Old Order Mennonite
Old Order Mennonites form a branch of the Mennonite tradition. Old Order are those Mennonite groups of Swiss German and south German heritage who practice a lifestyle without some elements of modern technology, who dress plain and who have retained the old forms of worship and communion. All Old Order Mennonite reject certain technologies, but the extent of this rejection depends on the group. Old Order groups place great emphasis on a disciplined community instead of the individual's faith beliefs; the Pennsylvania German language is spoken and vigorous among all horse-and-buggy groups, except for the Virginia Old Order Mennonites, who lost the language before becoming Old Order. There is no overall conference to unite all the different groups of Old Order Mennonites. A large minority of Old Order Mennonite use cars, whereas a majority have retained horse and buggy transportation, they are entirely of Swiss German or south German descent and the majority of them speaks Pennsylvania German. Conservative Plautdietsch speaking "Russian" Mennonites, who may have a similar belief and lifestyle are not called "Old Order Mennonite".
From the first Old Order division in Indiana in 1872 under bishop Jacob Wisler until the middle of the 20th century sometimes all Old Order Mennonites were called "Wisler Mennonites", "Old Order Mennonites, Wisler" and the like or "Wislerites". In a few cases this usage has persisted, but today the term "Wisler Mennonites" refers to a certain subgroup, the Ohio-Indiana Mennonite Conference. Old Order Mennonites who do not use automobiles are either referred to as "horse and buggy Mennonites" or "Team Mennonites"; the word for them in Pennsylvania German is Fuhremennischte. Sometimes the term "Old Order Mennonites" is restricted to groups, it is common to name groups after a bishop, in most cases the leading bishop during the time of division. The Old Order Mennonites emerged through divisions from the main body of Mennonites between 1872 and 1901 in four regions of North America: Indiana in 1872, Ontario in 1889, Pennsylvania in 1893 and Virginia in 1901. Conflicts over the introduction of such modern practices as Sunday Schools, revival meetings, English language preaching drove the formation of Old Order Mennonite churches.
These modernizing trends that changed the form of religious practice were pushed among the Mennonites by two men: John F. Funk and John S. Coffman; the traditional minded people left the old conferences to form new ones, not the modernizers. Between 1907 and 1931 another wave of church splits occurred among the Old Orders, concerning the use of new technologies cars; the splits occurred in Indiana and Ohio in 1907, in Ontario in 1917 and 1931, in Pennsylvania in 1927. The Stauffer Mennonites had split away in 1845 over several issues, favoring a stricter church practice. Today they and groups that split from them are the most traditional Old Order Mennonite groups concerning technologies and dress; the Reformed Mennonites, formed in 1812, are a special group that does not fit into the "Old Order" group but that has best retained some old traditions, e. g. they wear the most traditional form of plain dress among all Mennonites. Concerns that led to the formation of the new group were "the worldly drift of the church" and "degeneration".
Between the 1940s and the 1960s both the Orthodox Mennonites and the Noah Hoover Mennonites emerged from a long series of splits and reunifications of people among the Old Orders who were no modernizers but sought a purer form of Mennonite life. Both the Orthodox Mennonites and the Noah Hoovers are "intentionalist minded, ultra-plain Old Order Mennonite" groups. Stephen Scott writes about the Noah Hoover Mennonite: Many practices among the Old Order Mennonites stem from the biblical principle of nonconformity to the world, according to Romans 12:2 and other Bible verses; the avoidance of technologies by Old Order Mennonites and Old Order Amish is based not on a belief that the technology is in some way evil, but over a concern for the nature of their communities. Community is important to a Mennonite, a technology or practice is rejected if it would adversely affect it. Many Old Order Mennonite groups reject automobiles. In an emergency the most traditional Old Order Mennonite is to accept a ride in an automobile.
