Holmen is a water-bound neighbourhood in Copenhagen, occupying the former grounds of the Royal Naval Base and Dockyards. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager. Since the early 1990s, the area has instead been redeveloped for use as a new district of the city. The area is characterized by a mixture of residential developments, creative businesses and educational institutions. Holmen is home to the Copenhagen Opera House which was completed in 2005, though technically a part of the central Indre By district of Copenhagen, being a cul-de-sac as districts go, the area has a somewhat quiet and remote reputation and feel to it. Frederiksholm is the area which has seen most new construction since Holmen naval base was closed, many new buildings have been built while old buildings from the areas naval past have been converted for new uses. The existence of Holmen originates in a wish to relocate the Danish Fleet from its home at Bremerholm.
Since the city was growing rapidly, it was no longer practical to have the fleet stationed in the center of the city, being built out of timber, the vessels constituted a major hazard. Furthermore, the sailors disposed of their garbage by throwing it directly into the harbor, in 1680, a plan was conceived to move the fleet out of the city. Responsibility for the plan was given to Admiral Niels Juel, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was extended northwards to protect the area which had been chosen for the fleet. The extension had seven bastions, named for members of the Royal Family, in Carls and Wilhems Bastion, black powder depots were constructed. Built in 1688 and 1690, they are the oldest structures at Holmen, the northernmost bastion was Charlotte Amalies Bastion, and north of this two cannon batteries were established, Batteriet Quintus and Batteriet Neptunus. The latters name came from the ship which was the foundation for the battery. This battery was renamed to Christiani Sixti Batteri, or Christian VIs Battery.
Today it is known as Batteriet Sixtus or just Sixtus, the sinking of ships continued, loaded with mud from the harbor and trash from Copenhagens streets. In certain streets, there could be more than one metre of trash and this efforts gradually formed an island, which was given the name Nyholm. It was to this island that the shipyard was relocated. The first ship which was set to sea from this shipyard was the first Dannebrog in 1692, the construction of all large ships were moved to Nyholm, and at Bremerholm, now called Gammelholm, only smaller vessels were built
Islands Brygge is a harbourfront area in central Copenhagen, located on the north-western coast of Amager. The neighbourhood is noted for its waterfront park Havneparken, which is one of the most popular areas along the Copenhagen harbourfront, established through a series of land reclamations from the 1880s, it served both military, residential and dockland purposes. It is characterized by a mixture of old buildings and modern architecture, Islands Brygge has an area of roughly 1 km² and a population of 12,147, though it has never been an administrative unit with formally defined boundaries. The north-western shore of Amager was originally characterized by a shallow watered beach, at that time the shoreline was situated just east of present-day Artillerivej. The area was filled in 1887-88 and a new arsenal, shooting ranges, Islands Brygge was the hub of commercial ships sailing to and from Iceland, a former member of the state of Denmark. The Danish trade monopoly in Iceland was a business, generating extreme wealth and political power for many of Copenhagens mayors.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Port of Copenhagen had become very busy both with freight and passenger vessels and extensions were needed. In 1901, the Port Authorities extended the existing reclamation southwards to create new areas for the storage of coal, from 1905 construction of residential buildings on the most inland parts of the new land began. The co-operative Danish retailer FDB established new headquarters in the neighbourhood in 1908 and it comprised both administrative functions and storage facilities. Dansk Sojakagefabrik, a soy bean processing plant, was opened by the East Asiatic Company in 1909, at its peak in the 1950s, the plant employed approximately 2,500 workers, many of whom lived in the neighbourhood. To improve road and rail connections between Zealand and Amager, a new bridge was constructed at the site of the present-day Langebro, the new bridge soon became outdated and in 1930 a new temporary bridge was built. Still more land was reclaimed until 1933, when Islands Brygge reached its current extent.
Under the Occupation of Denmark during World War II, many German troops were stationed at Islands Brygge, after World War II, the military presence in the area diminished and by 1976 most of the former military buildings had been demolished or converted to other use. The first step towards the transformation of the area into a lively, Islands Brygge is today a fashionable mainly residential neighbourhood, stretching from Langebro in the north to Bryggebroen in the south. The northern part of the area, from Langebro to Sturlasgade, is dominated by early 20th-century residential blocks with shops at street level. Some structures from the industrial and dockland past have been preserved and converted to other uses. These include Gemini Residence, the Wennberg Silo and the Zepeline Building, located directly on the waterfront, is the main recreational area of the neighbourhood and one of the most lively and popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront. It has retained several features from the industrial past, including old railway tracks
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to the change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed, the United Nations projected that half of the worlds population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and that is equivalent to approximately 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. Notably, the United Nations has projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be absorbed by cities. Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including geography, economics, urban planning, the phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a condition at a set time or as an increase in that condition over time.
