilgrimage; the major attraction of Ilam is the 9-cornered Mai Pokhari lake. Known as the abode of the goddess lots of tourists as well as Nepalese people come to visit this place. Gajurmukhi is the religious spot for pilgrimages from Nepal and India. Mai river and its four tributaries emerge in Ilam district; the famous Mane Bhanjyang connects Ilam with Darjeeling district of India. Ilam was much in the news in the past during the Maoist insurgency, from here the Maoists launched massive attacks frequently. Tourists going to Ilam can expect to pay around 7000 rupees a week for food. Ilam is divided into 6 rural municipalities. Zones of Nepal danabari "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Panchthar district is one of 14 districts of Kirat State of eastern Nepal. It is a Hill district of eastern Nepal; the district covers 1,241 km2. The 2011 census counted 191,817 population. Phidim is the district headquarters. Phidim Municipality Nepali: फिदिम नगरपालिका Hilihang Rural Municipality Nepali: हिलिहाङ गाउँपालिका Kummayak Rural Municipality Nepali: कुम्मायाक गाउँपालिका (Yasok, Rani Gaun, Syabarumba Miklajung Rural Municipality Nepali: मिक्लाजुंग गाउँपालिका Phalelung Rural Municipality (Nepali: फालेलुंग गाउँपालिका Phalgunanda Rural Municipality (Nepali: फाल्गुनन्द गाउँपालिका Tumbewa Rural Municipality Nepali: तुम्वेवा गाउँपालिका Yangawarak Rural Municipality Nepali: याङवरक गाउँपालिका VDC's in small brackets means they are combined to form main Rural Municipality Bairagi Kainla Bhishmaraj Angdembe Damber Singh Sambahamphe Ganesh Prasad Rijal Kumar Lingden Rambahadur Limbu Upendra Subba Zones of Nepal "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term used for the ethnic groups in India that have been kept depressed by subjecting them to untouchability. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and were seen as forming a fifth varna known by the name of Panchama. Dalits now profess various religious beliefs, including Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity; as per the latest census, they comprise 16% of India's population. The term dalits was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935, it was popularised by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar, who included all depressed people irrespective of their caste into the definition of dalits. Hence the first group he made was called the "Labour Party" and included as its members all people of the society who were kept depressed, including women, small scale farmers and people from backward castes. New leaders like Kanhaiya Kumar subscribe to this definition of "dalits", thus a Brahmin marginal farmer trying to eke out a living, but unable to do so falls in the "dalit" category.
Ambedkar himself was a Mahar, in the 1970s the use of the word "dalit" was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group. Political parties used it to gain mileage. India's National Commission for Scheduled Castes considers official use of dalit as a label to be "unconstitutional" because modern legislation prefers Scheduled Castes. A similar all-encompassing situation prevails in Nepal. Scheduled Caste communities exist across India, although they are concentrated in four states, they comprise 16.6 per cent of India's population, according to the 2011 Census of India. Similar communities are found throughout the rest of South Asia, in Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, are part of the global Indian diaspora. In 1932, the British Raj recommended separate electorates to select leaders for Dalits in the Communal Award; this was favoured by Ambedkar but when Mahatma Gandhi opposed the proposal it resulted in the Poona Pact. That in turn influenced the Government of India Act, 1935, which introduced the reservation of seats for the Depressed Classes, now renamed as Scheduled Castes.
From soon after its independence in 1947, India introduced a reservation system to enhance the ability of Dalits to have political representation and to obtain government jobs and education. In 1997, India elected K. R. Narayanan. Many social organisations have promoted better conditions for Dalits through education and employment. Nonetheless, while caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability abolished by the Constitution of India, such practices are still widespread. To prevent harassment, assault and similar acts against these groups, the Government of India enacted the Prevention of Atrocities Act called the SC/ST Act, on 31 March 1995. In accordance with the order of the Bombay High Court, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of the Government of India issued an advisory to all media channels in September 2018, asking them to use "Scheduled Castes" instead of the word "Dalit"; the word dalit is a vernacular form of the Sanskrit दलित. In Classical Sanskrit, this means "divided, broken, scattered".
This word was repurposed in 19th-century Sanskrit to mean " not belonging to one of the four Brahminic castes". It was first used in this sense by Pune-based social reformer Jyotirao Phule, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes from other Hindus. Dalit is used to describe communities that have been subjected to untouchability; such people were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and thought of themselves as forming a fifth varna, describing themselves as Panchama. The term was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935, it was popularised by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar, himself a Dalit, in the 1970s its use was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group. Dalit has become a political identity, similar to how the LGBTQ community reclaimed queer from its pejorative use as a neutral or positive self-identifier and as a political identity. Socio-legal scholar Oliver Mendelsohn and political economist Marika Vicziany wrote in 1998 that the term had become "intensely political...