Some of the groups that allow the use of cars and trucks, such as the Markham-Waterloo Mennonite Conference, will ensure that they are all black, painting chrome sections to achieve this effect. Old Order Mennonites practise plainness, including the dress, the opposite of showiness in clothing but in physical appearance. Many Amish and Old Order Mennonites do not use traditional health insurance with monthly premiums and co-pays. In Lancaster County, some Amish and Mennonites use Preferred Health Care Old Order Group coverage; when an OOG member visits a participating provider, he or she would present a unique white card with red and blue print identifying him or her as a PHC member. These cards are void of any identifying information. After care is rendered, providers submit a claim to PHC for a "repricing" as if the patient had insurance. A PHC statement is sent to the medical practice and the patient indicating the discounted amount due the provider; the practice collects the repriced amount from the patient directly, as per practice policy for collecting balances due on self-pay patient accounts.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the meaning of such rites. Many Christians consider the sacraments to be a visible symbol of the reality of God, as well as a means by which God enacts his grace. Many denominations, including the Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed, hold to the definition of sacrament formulated by Augustine of Hippo: an outward sign of an inward grace, instituted by Jesus Christ. Sacraments signify God's grace in a way, outwardly observable to the participant; the Catholic Church and the Old Catholic Church recognise seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church believe that there are seven major sacraments, but apply the corresponding Greek word, μυστήριον to rites that in the Western tradition are called sacramentals and to other realities, such as the Church itself. Many Protestant denominations, such as those within the Reformed tradition, identify two sacraments instituted by Christ, the Eucharist and Baptism.
The Lutheran sacraments include these two adding Confession as a third sacrament. Anglican and Methodist teaching is that "there are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, to say and the Supper of the Lord," and that "those five called Sacraments, to say, Penance, Orders and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel."Some traditions do not observe any of the rites, or hold that they are reminders or commendable practices that do not impart actual grace—not sacraments but "ordinances" pertaining to certain aspects of the Christian faith. The English word "sacrament" is derived indirectly from the Ecclesiastical Latin sacrāmentum, from Latin sacrō, from sacer; this in turn is derived from the Greek New Testament word "mysterion". In Ancient Rome, the term meant a soldier's oath of allegiance. Tertullian, a 3rd-century Christian writer, suggested that just as the soldier's oath was a sign of the beginning of a new life, so too was initiation into the Christian community through baptism and Eucharist.
Roman Catholic theology enumerates seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Matrimony, Holy Orders and Anointing of the Sick. These seven sacraments were codified in the documents of the Council of Trent, which stated: CANON I.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord. CANON IV.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous. During the Middle Ages, sacraments were recorded in Latin. After the Reformation, many ecclesiastical leaders continued using this practice into the 20th century. On occasion, Protestant ministers followed the same practice. Since W was not part of the Latin alphabet, scribes only used it when dealing with places. In addition, names were modified to fit a "Latin mold". For instance, the name Joseph would be rendered as Josephus; the Catholic Church indicates that the sacraments are necessary for salvation, though not every sacrament is necessary for every individual.
The Church applies this teaching to the sacrament of baptism, the gateway to the other sacraments. It states that "Baptism is necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament." But it adds: "God has bound salvation to the sacrament of Baptism, but he himself is not bound by his sacraments," and accordingly, "since Christ died for the salvation of all, those can be saved without Baptism who die for the faith. Catechumens and all those who without knowing Christ and the Church, still sincerely seek God and strive to do his will can be saved without Baptism; the Church in her liturgy entrusts children who die without Baptism to the mercy of God."In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, "the sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament.
They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions."The Church teaches that the effect of the sacraments comes ex opere operato, by the fact of being administered, regardless of the personal holiness of the minister administering it. However, as indicated in this definition of the sacraments given by the Catechism of the Catholic Church, a recipient's own lack of proper disposition to receive the grace conveyed can block a sacrament's effectiveness in that person; the sacraments presuppose faith and through their words and ritual elements, nourish and give expression to faith. Though not ev
Religious texts are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, guide individual and communal religious practice. Religious texts communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as a set of guiding principles which dictate physical, spiritual, or historical elements considered important to a specific religion; the terms'sacred' text and'religious' text are not interchangeable in that some religious texts are believed to be sacred because of their nature as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired, whereas some religious texts are narratives pertaining to the general themes, practices, or important figures of the specific religion, not considered sacred by itself. A core function of a religious text making it sacred is its ceremonial and liturgical role in relation to sacred time, the liturgical year, the divine efficacy and subsequent holy service.
It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, because there is no single definition of which texts are recognized as religious. One of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars date around 2600 BCE; the Epic of Gilgamesh from Sumer, although only considered by some scholars as a religious text, has origins as early as 2150-2000 BCE, stands as one of the earliest literary works that includes various mythological figures and themes of interaction with the divine. The Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism is estimated to have been composed between 1700–1100 BCE, which not only denotes it as one of the oldest known religious texts, but one of the oldest written religious text, still used in religious practice to this day, though no actual evidence of this text exists prior to the 13th century AD. There are many possible dates given to the first writings which can be connected to Talmudic and Biblical traditions, the earliest of, found in scribal documentation of the 8th century BCE, followed by administrative documentation from temples of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, with another common date being the 2nd century BCE.
Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the Abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts. High rates of mass production and distribution of religious texts did not begin until the invention of the printing press in 1440, before which all religious texts were hand written copies, of which there were limited quantities in circulation. A religious canon refers to the accepted and unchanging collection of texts which a religious denomination considers comprehensive in terms of their specific application of texts. For example, the content of a Protestant Bible may differ from the content of a Catholic Bible - insofar as the Protestant Old Testament does not include the Deuterocanonical books while the Roman Catholic canon does. Protestants and Catholics use the same 27 book NT canon, as well as the same 39 book OT protocanon shared by Jews.
The word "canon" comes from the Sumerian word meaning "standard". The terms "scripture" and variations such as "Holy Writ", "Holy Scripture" or "Sacred Scripture" are defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as terms which apply to Biblical text and the Christian tradition. Hierographology is the study of sacred texts; the following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. A Course in Miracles The writings of Franklin Albert Jones a.k.a. Adi Da Love-Ananda Samraj Aletheon The Companions of the True Dawn Horse The Dawn Horse Testament Gnosticon The Heart of the Adi Dam Revelation Not-Two IS Peace Pneumaton Transcendental Realism The Nine Freedoms Havamal Eddur Great Hymn to the Aten The Akilathirattu Ammanai The Arul Nool The Borgia Group codices Books by Bahá'u'lláh The Four Valleys The Seven Valleys The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh Gems of Divine Mysteries The Book of Certitude Summons of the Lord of Hosts Tabernacle of Unity Kitáb-i-Aqdas Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas Epistle to the Son of the Wolf Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh Bon Kangyur and Tengyur Theravada BuddhismThe Tipitaka or Pāli Canon Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya, the "long" discourses.
Majjhima Nikaya, the "middle-length" discourses. Samyutta Nikaya, the "connected" discourses. Anguttara Nikaya, the "numerical" discourses. Khuddaka Nikaya, the "minor collection". Abhidhamma PitakaEast Asian Mahayana The Chinese Buddhist Mahayana sutras, including Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra Shurangama Sutra and its Shurangama Mantra Great Compassion Mantra Pure Land Buddhism Infinite Life Sutra Amitabha Sutra Contemplation Sutra other Pure Land Sutras Tiantai and Nichiren Lotus Sutra Shingon Mahavairocana Sutra Vajrasekhara SutraTibeta
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education at a college or university. These institutions offer degrees at various levels including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees; the most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. The doctorate appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach at a medieval university, its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee; the Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.
This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the emancipating universities, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach. However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree, it was reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching. At the University, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild; the traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Master of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. The terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. Today the terms "master", "Doctor" and "Professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university..
The earliest doctoral degrees reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into these three fields. Over time, the D. D. has become less common outside theology and is now used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more for earned degrees. Studies outside theology and medicine were called "philosophy", due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation; the degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is a much time and was not introduced in England before 1900. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as humanities; the University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century. The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium and the quadrivium, together known as the Liberal Arts and who had passed examinations held by their master, would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term used of a squire to a knight. Further study and in particular successful participation in and moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, "master", entitling one to teach these subjects. Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology and earn first a bachelor's and master or doctor's degrees in these subjects, thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", based on the Latin gradus. The naming of degrees became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "master", but those in theology and law were known as "doctor".
As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy, which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts; the practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world. The French terminology is tied to the original meanings of the terms; the baccalauréat is conferred upon French students who have completed the
Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective. Systematic theological study of Christian ethics is called moral theology. Christian virtues are divided into four cardinal virtues and three theological virtues. Christian ethics includes questions regarding how the rich should act toward the poor, how women are to be treated, the morality of war. Christian ethicists, like other ethicists, approach ethics from different frameworks and perspectives; the approach of virtue ethics has become popular in recent decades due to the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas. The curriculum for seminary formation of Catholic priests includes multiple, required courses in Catholic moral theology. Required courses in moral theology or ethics are comparatively less common in Evangelical seminaries. In the Wesleyan tradition, Christian theology are informed by four distinguishable sources known as the Wesleyan Quadrilateral.