The first major change in settlement patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many years ago. This unprecedented movement of people is forecast to continue and intensify during the few decades. Outside Asia, Mexico City, São Paulo, New York City, Lagos, in England the proportion of the population living in cities jumped from 17% in 1801 to 72% in 1891. Growing trade around the world allowed cereals to be imported from North America and refrigerated meat from Australasia, cities expanded due to the development of public transport systems, which facilitated commutes of longer distances to the city centre for the working class. Urbanization rapidly spread across the Western world and, since the 1950s, at the turn of the 20th century, just 15% of the world population lived in cities. According to the UN the year 2007 witnessed the turning point when more than 50% of the population were living in cities. Living in a city can provide opportunities of proximity, diversity, as against this, there may be alienation issues, increased cost of living, and negative social aspects that result from mass marginalization.
In cities, services and opportunities are centralized, many rural inhabitants come to the city to seek their fortune and alter their social position. Businesses, which provide jobs and exchange capital, are concentrated in urban areas. Whether the source is trade or tourism, it is through the ports or banking systems, commonly located in cities, many people move into cities for the economic opportunities, but this does not fully explain the very high recent urbanization rates in places like China and India. Rural flight is a factor to urbanization. Farm living has always been susceptible to environmental conditions, and in times of drought, flood or pestilence
Eberts Villaby is an enclave of late 19th-century detached houses situated just off Amagerbrogade in the otherwise more dense Sundby district on Amager in Copenhagen, Denmark. The development takes its name after Herman Ebert who acquired a farm at the site in 1894, the Association of House Owners in Sundbyvester was founded on 1 September 1896. The original plans for the area included a community house with a conditorie. The last houses were completed in 1898 and water and gas was installed in 1899, in 1907, Herman Ebert ceded ownership of the fountain and street network to the Association of House Owners and electric ity was installed in all houses. In 1925, the Association of House Owners changed its name to Eberts Villaby, one of the houses was expropriated and subsequently demolished in connection with an expansion of Englandsvej from 10 to 22 metres. Another four houses were demolished in 1856 as a consequence of a project on Amagerbrogade. Ebert launched a competition for the naming of the streets which was created with the establishment of the new neighbourhood.
Many houses are named after prominent historic buildings, Herman Eberts own villa, Sans Souci, which is inspired by Franz Joseph I of Austrias summer residence in Bad Ischl. Housted, Erik, En matador på Amager, ryvangen Official website Video of the fountain
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
Latin Quarter, Copenhagen
The Latin Quarter is a neighbourhood in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by Nørregade to the west, Vestergade to the south, Vester Voldgade to the east, the name refers to the Latin language, which was once widely spoken in and around the University, whose historic home is situated on the other side of Nørregade. Most of the student life has now relocated to four new campuses but the area is still known for its lively atmosphere with an abundance of boutiques, cafés. The area around Our Ladys Square has been a centre for learning, the tern Latinerkvarteret was formerly used for a larger area on both sides of the square, including Store Kannikestræde, Krystalgade and Fiolstræde. In 1208, Bishop Peder Sunesøn founded a Latin school and a body of canons in association with the Church of Our Lady. When the University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479, it took over the old town hall, the university took over the responsibility for the education of priests while the Our Ladys School survived as Copenhagens only Latin school.
In 1817 it was renamed the Metropolitan School, with the Reformation, Danish replaced Latin as the churchs language but Latin remained the dominant language at the University until about 1800. Founded in 1588, Valkendorfs Kollegium is Denmarks oldest hall of residence, the current building is from 1866 and was designed by Christian Frederik Hansen. Local website with information, etc
Havneholmen is a mixed-use development located on reclaimed land off Kalvebod Brygge in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just east of the shopping centre Fisketorvet from which it is separated by a narrow canal, Havneholmen is connected to Islands Brygge on the other side of the harbor by Brygge Bridge, a foot and cycling bridge. Tømmergraven Canal deparates it from Enghave Brygge to the south, the area was formerly known as Kalvebod Pladsvej and was an industrial site. The plan for its redevelopment was adopted by the City in 2003, a masterplan for the area was created by Gert Wingårdh and construction began in 2006. The development comprises about 91,000 square metres of buildings and it consists of a mixture of housing, offices and a hotel. The Havneholmen Housing Estate was built by Sjælsø Group between 2005 and 2009 and it was designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and received the RIBA European Award in 2001. Another residential project, consisting of 148 apartments distributed on four buildings in a fan-like arrangement perpendicular to the water, is designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter, Aller House is the headquarters of Aller Media and was designed by PLH Arkitekter.
