The liturgical year known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years. Distinct liturgical colours may appear in connection with different seasons of the liturgical year; the dates of the festivals vary somewhat between the different churches, though the sequence and logic is the same. The liturgical cycle divides the year into a series of seasons, each with their own mood, theological emphases, modes of prayer, which can be signified by different ways of decorating churches, colours of paraments and vestments for clergy, scriptural readings, themes for preaching and different traditions and practices observed or in the home. In churches that follow the liturgical year, the scripture passages for each Sunday are specified in a lectionary.
After the Protestant Reformation and Lutherans continued to follow the lectionary of the Roman Rite. Following a decision of the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church revised that lectionary in 1969, adopting a three-year cycle of readings for Sundays and a two-year cycle for weekdays. Adaptations of the revised Roman Rite lectionary were adopted by Protestants, leading to the publication in 1994 of the Revised Common Lectionary for Sundays and major feasts, now used by many Protestant denominations, including Methodists, United, etc; this has led to a greater awareness of the traditional Christian year among Protestants among mainline denominations. Scholars are not in agreement about whether the calendars used by the Jews before the Babylonian exile were solar, lunisolar like the present-day Jewish calendar of Hillel II, or purely lunar, as the Hijri calendar; the first month of the Hebrew year was called אביב, evidently adopted by Moses from Ipip as the eleventh month of the non-lunar Egyptian calendar, meaning the month of green ears of grain.
Having to occur at the appropriate time in the spring, it thus was part of a tropical calendar. At about the time of the Babylonian exile, when using the Babylonian civil calendar, the Jews adopted as the name for the month the term ניסן, based on the Babylonian name Nisanu. Thomas J Talley says that the adoption of the Babylonian term occurred before the exile. In the earlier calendar, most of the months were called by a number; the Babylonian-derived names of the month that are used by Jews are: Nisan Iyar Sivan Tammuz Av Elul Tishrei Marcheshvan Kislev Tevet Shevat Adar In Biblical times, the following Jewish religious feasts were celebrated: Pesach – 14 Nisan, 15 Nisan Shavuot – Fiftieth day counted from Passover 6 Sivan "Day of Blowing Shofar/Trumpet" – 1 Tishrei Yom Kippur – 10 Tishrei Sukkot – 15 Tishrei Hanukkah – 25 Kislev Purim – 14 Adar The Liturgical Calendar of the Catholic churches of East Syriac Rite is fixed according to the flow of salvation history. With a focus upon the historical life of Jesus Christ, believers are led to the eschatological fulfilment through this special arrangement of liturgical seasons.
The liturgical year is divided into 8 seasons of 7 weeks each but adjusted to fit the solar calendar. The arrangement of the Seasons in the Liturgical Year is based on seven central events on celebrations of the Salvation History, they are: Nativity of Christ Epiphany of Christ Resurrection of Christ Pentecost Transfiguration Glorious Cross Parousia The biblical reading and prayers during Mass and Liturgy of the Hours varies according to different seasons in liturgical calendar. The various seasons of the liturgical calendar of Syro Malabar Church and Chaldean Catholic Church are given below. Weeks of Annunciation is the first season of the liturgical year; the liturgical year begins with the proclamation and celebration of the historical encounter between God and man in the person of Jesus Christ, the human appearance of the Divine Person. The Syriac word Subara,'Annunciation', with which the Church qualify the first five or six weeks of her liturgical year, is, in fact, an announcement and proclamation with celebration with this supreme glad news of divine condescension to the human frailty in order to raise it up to the divine sublimity.
