SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Diurnal temperature variation

In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs during the same day. Temperature lag is an important factor in diurnal temperature variation: peak daily temperature occurs after noon, as air keeps net absorbing heat after noon, minimum daily temperature occurs after midnight, indeed occurring during early morning in the hour around dawn, since heat is lost all night long; the analogous annual phenomenon is seasonal lag. As solar energy strikes the Earth's surface each morning, a shallow 1–3-centimetre layer of air directly above the ground is heated by conduction. Heat exchange between this shallow layer of warm air and the cooler air above is inefficient. On a warm summer's day, for example, air temperatures may vary by 16.5 °C from just above the ground to waist height. Incoming solar radiation exceeds outgoing heat energy for many hours after noon and equilibrium is reached from 3–5 p.m. but this may be affected by a variety of different things such as large bodies of water, soil type and cover, cloud cover/water vapor, moisture on the ground.

Diurnal temperature variations are greatest near Earth's surface. High desert regions have the greatest diurnal-temperature variations, while low-lying humid areas have the least; this explains why an area like the Snake River Plain can have high temperatures of 38 °C during a summer day, have lows of 5–10 °C. At the same time, Washington D. C., much more humid, has temperature variations of only 8 °C. While the National Park Service claimed that the world single-day record is a variation of 102 °F in Browning, Montana in 1916, the Montana Department of Environmental Quality claimed that Loma, Montana had a variation of 102 °F in 1972. Both these extreme daily temperature changes were the result of sharp air-mass changes within a single day; the 1916 event was an extreme temperature drop, resulting from frigid Arctic air from Canada invading northern Montana, displacing a much warmer air mass. The 1972 event was a chinook event, where air from the Pacific Ocean overtopped mountain ranges to the west, warmed in its descent into Montana, displacing frigid Arctic air and causing a drastic temperature rise.

In the absence of such extreme air-mass changes, diurnal temperature variations range from 10 or fewer degrees in humid, tropical areas, to 40-50 degrees in higher-elevation, arid to semi-arid areas, such as parts of the U. S. Western states' Intermountain Plateau areas, for example Elko, Ashton and Burns, Oregon; the higher the humidity is, the lower the diurnal temperature variation is. Diurnal temperature variation is of particular importance in viticulture. Wine regions situated in areas of high altitude experience the most dramatic swing in temperature variation during the course of a day. In grapes, this variation has the effect of producing high acid and high sugar content as the grapes' exposure to sunlight increases the ripening qualities while the sudden drop in temperature at night preserves the balance of natural acids in the grape. Diurnal cycle

Telford International Railfreight Park

Telford International Railfreight Park is rail freight depot and construction development site located in Donnington to the north of Telford, on the former route of the Stafford to Shrewsbury Line. The terminal was opened in 2009; the development of TIRFP was initiated through a partnership between Telford and Wrekin Council, the Ministry of Defence, the Homes and Communities Agency in 2001. Located on the former Wellington to Stafford railway line of the Shropshire Union Railway, the 46 acres is located 2.5 miles northeast of Wellington railway station and is connected to the Wolverhampton to Shrewsbury Line just to the east of that station. Located on the former MoD Donnington stores, it is adjacent to existing manufacturing and warehousing facilities in Hadley Park and Hortonwood Industrial Estates. Located off Hortonwood Roundabout on the A518, it closest motorway access is via Junction 5 of the M54. With development started in 2008, TIRFP was opened by Shadow Secretary of State for Transport, Theresa Villiers MP, on Wednesday, 10 June 2009.

Owned by Telford and Wrekin Council, the site, when opened, was operated under lease by John G Russell Transport Ltd. In 2010 the sidings at the railfreight park have been used to store redundant rolling stock, including Class 508 EMUs, as the park is suffering from low freight usage. Wrockwardine Wood and Trench Parish Council approved the original planning application, forwarded to Telford and Wrekin Borough Council with only minor opposition. In 2012, John G Russell pulled out of running the terminal and DB Schenker Rail were appointed to take over control of the terminal. DB Schenker have been running the only regular service into and out of the terminal since it reopened Unused sections of the site have been utilised as long term van storage for hire firms; this has enabled the terminal to employ its first full-time worker. The vans arrived on site in March 2015 and DB Schenker Rail hope that incoming vehicles can be delivered via the rail connection. Telford International Railfreight Park

Tore Stenshagen

Tore Stenshagen is a retired Norwegian football goalkeeper. Hailing from Tveita, he played youth football for Vålerenga IF and was selected for Norway's youth national team. In 1984 he was drafted into the senior team. In 1985 he went on to Kjelsås IL. Afterwards he played for Lørenskog IF. In 1992 he joined SFK Lyn, but was scarcely used on the first team and was loaned out to Bærum SK in 1993. With Lyn he experienced two spells in the Eliteserien and two in the 1. Divisjon, suffering two relegations and winning one promotion, he was their first-choice goalkeeper from 1996 through 1998, but is remembered for a loss against Brann in 1997 when he asked to be substituted off. After the 1998 season he was poised to join Skeid, but the board of directors overturned the coaches' decision to sign him, he instead returned to Kjelsås, he retired after one season. Ahead of the 2009 season Stenshagen became head coach of fifth-tier team Kragerø IF, where he played for several seasons and scored a number of goals.

He did not continue coaching in 2010, but returned in the latter half of 2011. He coached the junior team. Stenshagen worked for many years as a prison guard in Oslo Prison, started in Skien Prison, being directly involved with their infamous prisoner Anders Behring Breivik