Operation Diver was the British codename for countermeasures against the V-1 flying bomb campaign launched by the German Luftwaffe in 1944 against London and other parts of Britain. "Diver" was the codename for the V-1 itself. Modes of defence used against V-1s included anti-aircraft guns, barrage balloons, fighter aircraft. Anti-aircraft guns proved the most effective form of defence in the stages of the campaign, with the aid of radar-based technology and the proximity fuse; the bombing campaigns ended by the middle of 1944. The "Diver Plan" was prepared in early 1944 following the first reports of the weapon in April 1943 and the discovery of its planned launch sites in late 1943; the plan had to be flexible enough to cover both the expected assault on Britain and the needs of the invasion of Europe. When the German attack began, on the sixth day after the landings on the beaches of Normandy, the message "Diver, Diver" put the plan into action. Defences, guarding the embarkation ports for the invasion were redeployed against the V-1.
Anti-aircraft guns were redeployed in several movements: first in mid-June 1944 from positions on the North Downs to the south coast of England. In September 1944 a new linear defence line was formed on the coast of East Anglia, in December there was a further layout along the Lincolnshire-Yorkshire coast; the deployments were prompted by the ever-changing approach tracks of the missiles which were in turn influenced by the Allies' advance through Europe. Anti-aircraft gunners found that such fast-moving targets were difficult to hit. At first, it took, on average, 2,500 shells to bring down a V-1; the average altitude of the V-1, between 2,000 and 3,000 feet, was in a narrow band between the optimum engagement heights for light and heavy anti-aircraft weapons. These low heights defeated the rate of traverse of the standard British QF 3.7 inch mobile gun, static gun installations with faster traverses had to be built at great cost. The development of centimetric gun laying radars based on the cavity magnetron and the development of the proximity fuze helped to neutralise the advantages of speed and size which the V-1 possessed.
In 1944 Bell Labs started delivery of an anti-aircraft predictor fire-control system based around an analogue computer just in time for use in this campaign. By mid-August 1944, the threat was all but overcome: not by aircraft but by the sudden arrival of two enormously effective electronic aids for anti-aircraft guns, the first developed by the MIT Rad Lab: radar-based automatic gunlaying and the proximity fuze. Both of these had been requested by AA Command and arrived in numbers, starting in June 1944, just as the guns reached their free-firing positions on the coast. Seventeen per cent of all flying bombs entering the coastal'gun belt' were destroyed by guns in the first week on the coast; this rose to 60 per cent by 23 August and 74 per cent in the last week of the month, when on one extraordinary day 82 per cent were shot down. The rate increased from one V-1 for every 2,500 shells fired to one for every hundred. Barrage balloons were deployed against the missiles but the leading edges of the V-1's wings were equipped with balloon cable cutters and fewer than 300 V-1s are known to have been destroyed by hitting cables.
Part of the area which the "Diver"s had to cover was given over for fighter operations. Several squadrons were put onto anti-Diver operations. Most fighter aircraft were too slow to catch a V-1; when intercepted, the V-1 was difficult to bring down. Machine gun bullets had little effect on the sheet steel structure, 20 mm cannon shells were explosive projectiles, which meant that detonating the warhead could destroy the fighter as well; the V-1 was nearly immune to conventional air-combat techniques because of its design, which eliminated the primary "one-shot stop" points of pilot, life-support and complex engine. A single hit on the pilot or oxygen system can force an abort or cause the destruction of a normal plane, but there is no pilot in a cruise missile; the reciprocating engines of World War II aircraft and the turbojet engines of today's fighters are vulnerable, as a tiny nick in a quarter-inch oil line or one small shell fragment can destroy such engines. However, the Argus pulsejet could be shot full of holes and still provide sufficient thrust for flight.