The season begins on the Sunday just before the first of December and ends with the feast of Epiphany, the Feast of the Baptism of the Lord. This season is developed in the context of the mystery of incarnation completed in the fullness of time; the Church recalls during these days the announcement of the birth of John the Baptist, the predecessor of Jesus, the joyful event of the birth of John the Baptist. As a preparation for the celebration of the mystery of incar
Divine Mercy image
The Divine Mercy image is a depiction of Jesus based on the devotion initiated by Saint Faustina Kowalska. "I promise that the soul that will venerate this image will not perish," Jesus told Faustina, according to her diary, studied and authenticated by the Church over several decades. "I promise victory over enemies here on earth at the hour of death. I myself will defend it as My own glory." Jesus is shown in most versions as raising his right hand in blessing, pointing with his left hand on his chest from which flow forth two rays: one red and one white. The depictions contains the message "Jesus, I trust in You!". The rays streaming out have symbolic meaning: red for the blood of Jesus, pale for the water; the whole image is symbolic of charity and love of God, referred to as the "Fountain of Mercy". According to the diary of St Faustina, the image is based on her 1931 vision of Jesus. A number of artistic renditions of the image have appeared since Faustina directed the painting of the first image in Vilnius.
These are venerated worldwide, are used in the celebration of Divine Mercy Sunday, observed in Roman Catholic, as well as some Anglican churches. Faustina Kowalska was a Polish nun who joined the convent of Our Lady of Mercy in Warsaw 1925. In her diary, published as the book Diary: Divine Mercy in My Soul, Faustina wrote about a number of visions of Jesus and conversations with him, her confessor was a priest and a professor of theology. In 1930, Faustina was assigned to the convent in Poland. Faustina stated that whilst she was in her cell on the night of Sunday, 22 February 1931, Jesus appeared to her as the "King of Divine Mercy", robed in a white garment. Faustina wrote that Jesus' right hand was raised in a sign of blessing and the other was touching the garment near his breast, that from beneath the garment down, aside his breast, emanated two large rays, one red, the other white. In her diary, she wrote that Jesus told her: Another nun, Sister Christine stated that rays of light from the window were visible that night and attracted the attention of people standing on the other side of the street, implying that this was a "physical" appearance rather than an interior vision.
Not knowing how to paint, Faustina approached some other nuns at her convent for help, but received no assistance. She had little success. In her diary, she wrote. In November 1932, Faustina left Płock and returned to Warsaw, in May 1933, she was sent to the convent in Vilnius to work as the gardener. In Vilnius, Faustina met the newly appointed confessor to the nuns. Sopocko supported Faustina's efforts and arranged for the first painting of the image by the artist Eugene Kazimierowski, the only rendition Faustina saw. After Faustina's death, a number of other artists painted their own versions of the image, with the depiction by Adolf Hyła being among the most reproduced. Not in the beauty of the colour, nor of the brush in My grace. — Words attributed to Jesus by Faustina in her diary. After the canonisation of Faustina in April 2000, devotion to the Divine Mercy and the image has increased; the devotional following of the image and Faustina's message has been stronger among Catholics at large than among theologians.
Author Benedict Groeschel considers a modest estimate of the following in 2010 to be over one hundred million Catholics. Faustina's diary relates the rays of light within the image to life and salvation, stating that she was told by Jesus: Faustina wrote that Jesus stressed the importance of the image as part of the Divine Mercy devotion, in Notebook 1, item 327 attributed these words to Jesus: Catholic devotions thus stress the importance of the image as a "conduit for grace" as part of the Divine Mercy message. Faustina's diary relates the image to Divine Mercy Sunday. Faustina wrote that Jesus told her that he wanted the Divine Mercy image to be "solemnly blessed" on the first Sunday after Easter. Pope John Paul II placed it on the General Roman Calendar; the Divine Mercy image is carried in processions on Divine Mercy Sunday, is placed in a location in the church so that it can be venerated by those who attended the Mass. The veneration of the Divine Mercy image takes place in conjunction with the Divine Mercy Chaplet and Novena.