The four sources are scripture, tradition and Christian experience. According to D. Stephen Long, Jewish ethics and the life of Jesus figure prominently in Christian ethics, but "The Bible is the universal and fundamental source of Christian ethics", Long claims "Christian ethics finds its source in diverse means, but it emerges from the biblical narrative and the call of Abraham and Sarah and subsequent creation of the Jewish people". Childress and Macquarrie state that "Many Christian ethicists have claimed that Jesus Christ is the center of the biblical message in its entirety and the key to scripture". Other Christian ethicists "prefer a more Trinitarian rendering of the message of scripture"; some modern Christians "understand'liberation' or deliverance from oppression to be the message of scripture". Christians today "do not feel compelled to observe all 613 commandments" in the Torah, but the Ten Commandments figure prominently in Christian ethics."The Prophets ground their appeals for right conduct in God's demand for righteousness."
On the other hand, "It is not... true to say that for the OT writers righteousness is defined by what God does. Noted as ethical guidelines adhered to by Old Testament figures is "maintenance of the family", "safeguarding of the family property", "maintenance of the community". Much of Christian ethics derives from Biblical scripture and Christians have always considered the Bible profitable to teach, reprove and train in righteousness; the New Testament asserts that all morality flows from the Great Commandment, to love God with all one's heart, mind and soul, to love one's neighbour as oneself. In this, Jesus was reaffirming a teachings of Deut 6:4-9 and Lev 19:18. Christ united these commands together and proposed himself as a model of the love required in John 13:12, known as The New Commandment. Paul is the source of the phrase "Law of Christ", though its meaning and the relationship of Paul of Tarsus and Judaism are still disputed; the Pauline writings are the major source of the New Testament household code.
The Council of Jerusalem, as reported in Acts 15, may have been held in Jerusalem in about 50 AD. Its decree, known as the Apostolic Decree, was held as binding for several centuries and is still observed today by the Greek Orthodox. Christian ethics developed during Early Christianity as Christianity arose in the Holy Land and other early centers of Christianity while Christianity emerged from Second Temple Judaism. Early Christian ethics included discussions of how believers should relate to Roman authority and to the empire; the Church Fathers had little occasion to treat moral questions from a purely philosophical standpoint and independently of divine revelation, but in the explanation of Christian doctrine their discussions led to philosophical investigations. Writers, such as Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose and Augustine of Hippo all wrote on ethics from a distinctly Christian point of view, they made use of philosophical and ethical principles laid down by their Greek philosopher forebears and the intersection of Greek and Jewish thought known as Hellenistic Judaism.
Under the Emperor Constantine I, Christianity became a legal religion. With Christianity now in power, ethical concerns broadened and included discussions of the proper role of the state. Augustine in particular made use of the ethical principles of Greek philosophy and Hellenistic Judaism, he proceeded to develop along philosophical lines and to establish most of the truths of Christian morality. The eternal law, the original type and source of all temporal laws, the natural law, the ultimate end of man, the cardinal virtues, marriage, etc. were treated by him in the clearest and most penetrating manner. Augustine identified a movement in Scripture "toward the'City of God', from which Christian ethics emerges", as illustrated in chapters 11 and 12 of the book of Genesis. Broadly speaking, Augustine adapted the philosophy of Plato to Christian principles, his synthesis is called Augustinianism. He presents hardly a single portion of ethics to us but what he does present is enriched with his keen philosophical commentaries.
Writers followed in his footsteps. A sharper line of separation between philosophy and theology, in particular between ethics and moral theology, is first met within the works of the great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages of Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus. Phi
The Amish are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins. They are related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches; the Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann; those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Amish Mennonites; the latter drive cars as does the main society during the 20th century, whereas the Old Order Amish retained much of their traditional culture. When it is spoken of Amish today only the Old Order Amish are meant. In the early 18th century many Amish, Mennonites, immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today the Old Order Amish, the New Order Amish, the Old Beachy Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German known as "Pennsylvania Dutch", although two different Alemannic dialects are used by Old Order Amish in Adams and Allen counties in Indiana.
As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish lived in the United States and about 1,500 lived in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers had increased to 227,000, in 2010, a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West. Most of the Amish continue to have six or seven children, while benefitting from the major decrease in infant and maternal mortality in the 20th century. Between 1992 and 2017, the Amish population increased by 149 percent, while the U. S. population increased by 23 percent. Amish church membership begins with baptism between the ages of 16 and 23, it is a requirement for marriage within the Amish church. Once a person is baptized within the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home; the district is led by several ministers and deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover many aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing.
Most Amish do not participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service; the Amish value rural life, manual labor, humility, all under the auspices of living what they interpret to be God's word. Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During an adolescent period of rumspringa in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may be met with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world, i.e. American and Canadian society. Non-Amish people are referred to as'English'.