The only vulnerable point was the valve array at the front of the engine and the only one-shot stop points on the V-1 were the bomb detonators and the line from the fuel tank, three small targets buried inside the fuselage. An explosive shell from a fighter's cannon or anti-aircraft artillery was the most effective weapon, if it could hit the warhead; when the attacks began in mid-June 1944 there were fewer than 30 Hawker Tempests in No. 150 Wing RAF to defend against them. Few other aircraft had the low-altitude speed to be effective. Early attempts to intercept V-1s failed but techniques were developed; these included the hair-raising method of using the airflow over an interceptor's wing to raise one wing of the Doodlebug, by sliding the wingtip under the V-1's wing and bringing it to within six inches of the lower surface. Done properly, the airflow would tip the V-1's wing up, overriding the buzz bomb's gyros and sending it into an out of control dive. At least three V-1s were destroyed this way.
The Tempest wing was built up to over 100 aircraft by September.
The Diver (film)
The Diver is a 1911 American silent documentary produced by Kalem Company and directed by Sidney Olcott. It was shot in Florida, it shows a diver who works in Saint John river in Florida. The Diver on IMDb The Diver website dedicated to Sidney Olcott Full film at YouTube
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment. Immersion in water and exposure to high ambient pressure have physiological effects that limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Humans are not physiologically and anatomically well adapted to the environmental conditions of diving, various equipment has been developed to extend the depth and duration of human dives, allow different types of work to be done. In ambient pressure diving, the diver is directly exposed to the pressure of the surrounding water; the ambient pressure diver may dive on breath-hold, or use breathing apparatus for scuba diving or surface-supplied diving, the saturation diving technique reduces the risk of decompression sickness after long-duration deep dives. Atmospheric diving suits may be used to isolate the diver from high ambient pressure. Crewed submersibles can extend depth range, remotely controlled or robotic machines can reduce risk to humans.
The environment exposes the diver to a wide range of hazards, though the risks are controlled by appropriate diving skills, types of equipment and breathing gases used depending on the mode and purpose of diving, it remains a dangerous activity. Diving activities are restricted to maximum depths of about 40 metres for recreational scuba diving, 530 metres for commercial saturation diving, 610 metres wearing atmospheric suits. Diving is restricted to conditions which are not excessively hazardous, though the level of risk acceptable can vary. Recreational diving is a popular leisure activity. Technical diving is a form of recreational diving under challenging conditions. Professional diving involves working underwater. Public safety diving is the underwater work done by law enforcement, fire rescue, underwater search and recovery dive teams. Military diving includes clearance diving and ships husbandry. Deep sea diving is underwater diving with surface-supplied equipment, refers to the use of standard diving dress with the traditional copper helmet.
Hard hat diving is any form of diving with a helmet, including the standard copper helmet, other forms of free-flow and lightweight demand helmets. The history of breath-hold diving goes back at least to classical times, there is evidence of prehistoric hunting and gathering of seafoods that may have involved underwater swimming. Technical advances allowing the provision of breathing gas to a diver underwater at ambient pressure are recent, self-contained breathing systems developed at an accelerated rate following the Second World War. Immersion in water and exposure to cold water and high pressure have physiological effects on the diver which limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Breath-hold endurance is a severe limitation, breathing at high ambient pressure adds further complications, both directly and indirectly. Technological solutions have been developed which can extend depth and duration of human ambient pressure dives, allow useful work to be done underwater.
Immersion of the human body in water affects the circulation, renal system, fluid balance, breathing, because the external hydrostatic pressure of the water provides support against the internal hydrostatic pressure of the blood. This causes a blood shift from the extravascular tissues of the limbs into the chest cavity, fluid losses known as immersion diuresis compensate for the blood shift in hydrated subjects soon after immersion. Hydrostatic pressure on the body from head-out immersion causes negative pressure breathing which contributes to the blood shift; the blood shift causes cardiac workload. Stroke volume is not affected by immersion or variation in ambient pressure, but slowed heartbeat reduces the overall cardiac output because of the diving reflex in breath-hold diving. Lung volume decreases in the upright position, owing to cranial displacement of the abdomen from hydrostatic pressure, resistance to air flow in the airways increases because of the decrease in lung volume. There appears to be a connection between pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure, which results in capillary engorgement.