The Vatican biography of Faustina states that the veneration of the Divine Mercy image is part of the second component of her message, namely "entreating God's mercy for the whole world". Praying before the Divine Mercy image is not only encouraged in Catholic devotions, but is mentioned as a partial condition for some of the indulgences associated with Divine Mercy Sunday; the first painting was by Eugene Kazimierowski, under the supervision of Faustina and her confessor, Michael Sopoćko, in Vilnius. After completion in 1934, the painting hung in the Bernardine Sisters' convent near the church of St. Archangel Michael, where Sopoko was a rector. In her diary, sister Faustina notes that Jesus told her to inform her confessor that the proper place for the painting was in a church, not in the hallway of a convent; the first public
Visions of Jesus and Mary
Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Calvary, a number of people have claimed to have had visions of Jesus Christ and personal conversations with him. Some people make similar claims regarding the Blessed Virgin Mary. Discussions about the authenticity of these visions have invited controversy; the Catholic Church endorses a fraction of these claims, various visionaries it accepts have achieved beatification, or sainthood. The first reported visions of Christ, personal conversations with him, after his resurrection and prior to his ascension are found in the New Testament. One of the most recalled Resurrection appearances of Jesus is the doubting Thomas conversation between him and Thomas the Apostle after his death; the last book of the Bible itself is based on a series of visions. In the Book of Revelation, the author identified as John of Patmos, recorded visions that became part of the New Testament; some visions predate the Protestant Reformation, yet among Christian denominations, the Catholic Church has made more formal comments on visions of Jesus and the Virgin Mary.
Author Michael Freze argues that Catholic practices such as Eucharistic adoration, rosary devotions and contemplative meditation with a focus on interior life facilitate visions and apparitions. The first step in the mysticism of Saint Teresa of Ávila, a Doctor of the Church who reported extensive visions, was "mental prayer", i.e. devout contemplation or concentration, the withdrawal of the soul from without and specially the devout observance of the passion of Christ and penitence. In recent centuries, people reporting visions of Jesus have been of diverse backgrounds: laity and clergy and old, Catholics and Protestants, devout or casual believers; the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith at the Vatican has published a detailed set of steps for "Judging Alleged Apparitions and Revelations" that claim supernatural origin. After some time and detailed examinations, the Holy See has, recognized a few post-Ascension conversations with Jesus as valid. In his 1928 encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor Pope Pius XI stated that Jesus Christ had "manifested Himself" to Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque in the 17th Century.
The encyclical refers to the conversation between Saint Margaret Mary several times. The Vatican biography of Saint Teresa of Ávila refers to her gift of interior locution and her conversations with Jesus; the Vatican biography of Saint Juan Diego discusses his conversation with the Virgin Mary. The Vatican biography of Saint Faustina Kowalska not only refers to her conversations with Jesus, but quotes some of these conversations; as a historical pattern, Vatican approval seems to have followed general acceptance of a vision by well over a century in most cases. The reported visions of Jesus and Mary by Benoîte Rencurel in Saint-Étienne-le-Laus in France from 1664 to 1718 were only recognized by the Holy See in May 2008, making them the first Marian apparitions and visions of Jesus to be approved in the 21st century. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Mariunum Pontifical Institute in Rome, this is the 12th Marian apparition approved by the Holy See from a total of 295 that have been studied through the centuries.
Many visions of Jesus following his ascension have been reported after the Book of Revelation was written. But the Book of Revelation itself mentions the case of “false prophets” and undoubtedly not everyone claiming to converse with Jesus can be believed. Over the years, a number of people claiming to converse with Jesus for the sake of monetary gain have been exposed. A well-known example was the Charismatic Protestant televangelist Peter Popoff who claimed to receive messages from God to heal people on stage. Popoff was debunked in 1987 when intercepted messages from his wife to a small radio receiver hidden in his ear were replayed on the Johnny Carson national television show. Another example is messages from Jesus reported by Catalina Rivas, which have been exposed in a number of cases as less than truthful. A number of messages which Rivas reported as having been received from God were found to correspond to exact pages of books written by other authors, published instructional literature for Catholic seminarians.
