Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Valladolid Rugby Asociación Club is a Spanish rugby union club. The club was established in 1986 and competes in the División de Honor de Rugby competition, the highest level of Spanish club rugby; the club are based in Valladolid in central Spain. VRAC play in white colours; the team have in the past won both the Copa del Rey de Rugby. They play at Estadio Pepe Rojo. División de Honor: 8 Champions: 1998–99, 2000–01, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2016–17, 2017–18 Copa del Rey: 5 Champions: 1997–98, 2009–10, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2017–18 Runners-up: 2012–13 Supercopa de España: 7 Champions: 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Copa Ibérica de Rugby: 3 Champions: 2014, 2017,2018 Valladolid RAC's first foray into Europe was in the 2001–02 European Challenge Cup. Playing in a pool with London Irish, Dax and L'Aquila, they lost all six games; the 2003/4 season saw a change in format in the European Challenge Cup. Teams played in a knockout format, over two legs, in each round. First round losing teams played in a new, third tier, Shield competition.
Having lost home and away to England's Newcastle Falcons in Round 1 of the 2003–04 European Challenge Cup, they dropped into the European Shield. Here their performance against Italy's Overmach Parma was better, but they again lost home and away; the 2004/5 season was a close repeat of 2003/4: heavy losses home and away to Italy's Viadana in the Challenge Cup was followed by heavier defeats at the hands of England's Leeds in the Shield. As the winners of the 2011–12 División de Honor de Rugby and the championship playoff, Valladolid RAC qualified to play in the 2012–13 European Challenge Cup but turned down the opportunity due to economic factors. Gernika RT represented Spain; as the winners of the 2013/14 División de Honor championship, VRAC qualified to play the Iberian Rugby Cup against CDUL of Lisbon, winning the game and the title. In 2015/16 season, Valladolid RAC as the champion of the 2014/15 División de Honor championship, represented Spain at the Qualifying Competition of the European Rugby Challenge Cup.
In this competition VRAC won two games, against Royal Kituro Rugby Club and Mogliano Rugby but lost against Grupo Desportivo Direito and Timișoara Saracens. Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Víctor Acevedo Fernando de la Calle Aníbal Fernando Bonan Benjamín Pardo Nacho Müller Glen Rolls Gareth Griffiths Sargent Adam Newton Gareth Griffiths Mike Davis Glen Lewis Rolls 25 seasons in División de Honor Rugby union in Spain VRAC Official website Spanish Rugby website
Estadio Pepe Rojo
Estadio Pepe Rojo is a sports stadium located in the city of Valladolid, Spain. It is the home ground of CR El Salvador and Valladolid RAC leading clubs of the División de Honor, the top-level of Spanish rugby; the Spanish national team have played matches at the stadium. Rugbystadiums.co.uk
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau, it has another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of León. Burgos was once the capital of the Crown of Castile, the Burgos Laws or Leyes de Burgos which first governed the behaviour of Spaniards towards the natives of the Americas were promulgated here in 1512, it has many historic landmarks, of particular importance. A large number of churches and other buildings from the medieval age remain; the city is surrounded by the Fuentes Blancas and the Paseo de la Isla parks. Castilian nobleman, military leader and diplomat El Cid Campeador is a significant historical figure in the city, as he was born a couple of kilometres north of Burgos and was raised and educated here; the city forms the principal crossroad of northern Spain along the Camino de Santiago, which runs parallel to the River Arlanzón.
It has a well-developed transportation system, forming the main communication node in northern Spain. In 2008, the international Burgos Airport started to offer commercial flights. Furthermore, AVE high speed trains are planned to start service in the near future, stopping at the newly-built Rosa de Lima train station; the Museum of Human Evolution was opened in 2010, unique in its kind across the world and projected to become one of the top 10 most-visited museums in Spain. The museum features the first Europeans. Burgos was selected as the "Spanish Gastronomy Capital" of 2013. In 2015 it was named "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. There are several possible origins for the toponymy; when the city was founded, the inhabitants of the surrounding country moved into the fortified village, whose Visigothic name of Burgos signified consolidated walled villages. The city began to be called Caput Castellae. Early humans occupied sites around Burgos as early as 800,000 years ago.
When the Romans took possession of what is now the province of Burgos, the site had been a Celtic city. In Roman times, it belonged to Hispania Citerior and to Hispania Tarraconensis. In the 5th century, the Visigoths drove back the Suebi the Berbers occupied all of Castile in the 8th century, though only for a brief period, left little if any trace of their occupation. King Alfonso III the Great of León reconquered it about the middle of the 9th century, built several castles for the defence of Christendom, extended through the reconquest of lost territory; the region came to be known as Castile, i.e. "land of castles". Burgos was founded in 884 as an outpost of this expanding Christian frontier, when Diego Rodríguez "Porcelos", count of Castile, governed this territory with orders to promote the increase of the Christian population; the city began to be called Caput Castellae. The county of Castile, subject to the Kings of León, continued to be governed by counts and was extended. In the 11th century, the city became the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burgos and the capital of the Kingdom of Castile.