This may occur during higher intensity exercise while submerged. Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold cold water, is a common cause of death from immersion in cold water, such as by falling through thin ice; the immediate shock of the cold causes involuntary inhalation, which if underwater can result in drowning. The cold water can cause heart attack due to vasoconstriction. A person who survives the initial minute after falling into cold water can survive for at least thirty minutes provided they do not drown; the ability to stay afloat declines after about ten minutes as the chilled muscles lose strength and co-ordination. The diving reflex is a response to immersion, it optimises respiration by preferentially distributing oxygen stores to the heart and brain, which allows extended periods underwater. It is exhibited in aquatic mammals, exists in other mammals, including humans. Diving birds, such as penguins, have a similar diving reflex; the diving reflex is trigger
Thomas Currie "Diver" Derrick, VC, DCM was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces. In November 1943, during the Second World War, Derrick was awarded the Victoria Cross for his assault on a defended Japanese position at Sattelberg, New Guinea. During the engagement, he scaled a cliff face while under heavy fire and silenced seven machine gun posts, before leading his platoon in a charge that destroyed a further three. Born in the Adelaide suburb of Medindie, South Australia, Derrick left school at the age of fourteen and found work in a bakery; as the Great Depression grew worse he lost his job and moved to Berri, working on a fruit farm before marrying in 1939. In July 1941, Derrick enlisted in the Second Australian Imperial Force, joining the 2/48th Battalion, he was posted to the Middle East, where he took part in the Siege of Tobruk, was recommended for the Military Medal and promoted to corporal.
At El Alamein, Derrick was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for knocking out three German machine gun posts, destroying two tanks, capturing one hundred prisoners. Derrick returned to Australia with his battalion in February 1943, before transferring to the South West Pacific Theatre where he fought in the battle to capture Lae. Back in Australia the following February he was posted to an officer cadet training unit, being commissioned lieutenant in November 1944. In April 1945 his battalion was sent to the Pacific island of Morotai, an assembly point for the Allied invasion of the Philippines. Engaged in action the following month on the defended hill Freda on Tarakan Island, Derrick was hit by five bullets from a Japanese machine gun, he died from his wounds on 24 May 1945. Derrick was born in the Adelaide suburb of Medindie, South Australia, on 20 March 1914 to David Derrick, a labourer from Ireland, his Australian wife, Ada; the Derricks were poor, Tom walked barefoot to attend Sturt Street Public School and Le Fevre Peninsula School.
In 1928, aged fourteen, Derrick found work in a bakery. By this time, he had developed a keen interest in sports cricket, Australian Rules Football and swimming. With the advent of the Great Depression, Derrick scraped a living from odd jobs—such as fixing bicycles and selling newspapers—to supplement his job as a baker; when in 1931, the Depression worsened, Derrick lost his bakery job and, with friends, headed by bicycle for the regional town of Berri 225 kilometres away, in search of work. Jobs in Berri were hard to come by and Derrick and two friends spent the next few months living in a tent on the banks of the Murray River; when the annual Royal Adelaide Show opened that year, Derrick went to the boxing pavilion to accept a challenge of staying upright for three rounds with the ex-lightweight champion of Australia. Although he was knocked down in the second round, he got back to his feet and won the bet. Towards the end of 1931, Derrick found work picking fruit at a vineyard in Winkie, a short distance outside Berri.
He moved on to a full-time job at a nearby fruit farm, remaining there for the next nine years. On 24 June 1939, Derrick married Clarance Violet "Beryl" Leslie—his "one true love" whom he had met at a dance in Adelaide seven years earlier—at St Laurence's Catholic Church, North Adelaide. Derrick did not join up when war broke out in September 1939 but, like many Australians, enlisted after the fall of France in June 1940, he joined the Second Australian Imperial Force on 5 July 1940, was posted to the 2/48th Battalion, 26th Brigade, as a private. Derrick first joined his unit before basic training at Woodside. Derrick found discipline difficult to accept. In October, the 2/48th Battalion paraded through the streets of Adelaide to Mitcham railway station prior to its embarkation for the Middle East; the battalion's voyage overseas was postponed until 17 November, when the unit boarded the SS Stratheden. The ship made a stop at Perth, where Derrick was confined on board for going absent without leave to sightsee.