Some reported messages from the Virgin Mary have involved controversy. Reported Marian messages from Veronica Lueken were declared invalid by Bishop Francis Mugavero of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn and reports of Our Lady of Surbiton claiming that the Virgin Mary appeared every day under a pine tree in England were flatly rejected by the Vatican as a fraud; the Catholic Church has, at times, taken a harsh view of some people who have claimed religious visions. In December 1906, during the reign of Pope Pius X the former Polish nun Feliksa Kozlowska became the first woman in history to be excommunicated by name as a heretic; some visions of Jesus have been classified as hallucinations by the Church, while in a few cases the Church has chosen to remain silent on the authenticity of claimed visions. Despite the expected controversies, post-Ascension visions of Jesus and the Virgin Mary have, in fact, played a key role in the direction of the Catholic Church, e.g. the formation of the Franciscan order and the devotions to the Holy Rosary, the Holy Face of Jesus and the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
Key elements of modern Roman Catholic Mariology have been influenced by visions reported by children at Lourdes and Fátima. Reported messages from Jesus have influenced papal actions and encyclicals. For instance, the 1899 consecration of the world to the Sacred Heart of Jesus by Pope Leo XIII in the encyclical Annum sacrum was due to the messages from Jesus rep
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member
Crucifixion of Jesus
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most between AD 30 and 33. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although there is no consensus among historians on the exact details. According to the canonical gospels, Jesus was arrested and tried by the Sanhedrin, sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, crucified by the Romans. Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink after saying I am thirsty, he was hung between two convicted thieves and, according to the Gospel of Mark, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was written in three languages, they divided his garments among themselves and cast lots for his seamless robe, according to the Gospel of John.
According to the Gospel of John after Jesus' death, one soldier pierced his side with a spear to be certain that he had died blood and water gushed from the wound. The Bible describes seven statements that Jesus made while he was on the cross, as well as several supernatural events that occurred. Collectively referred to as the Passion, Jesus' suffering and redemptive death by crucifixion are the central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement; the baptism of Jesus and his crucifixion are considered to be two certain facts about Jesus. James Dunn states that these "two facts in the life of Jesus command universal assent" and "rank so high on the'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus. Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him. John Dominic Crossan states that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be.
Eddy and Boyd state that it is now "firmly established" that there is non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus. Craig Blomberg states that most scholars in the third quest for the historical Jesus consider the crucifixion indisputable. Christopher M. Tuckett states that, although the exact reasons for the death of Jesus are hard to determine, one of the indisputable facts about him is that he was crucified. While scholars agree on the historicity of the crucifixion, they differ on the reason and context for it. For example, both E. P. Sanders and Paula Fredriksen support the historicity of the crucifixion but contend that Jesus did not foretell his own crucifixion and that his prediction of the crucifixion is a "church creation". Geza Vermes views the crucifixion as a historical event but provides his own explanation and background for it. John P. Meier views the crucifixion of Jesus as historical fact and states that, based on the criterion of embarrassment, Christians would not have invented the painful death of their leader.
Meier states that a number of other criteria, e.g. the criterion of multiple attestation and the criterion of coherence help establish the crucifixion of Jesus as a historical event. Although all ancient sources relating to crucifixion are literary, the 1968 archeological discovery just northeast of Jerusalem of the body of a crucified man dated to the 1st century provided good confirmatory evidence that crucifixions occurred during the Roman period according to the manner in which the crucifixion of Jesus is described in the gospels; the crucified man was identified as Yehohanan ben Hagkol and died about 70 AD, around the time of the Jewish revolt against Rome. The analyses at the Hadassah Medical School estimated. Another relevant archaeological find, which dates to the 1st century AD, is an unidentified heel bone with a spike discovered in a Jerusalem gravesite, now held by the Israel Antiquities Authority and displayed in the Israel Museum; the earliest detailed accounts of the death of Jesus are contained in the four canonical gospels.