While use of the term might seem to express an appropriate solidarity with the contemporary face of Untouchable politics, there remain major problems in adopting it as a generic term. Although the word is now quite widespread, it still has deep roots in a tradition of political radicalism inspired by the figure of B. R. Ambedkar." They suggested its use risked erroneously labelling the entire population of untouchables in India as being united by a radical politics. Anand Teltumbde detects a trend towards denial of the politicised identity, for example among educated middle-class people who have converted to Buddhism and argue that, as Buddhists, they cannot be Dalits; this may be due to their improved circumstances giving rise to a desire not to be associated with the what they perceive to be the demeaning Dalit masses. Scheduled Castes is the official term for Dalits in the opinion of India's National Commissions for Scheduled Castes, who took legal advice that indicated modern legislation does not refer to Dalit and that therefore, it says, it
Foreign relations of Nepal
Though the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of Nepal it is the Office of Prime Minister that has exercised the authority to formulate and conduct policies related to Nepal's foreign affairs. As a landlocked country wedged between two larger and far stronger powers, Nepal has tried to maintain good relations with both of its neighbor, People's Republic of China and Republic of India. However, relationship with India, the country with greater hegemonic power over Nepal, has seen major ups and downs in recent years. Given Nepal's geographical vulnerabilities, traditionally Nepal's southern neighbor India, has been able to shape Nepal's foreign policy to serve India's interest to the detriment of Nepal's own interest. However, with the ongoing democratization of Nepal, shifting of the state-power from the hands of few elitists to democratically elected government institution, India has been facing increasing resistance within Nepal in implementing foreign policies that are detrimental to Nepal's own interest.
In recent years, Indian government's attempts to deny landlocked Nepal'Transit rights' via India as a fundamental right for a member of the UN, as guaranteed in the UN charter, the issues of occupation of some Nepalese territories by Indian forces have hampered the relationship between the two countries. For most part though, Nepal has traditionally maintained a non-aligned policy and enjoys friendly relations with neighboring countries and all the major countries of the world. Constitutionally, foreign policy is to be guided by “the principles of the United Nations Charter, Panchsheel, international law and the value of world peace.” In practice, foreign policy has not been directed toward projecting influence internationally but toward preserving autonomy and addressing domestic economic and security issues. Nepal's most substantive international relations are with international economic institutions, such as the Asian Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a multilateral economic development association.
Nepal has strong bilateral relations with major providers of economic and military aid, such as France, Japan, South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, with whom military ties date to the nineteenth century. The country's external relations, barring relations with India and China, are managed by its Ministry of Foreign Affairs while relationship with India and China, Nepal's most important partners, is still managed by the Prime Minister's Office. Nepal's relation with China has seen a major upswing in the recent years with China now becoming Nepal's 3rd largest aid donor, the largest source of FDI to Nepal. Nepal has played an active role in the formation of the economic development-oriented South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and is the site of its secretariat. On international issues, Nepal follows a nonaligned policy and votes with the Non-Aligned Movement in the United Nations. Nepal participates in a number of UN specialized agencies and is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Colombo Plan, the Asian Development Bank.
In 2000, the government established the National Human Rights Commission, a government-appointed commission with a mandate to investigate human rights violations. To date, the Commission has investigated 51 complaints.. Although freedom of expression is used as constitutional right, some minor problems regarding it have been reported in the country. Trafficking in women and child labour remain serious problems. A joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of the border with India. Nepal has border disputes with India at Lipulekh and Kalapani in Darchula district and Susta in Bihar.. In 2018,EPG,a joint committee between Nepal & India has finished preparing a report in order to settle the border disputes between these two countries & the report is yet to be submitted to the head of governments of both countries. Nepal has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 11 September 2003 and on 24 January 2017 became the 108th WTO member to ratify the WTO's Trade Facilitation Agreement.
Illicit production of cannabis for domestic and international drug markets continues to be considered as an international problem, as do rumours that the country operates as a transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia and Pakistan to the West. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 1972. Nepal and Argentina established diplomatic relations on January 1, 1962; the relations between Nepal and Argentina are based on goodwill and mutual understanding. Some public opinion of Nepalese people deteriorated after the Gurkha's role in the Falklands War with the British Army; the Argentinean Government has shown interest to extend technical cooperation on leather processing industries in Nepal under the South-South Cooperation. However, the Argentinean proposal has not been materialized yet. Nepal's trade balance with Argentina is in favour of Argentina. There is no significant figure of export from Nepal. Major commodities imported by Nepal from Argentina are Crude soybean oil, soybean oil, vegetable waxes, sun flower oil and maize.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 March 1993. Nepal has good bilateral relations with Bangladesh. Though Nepal views Bangladesh as an access to the sea and seaports in Bangladesh, as an alternative to Indian seaport in Calcutta, successive Nepalese government have failed in increasing connectivity
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r