He was soon in more trouble, was charged and fined for punching another soldier who taunted him over this incident. On arrival in Palestine, the 2/48th Battalion encamped at El Kantara and began training in desert warfare. For relaxation, the battalion set up athletic events, Derrick became well known for winning cross-country races—and for organising a book on the outcomes. In March 1941, the unit went by train and truck to Alexandria, Egypt along the North African coast to Cyrenaica, in Libya, to join the 9th Australian Division. After the 2/48th Battalion completed its training with the 9th Division at Cyrenaica, they were moved further along the coast to Gazala. Just as they began to dig in, the battalion was abruptly withdrawn to Tobruk in response to the German Afrika Korps' advance, they entered Tobruk on 9 April 1941, spent the following eight months besieged by Axis forces. While there, Derrick acquired an Italian Breda machine gun and led fighting patrols against both German and Italian troops.
Although Derrick's bravery was noted during the siege, he wrote in his diary about his constant fear of dying. On the night of 30 April, the Axis forces assaulted Tobruk's outer defences and managed to capture substantial ground. In response, the 2/48th Battalion was ordered to counter-attack the following evening. During the ensuing engagement, Derrick fought as a section member in the far
The Diver is a sculpture by John Kaufman located in the River Thames at Rainham, east London. The Diver is made of galvanised steel bands on a steel frame and is 15 feet tall and 6 feet wide and is submerged every high tide and submerged by spring and neap tides; the Diver is constructed from 300m of galvanised steel banding and 3000 nuts and bolts and weighs 3 tons. It is secured 26 feet into the Thames mud. John Kaufman was a self-taught sculptor living and working in the London Borough of Havering, East London. Inspired by prominent public artist Don Rankin to create his own piece of public art, John embarked on the Diver project in 1995, he financed the project himself but received funding from Cleanaway, a local refuse company. Receiving mentoring from Don Rankin, support from the Havering London Borough Council in the person of Adam Nardell and additional financial support from friend, John Bowyer, John was able to complete and site the statue in August 2000 in its current location, it was installed at 3:30 am.
The piece is inspired by Kaufman's own family history. His grandfather Friederich Johann Andreas Kaufmann was a diver in the London Docks c. 1900. The sculpture stands as a monument to this man and all working men of the area who have worked in difficult and dangerous conditions. Soon after the completion of the sculpture, John fell ill and died in 2002. After his death, a wake was held at the location of the sculpture with family and friends; the sculpture is sited in the River Thames in East London. It can be reached from Coldharbour Lane; the car park is found by passing the Tilda rice warehouse. List of public art in Havering www.thediversculpture.com – Official Sculpture Website www.mylondondiary.co.uk – Image of sculpture
V-1 flying bomb
The V-1 flying bomb —also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, in Germany as Kirschkern or Maikäfer —was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power. The V-1 was the first of the so-called "Vengeance weapons" series designed for terror bombing of London, it was developed at Peenemünde Army Research Center in 1939 by the Nazi German Luftwaffe during the Second World War. During initial development it was known by the codename "Cherry Stone"; because of its limited range, the thousands of V-1 missiles launched into England were fired from launch facilities along the French and Dutch coasts. The first V-1 was launched at London on 13 June 1944, one week after the successful Allied landings in Europe. At peak, more than one hundred V-1s a day were fired at south-east England, 9,521 in total, decreasing in number as sites were overrun until October 1944, when the last V-1 site in range of Britain was overrun by Allied forces. After this, the V-1s were directed at the port of Antwerp and other targets in Belgium, with 2,448 V-1s being launched.