There are other, more implicit references in the New Testament epistles. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus predicts his death in three separate places. All four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, initial trial at the Sanhedrin and final trial at Pilate's court, where Jesus is flogged, condemned to death, is led to the place of crucifixion carrying his cross before Roman soldiers induce Simon of Cyrene to carry it, Jesus is crucified and resurrected from the dead, his death is described as other books of the New Testament. In each Gospel these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative. Scholars note that the reader receives an hour-by-hour account of what is happening. After arriving at Golgotha, Jesus was offered wine mixed with gall to drink. Matthew's and Mark's Gospels record, he was crucified and hung between two convicted thieves. According to some translations of the original Greek, the thieves may have been bandits or Jewish rebels.
According to Mark's Gospel, he endured the torment of crucifixion for some six hours from the third hour, at 9 am, until his death at the ninth hour, corresponding to about 3 pm. The soldiers affixed a sign above his head stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was in three languages, divided his garments and cast l
Saint Maria Faustyna Kowalska of the Blessed Sacrament, popularly spelled Faustina, was a Polish Roman Catholic nun and mystic. Her apparitions of Jesus Christ inspired the Roman Catholic devotion to the Divine Mercy and earned her the title of "Apostle of Divine Mercy". Throughout her life, Faustina reported having visions of Jesus and conversations with him, of which she wrote in her diary published as The Diary of Saint Maria Faustina Kowalska: Divine Mercy in My Soul, her biography, submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, quoted some of these conversations with Jesus regarding the Divine Mercy devotion. At the age of 20 years, she joined a convent in Warsaw, was transferred to Płock, was moved to Vilnius where she met her confessor Father Michał Sopoćko, who supported her devotion to the Divine Mercy. Faustina and Sopoćko directed an artist to paint the first Divine Mercy image, based on Faustina's vision of Jesus. Sopoćko used the image in celebrating the first Mass on the first Sunday after Easter.
Subsequently, Pope John Paul II established the Feast of Divine Mercy on that Sunday of each liturgical year. The Roman Catholic Church canonized Faustina as a saint on 30 April 2000; the mystic is classified in the liturgy as a virgin and is venerated within the Church as the "Apostle of Divine Mercy". She was born as Helena Kowalska on 25 August 1905 in Głogowiec, Łęczyca County, north-west of Łódź in Poland, she was the third of ten children of Marianna Kowalska. Her father was a carpenter and a peasant, the family was poor and religious, she stated that she first felt a calling to the religious life while attending the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament at 7 years of age. She wanted to enter the convent after completing her time at school, but her parents would not give her permission; when she was 16 years old, she went to work as a housekeeper, first in Aleksandrów Łódzki where she received the Sacrament of Confirmation in Łódź, to support herself and to help her parents. In 1924, at the age of 19 years, Faustina went with her sister Natalia to a dance in a park in Łódź.
Faustina said. She went to the Cathedral. From there, she said Jesus instructed her to depart for Warsaw and to join a convent, she took a train for Warsaw without gaining the permission of her parents, knowing anyone in Warsaw, or bringing any belongings other than the dress she was wearing. After she arrived, she entered the first church she attended Mass.. She asked the priest, Father Dąbrowski, for suggestions, he recommended staying with a Mrs. Lipszycowa, a local woman whom he considered trustworthy, until she found a convent. Faustina approached several convents in Warsaw, but was turned down every time, in one case being told that "we do not accept maids here", referring to her poverty. Faustina had three or four years of education. After several weeks of searching, the mother superior at the convent of Zgromadzenie Sióstr Matki Bożej Miłosierdzia decided to give Faustina a chance and conditionally accepted her, provided that she could pay for her religious habit. Faustina knew nothing of the convent.