A heavy emphasis is placed on church and family relationships. They operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education after grade eight, at age 13/14; until the children turn 16, they have vocational training under the tutelage of their parents and the school teacher. Higher education is discouraged, as it can lead to social segregation and the unraveling of the community. However, some Amish women have used higher education to obtain a nursing certificate so that they may provide midwifery services to the community; the Anabaptist movement, from which the Amish emerged, started in circles around Huldrych Zwingli who led the early Reformation in Switzerland. In Zurich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel and George Blaurock practiced adult baptism to each other and to others; this Swiss movement, part of the Radical Reformation became known as Swiss Brethren. The term Amish was first used as a Schandename in 1710 by opponents of Jakob Amman; the first informal division between Swiss Brethren was recorded in the 17th century between Oberländers and Emmentaler.
The Oberländers were a more extreme congregation. Swiss Anabaptism developed, from this point, in two parallel streams, most marked by disagreement over the preferred treatment of "fallen" believers; the Emmentalers argued that fallen believers should only be withheld from communion, not regular meals. The Amish argued that those, banned should be avoided in common meals; the Reistian side formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. Because of this common heritage and Mennonites from southern Germany and Switzerland retain many similarities; those who leave the Amish fold tend to join various congregations of Conservative Mennonites. Amish began migrating to Pennsylvania known for its religious toleration, in the 18th century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas; this migration was a reaction to religious wars and religious persecution in Europe. The firs
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic known as Old Church Slavic or Old Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is referred to as Paleo-Slavic or Palaeo-Slavic, not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, it is abbreviated to OCS. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs, it is thought to have been based on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica. It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for Church Slavonic traditions, some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day; as the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia. For that purpose and his brother Methodius started to translate religious literature to Old Church Slavonic based on the Slavic dialects spoken in the hinterland of their hometown, Thessaloniki, in today's Greece; as part of the preparation for the mission, in 862/863, the Glagolitic alphabet was created and the most important prayers and liturgical books, including the Aprakos Evangeliar, the Psalter, Acts of the Apostles, were translated. The language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885; the texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia. In 885, the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire.
There it was taught at two literary schools: the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School. The Glagolitic alphabet was used at both schools, though the Cyrillic script was developed early on at the Preslav Literary School where it superseded Glagolitic; the texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the First Bulgarian Empire. Old Church Slavonic spread to other South-Eastern and Eastern European Slavic territories, most notably Croatia, Bohemia, Lesser Poland, principalities of the Kievan Rus' while retaining characteristically South Slavic linguistic features. Texts written in each of those territories began to take on characteristics of the local Slavic vernaculars and, by the mid-11th century, Old Church Slavonic had diversified into a number of regional varieties; these local varieties are collectively known as the Church Slavonic language. Apart from the Slavic countries, Old Church Slavonic has been used as a liturgical language by the Romanian Orthodox Church, as well as a literary and official language of the princedoms of Wallachia and Moldavia, before being replaced by Romanian during the 16th to 17th centuries.
Church Slavonic maintained a prestigious status in Russia, for many centuries – among Slavs in the East it had a status analogous to that of Latin in Western Europe, but had the advantage of being less divergent from the vernacular tongues of average parishioners. Some Orthodox churches, such as the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Orthodox Church and Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric, as well as several Eastern Catholic Churches, still use Church Slavonic in their services and chants today. Old Church Slavonic was written with the Glagolitic alphabet, but Glagolitic was replaced by Cyrillic, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire by a decree of Boris I of Bulgaria in the 9th century; the local Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, known as Bosančica, was preserved in Bosnia and parts of Croatia, while a variant of the angular Glagolitic alphabet was preserved in Croatia. See Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it expressed.
For Old Church Slavonic, the following segments are reconstructible. A few sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the exact realisation is uncertain and differs depending on the area that a text originated from; the letter щ is not shown in the table. In Bulgaria, it represented the sequence /ʃt/, it is transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was /c/ or /tɕ/ like in modern Macedonian and Serbian/Croatian. /dz/ appears in early texts, becoming /z/ on. The distinction between l, n and r, on one hand, palatal l', n' and r', on the other, is not always indicated in writing; when it is, it is shown by a palatization diacritic over the letter: л҄ н҄ р҄. Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from languages and from reconstructions of Proto-Slavic; the pronunciation of yat differed by area. In Bulgaria it was a relatively