The attacks stopped only a month before the war in Europe ended, when the last launch site in the Low Countries was overrun on 29 March 1945. The British operated an arrangement of air defences, including anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft, to intercept the bombs before they reached their targets as part of Operation Crossbow, while the launch sites and underground V-1 storage depots were targets of strategic bombing. In late 1936, while employed by the Argus Motoren company, Fritz Gosslau began work on the further development of remote-controlled aircraft. On 9 November 1939, a proposal for a remote-controlled aircraft carrying a payload of 1,000 kg over a distance of 500 km was forwarded to the RLM. Argus worked in cooperation with Lorentz AG and Arado Flugzeugwerke to develop the project as a private venture, in April 1940, Gosslau presented an improved study of Project "Fernfeuer" to the RLM, as Project P 35 "Erfurt". On 31 May, Rudolf Bree of the RLM commented that he saw no chance that the projectile could be deployed in combat conditions, as the proposed remote-control system was seen as a design weakness.
Heinrich Koppenberg, the director of Argus, met with Ernst Udet on 6 January 1941 to try to convince him that the development should be continued, but Udet decided to cancel it. Despite this, Gosslau was convinced that the basic idea was sound and proceeded to simplify the design; as an aircraft engine manufacturer, Argus lacked the capability to produce a fuselage for the project and Koppenberg sought the assistance of Robert Lusser, chief designer and technical director at Heinkel. On 22 January 1942, Lusser took up a position with the Fieseler aircraft company, he was informed of Gosslau's project. Gosslau's design used two pulsejet engines. A final proposal for the project was submitted to the Technical Office of the RLM on 5 June and the project was renamed Fi 103, as Fieseler was to be the chief contractor. On 19 June, Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch gave Fi 103 production high priority, development was undertaken at the Luftwaffe's Erprobungsstelle coastal test centre at Karlshagen, part of the Peenemünde-West facility.
By 30 August, Fieseler had completed the first fuselage, the first flight of the Fi 103 V7 took place on 10 December 1942, when it was airdropped by a Fw 200. The V-1 was named by The Reich journalist Hans Schwarz Van Berkl in June 1944 with Hitler's approval; the V-1 was designed under the codename Kirschkern by Lusser and Gosslau, with a fuselage constructed of welded sheet steel and wings built of plywood. The simple, Argus-built pulsejet engine pulsed 50 times per second, the characteristic buzzing sound gave rise to the colloquial names "buzz bomb" or "doodlebug", it was known in Germany as Maikäfer and Krähe. Ignition of the Argus pulsejet was accomplished using an automotive type spark plug located about 76 cm behind the intake shutters, with current supplied from a portable starting unit. Three air nozzles in the front of the pulsejet were at the same time connected to an external high-pressure air source, used to start the engine. Acetylene gas was used for starting the engine, often a panel of wood or similar material was held across the end of the tailpipe to prevent the fuel from diffusing and escaping before ignition.
The V-1 was fuelled by 625 litres of 75 octane gasoline. Once the engine had been started and the temperature had risen to the minimum operating level, the external air hose and connectors were removed and the engine's resonant design kept it firing without any further need for the electrical ignition system, used only to ignite the engine when starting; the Argus As 014 could operate at zero airspeed because of the nature of its intake shutters and its acoustically tuned resonant combustion chamber. However, because of the low static thrust of the pulse jet engine and the high stall speed of the small wings, the V-1 could not take off under its own power in a short distance, thus needed to be ground-launched by aircraft catapult or air-launched from a modified bomber aircraft such as a Heinkel He 111. Beginning in January 1941, the V-1's pulsejet engine was tested on a variety of craft, including automo
Diver is a 7" vinyl EP A Wilhelm Scream released in early 2006. The song "Diver" was recorded during the Mute Print sessions, but the song didn't make it to the full length; the band decided to release the song on this 7" vinyl EP. "Diver" – 2:59 "They Like Their Turtlenecks Ribbed" – 0:40 Nuno Pereira - vocals Trevor Reilly - guitar, vocals Chris Levesque - guitar Jonathan Teves - bass, vocals Nicholas Pasquale Angelini - drums Bill Stevenson - recording and production Jason Livermore - recording and production Kate Ouellette - cover concept and art direction Jamie Despres - cover concept and art direction Dan Pugatch - photography