In 1925, Faustina worked as a housemaid to save money, making deposits at the Convent throughout the year, gained acceptance. On 30 April 1926, at the age of 20 years, she received her habit and took the religious name of Sister Maria Faustina of the Blessed Sacrament; the name "Faustina" is a diminutive of Fausta, which means "fortunate" or "lucky". Richard Torreto sees it as the feminine form of the name of a Roman martyr Faustinus, killed in AD 120. Faustinus and Jovita; the Roman Martyrology lists a Saint Faustina of about AD 580 and two ancient saints called Faustinus, assigning the Roman martyr to the third or fourth century, while the other is the Faustinus associated with Jovita. In April 1928, she took her first religious vows as a nun with her parents attending the profession rite, she was a nun for a little more than a decade, she died at the age of 33 years on 5 October 1938. From February to April 1929, she was sent to the convent in Wilno in Poland, now Vilnius, Lithuania, as a cook.
Although her time in that city was short, she returned there and met Father Michael Sopoćko, who supported her mission. A year after her first return from Vilnius, in May 1930, she was transferred to the convent in Płock, for two years. Faustina arrived in Płock in May 1930; that year, the first signs of her illness appeared, she was sent to rest for several months in a nearby farm owned by her religious order. After recovery, she returned to the convent, by February 1931, she had been in the Płock area for about nine months. Faustina wrote that on the night of Sunday, 22 February 1931, while she was in her cell in Płock, Jesus appeared wearing a white garment with red and pale rays emanating from his heart. In her diary, she wrote that Jesus told her: Paint an image according to the pattern you see, with the signature: "Jesus, I trust in You". I desire that this image be venerated, first in your chapel, throughout the world. I promise. Not knowing how to paint, Faustina approached some other nuns at the convent in Płock for help, but she received no assistance.
Three years after her assignment to Vilnius, the first artistic rendering of the image was performed under her dire
Adolf Hyła was a Polish painter and art teacher. He is known for painting the most popular version of the "Divine Mercy image" in 1943. Hyła was born in the son of Józef and Salomea, his brother, was a sculptor. Adolf attended school in Kraków from 1903–1912 was a pupil at the Jesuit School in Chyrów, where he obtained his school leaving certificate in 1917, he went on to study painting with Jacek Malczewski. Between 1918–1920 his studies were interrupted by intermittent service in the Polish Army. Around that time he worked in the office of the National Kilimkarni. In 1922, he studied art philosophy at the Jagiellonian University, he gained his two Fine Arts teaching certificates, first in Kraków in 1930 in 1936 at the Craft Institute in Warsaw. He first became an art teacher in a high school in Będzin between 1920–1948, he taught crafts in various secondary schools in Kraków. Hyła taught drawing and craftwork at the Mikołaj Kopernik Private School, around 1934. Hyła died in Kraków at the age of 68.
Hyła painted the Divine Mercy image for the Divine Mercy Sanctuary, Kraków, as a votive offering for having survived World War II. The image was painted by Hyła five years after the death of Saint Faustina Kowalska in 1938, under the direction of one of her confessors, Józef Andrasz, it was somewhat inspired by an earlier 1934 depiction of the Divine Mercy by Eugeniusz Kazimirowski, a painting, supervised by Kowalska herself and her other confessor, Michał Sopoćko. Hyła's original version had Christ against a country landscape background, but this was deemed "non-liturgical" and was subsequently edited out of the second, more familiar, depiction of the subject. Adolf Hyła painted several portraits, including those of Albert Chmielowski, Józef Piłsudski, the Capuchin Provincial, Kazimierz Niczyński and a series of landscapes including: the Roman Forum in Rome 1931 Church on Obidowa 1934 at Świnica Slope of Czarny Staw Gąsienicowy 1936 The Czarny Dunajec river in Witów 1937 Kościeliska Valley 1947 Seascape in Orłowo 1947 The coast in Sopot 1958.
When on the instruction of Archbishop Karol Wojtyla, preparations began for the beatification of Faustyna Kowalska, Hyła donated the copyright of his painting to Faustyna's order of nuns, the Our Lady of Mercy convent in Kraków. He wanted the revenue from the sale of his image to support Faustyna's beatification process. Hyła died before the process started