376-roomm Hotel Copenhagen Island is located on its own island and it was designed by Kim Utzon for the Arp-Hansen Hotel Group. Havneholmen Atrium and Havneholmen Towers were designed by Wingårdh, the nearest S-train station is Dybbølsbro station. The station is served by the A, B, C, E and H trains, nearby bus lines include 1A which travls along Ingerslevsgade on the other side of the railway tracks on its way to Kongens Nytorv. The super bikeway Søruten connects Havneholmen and the Brygge Bridge to Østerbrogade along the west side of The Lakes, on the other side of the harbor, the Lake Route connects to Universitetsruten and Havneruten, which continues to University of Copenhagens Søndre Campus and along the harbourfront respectively. The new bicycle bridge Cykelslangen, opened at Havneholmen in 2014 to ensure fast, the structure was designed by Dissing + Weitling
Asiatisk Plads is a waterfront area in the Christianshavn neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by Torvegade to the south, next to Knippel Bridge, Strandgade to the east and it takes its name from Danish Asia Company which was based at the site from its foundation in 1732 until 1843 when it was dissolved. Asiatisk Plads is frequently used as a metonym for the Ministry, Danish Asia Company was founded in 1732 as a replacement for the Danish East India Company which had been dissolved in 1729. A head office for the company was built at a site just south of Old Dry Dock in 1738 to a design by Philip de Lange, the complex was expanded with the addition of two warehouses. The southern part of the grounds was redeveloped in 1978-1980 when a new home was built for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to designs by Haldor Gunnløgson, the complex consists of three buildings with gables facing the water in accordance with the traditions for warehouses. Their monotonous Modernist designs have been heavily criticized, Philip de Langes former head office for the Danish Asia Company is designed in the Late Baroque style.
The facade is decorated with a relief, probably by Johann Christoph Petzold, a short wall with a gate connects the building to a warehouse which was built at the neighbouring site in 1781 to a design by J. B. To achieve symmetry, the warehouse has a similar to that of the head office in terms of proportions. The site includes the Eigtved Warehouse which was built for the Danish Asia Company from 1748 to 1750. It is named after its architect, Nicolai Eigtved, who was responsible for the planning of Frederiksstaden around the time as well as for many prominent buildings such as Amalienborg Palace. Erik Møller Architects refurbished all three buildings and adapted them to the needs of the Foreign Ministry between 1979 and 1982, the quay features three abstract sculptures by Søren Georg Jensen, The Cyclop, The Long Journey )Den Lange Rejse) and Figurehead
Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was developed to commemorated the 300 years jubilee of the House of Oldenburg ascending to the Danish throne, a. G. Moltke was in charge of the project and Nicolai Eigtved was the main architect. The district is characterized by broad streets in a straight-angled street layout. The streets are lined by houses and palaces. Another important building in the district is the royal Frederiks Hospital which was Denmarks first hospital in the meaning of the word. It now houses the Danish Museum of Art & Design, amalienborg Frederiks Church The Odd Fellow Mansion Moltkes Mansion Royal Danish Playhouse
Their combined population stands at 763,908. The Municipality of Copenhagen is the most populous in the country with a population of 602,481 inhabitants, the municipal seat of government is the Copenhagen City Hall. The Lord Mayor of Copenhagen is Frank Jensen, since 2010, the relationship between Copenhagen Municipality and the wider city of Copenhagen is one of an administrative unit within a significantly larger city, cf. the City of London or the City of Brussels. In the Middle Ages, Copenhagen was defined as the area enclosed within the city walls, the city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring and kept as a partial green band around it. In 1856 the ramparts were pulled down allowing for growth and expansion, in 1901 the city expanded to include Amager and Valby, while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the municipality. The Finger Plan in the half of the 20th century led to expansion outside of the municipal boundary.
Copenhagen Municipality was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county, the others being Frederiksberg Municipality and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Copenhagen Municipality is a division covering the central city and certain additional areas. It encloses Frederiksberg Municipality and stretches east to the waterfront, neighboring municipalities are Gentofte and Herlev to the north, Rødovre and Hvidovre to the west, and Tårnby to the south. The City Hall Square is the old centre of the city, from which an old shopping street leads northeast to Kongens Nytorv, christiansborg Palace, which houses the Danish parliament, is located on the islet of Slotsholmen. The municipality is divided into ten administrative and tax districts, the suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is bro. The term is thought to be an abbreviation or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning paved, the two figures for 1 February 1901 are before and after the municipality annexed some nearby parishes.
The apparent decline since the mid-1900s are due to the figures not including the suburban and urban areas - notably Frederiksberg - outside Copenhagen municipality, Copenhagen Municipality is distinct from the wider Copenhagen urban area. The seat of Copenhagens municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall, the council is chaired by the Lord Mayor—currently Frank Jensen—who oversees the civic duties of the fifty-five representatives of the council. The council usually meets every week at 17,30 on a Thursday. All members of the council are elected every four years, in the municipal elections in November 2013, the Social Democrats remained in first place with 27. 8% of the vote, while the Red-Green Alliance was in second place with 19. 5%. The Social Democrats have claimed the office of mayor for the past 110 years and it has six political committees and a finance committee. The annual budget for the city is proposed in August and finalized in October, the accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for auditing the City of Copenhagens accounts
Nyboder is a historic row house district of former Naval barracks in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was planned and first built by Christian IV to accommodate a need for housing for the personnel of the rapidly growing Royal Danish Navy and their families during that time. Nyboder is today very much associated with their colour and Nyboder yellow is in Danish often used as a generic term to refer to their exact hue of yellow. However, the colour of the development was red and white. Under Christian IV the Royal Danish Navy grew rapidly and there was an urgent need for accommodation for its personnel. The new development was planned on land outside Copenhagen previously acquired by the king with the intention to expand the city northwards. This had still not happened but Saint Annes Post, to develop into Kastellet, had already constructed a little further north. Construction of Nyboder was commenced in 1631, the area was laid out around two main streets radiating from a planned square which was never established.
The rows were oriented perpendicularly to these streets. The architects assisting the King were Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and Leonhard Blasius, Christian IVs Nyboder was completed around 1641. In 1647, one year before Christian IVs death, Nyboder was definitively absorbed by the city when the Eastern City Gate is moved. Just north of Nyboder lay a piece of undevelopped land known as Greenland, on 16 December 1658 a gunpowder magazine just north of Nyboder exploded, damaging or demolishing many houses and causing numerous casualties. In 1668 Copenhagens gallows were moved from its previous location, at the site where Kongens Nytorv would be out a few years later. In 1677, Nyboder saw another bleak neighbour when the Stocks House was built a little to the south, from its early days, the Nyboder area included a guardhouse which was replaced by a new building in the 1780s. It had a bell which was used to gather people in the event of a military attack or fire. The building houses the Nyboder barracks own guard and contained a jail, when the Frederiksholm islet is created by a series of Land reclamation, the intention is to use it for new naval barracks but again the plans are not carried out.
In the end it was decided to build new houses at Nyboder, in 175624 two-storey houses designed by Philip de Lange were built and while extensions would be directed by other architects, it continued to be to his initial design. In 1771 some of Christian IVs original rows were extended with an extra storey by Anthon, from 1781-96 another app.150 houses were built. A guard house and five houses were added to the area during the same period
Gammelholm is a predominantly residential neighbourhood in the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by the Nyhavn canal, Kongens Nytorv, Holmens Kanal, Niels Juels Gade, the new neighbourhood was planned by Ferdinand Meldahl and has been referred to as Meldahls Nine Streets. In the beginning of the 16th century land reclamations annexed the island to Zealand and in 1510, under the reign of Hans of Denmark, a ropewalk at the site is first mentioned in 1555 and an anchor forge was built in 1563. When King Christian IV commenced his modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen, he extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm to the beach. The moat in front of the rampart was expanded to form the Holmen Canal, in the first decades of the 17th century, Christian IV built a considerable amount of housing for higher-ranked naval personnel at Bremerholm. This prompted a demand for a church, leading to the conversion of the anchor forge, now located on the far side of the Holmen Canal.
In 1631 the barracks at Bremerholm were supplemented by Nyboder in the far north of Copenhagen which was built to satisfy the demand for housing for lower-ranked crew members of the nacys vessels, around the same time, a large prison was inaugurated at Bremerholm. Much of the work in the shipyards was based on forced labour carried out by convicts from the facility. The rope walk came to mark the boundary between the square and rest of Bremerholm, together and Nyholm remained for a long time the largest employer in Denmark. In 1778 the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden relocated from Amaliegade to the garden behind Charlottenborg Palace and it was at Gammelholm that the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 broke out. In 1859 the Navy decommissioned their last operations at Gammelholm, at the same time the Canal of Holmen was filled and converted into a prominent new street. Construction in the began in 1861 and was completed in 1876. Apart from the buildings, a number of new institutions. A new building for the Royal Danish Theatre, which had been located nearby since 1754, was built on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and the filled Holmens Kanal.
A new building designed by Meldahl and Ludvig Fenger for the Royal Mint was completed in 1873 on land which was previously part Botanical Garden which had left the area in 1879. Gammelholm was planned with broad streets inspired by Paris, an inspiration Meldahl relied on elsewhere, typically of the time, the residential buildings were not designed by architects but the master builders who constructed them. The area was built up with blocks with elegant, richly decorated Historicist fronts facing the street but drab. Lots were sold at high prices and developers therefore utilized space to the utmost