Burgos was a major stop for pilgrims on the French Way the most popular path to Santiago de Compostela and a centre of trade between the Bay of Biscay and the south, which attracted an unusually large foreign merchant population, who became part of the city oligarchy and excluded other foreigners. Throughout the 13th and 14th centuries, Burgos was a favourite seat of the kings of León and Castile and a favoured burial site; the consejo or urban commune of Burgos was in the hands of an oligarchic class of caballeros villanos, the "peasant knights" of Burgos, who provided the monarchs with a mounted contingent: in 1255 and 1266 royal charters granted relief from taxes to those citizens of Burgos who owned horses and could arm themselves, provided that they continue to live within the city walls. The merchant oligarchy succeeded the cathedral chapter as the major purchasers of land after 1250. A few families within the hermandades or confraternities like the Sarracín and Bonifaz succeeded in monopolising the post of alcalde, or mayor.
By the reign of Alfonso X, the exemption of the non-noble knights and religious corporations, combined with exorbitant gifts and grants to monasteries and private individuals, placed great stress on the economic well-being of the realm. In the century following the conquest of Seville on the Moors, Burgos became a testing ground for royal policies of increasing power against the consejo, in part by encouraging the right to appeal from the consejo to the king. In 1285, Sancho IV added a new body to the consejo which came to dominate it: the jurado in charge of collecting taxes and overseeing public works; the city perceived that danger to its autonomy came rath
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat shortened to L'Hospitalet, is a municipality to the immediate southwest of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain. By population, it is the sixteenth in Spain, it is noted as one of the most densely populated cities in the European Union. The first records of the settlement date to the Neolithic era with artefacts showing human habitation in the Llobregat river area. Roman artefacts have been found dating to the 2nd century BC such as a funeral decoration representing the head of Medusa, now in the Archaeological Museum of Catalonia; however it is not until the 10th century. The current name originates from the Catalan language and derives from a hostel next to the Church of Saint Eulalia of Provençana used by pilgrims in the Middle Ages; the city retained the character of a village until the 19th century when the first textile factories were built causing a population boom. The 1960s and 1970s saw a second population boom, caused by immigration from poorer regions of Spain: however this was not matched by construction of the necessary amenities and it was only in the 1990s that public investment resulted in additional schools, leisure facilities and housing.
The Swedish painter and former anarchist Ivan Aguéli died there, being killed by a train, in 1917. Only a small majority of the city's residential population is native to Catalonia and over 22% of the city's inhabitants were born outside Spain; however the city has a large number of permanent or non-permanent residents from other countries of the European Union. Its population in the 2006 census consisted of 78% born in Spain and broke down as follows: L'Hospitalet's surface is 12.49 km². The area on which the city is constructed may be divided in two different geological areas. One of them follows the coast typology and is called La Marina to two coast areas of neighbouring Barcelona's Zona Franca: La Marina del Prat Vermell and La Marina de Port; the latter half of L'Hospitalet is called El Samontà, which consists of hills and a more elevated area. The city's reputation is still that of a depressed suburb, drawing on its proletarian origins and its reliance on Barcelona, but its economy has improved as can be seen from the city's new skyline and relocation of companies to the city's new financial centre.
Urban regeneration and construction took place during the 2000s, as well as ongoing work on improving public transportation in the second municipality of the Barcelona metropolitan area. The former airline Spanair's headquarters were in L'Hospitalet. Former mayor Celestino Corbacho has campaigned to improve the city's infrastructure from his position in the Ministry of Work. Torre Realia BCN – 119 meters – Completed Hotel Porta Fira – 118 meters – Completed Hotel Catalonia Plaza Europa – 105 meters – Completed Hesperia Tower – 106 meters – Completed Tower Caixa Catalunya – 106 meters – Planned Torre Inbisa – 104 meters – Completed Torre Zenit – 104 meters – Completed Hospital de Bellvitge – 82 meters – Completed Tower Colonial – 75 meters – Under Construction Tower Fadesa I – 65 meters – Completed Tower Fadesa II – 65 meters – Completed Tower Fadesa III – 65 meters – Completed City Judicial Building A – 62 meters – Completed City Judicial Building C – 58 meters- Completed Torre Melina – 60 meters -Completed El Centre El Centre is the historical centre of the city, the oldest neighbourhood, where the City Council is, as well as the centre of activities such as La Farga and many of the cultural buildings, such as the History Museum, the Can Sumarro library, the cultural centre Barradas or the Sala Alexandre Cirici.
It borders the district of Sanfeliu and Can Serra to the north, Bellvitge to the south, Sant Josep to the east, the city of Cornellà de Llobregat to the west. Sant JosepSant Josep remains framed by the square, formed by the avenue of the Fabregada and that of Isabella The Catholic to the west, the Torrent Gornal to the east, the railroad on the north side Carrilet to the south. In this area, all the industrial activities that Hospitalet had through the ages left their mark: from the flour mills and the distilleries, up to the different energetic exploitation of the waterfalls of the Canal de la Infanta or the ceramic, textile and chemical industries. In fact, Sant Josep was an industrial suburb, but the subsequent disappearance of many factories, as well as the population increase, have given it a residential character. SanfeliuCivic life in this quarter centres on the avenue of the Communities Square; this public space is the scene of the greatest holiday celebrations, such as the festival of Sant Joan, the Carnival, many other popular events.
The cultural centre is at the heart of many of the activities. CollblancThis ward has a marked commercial character, centred near the Collblanc Metro stop; the Market Square and the surroundings are the main centre of cultural life. La TorrassaIts origins has been linked to Collblanc. Today, the Spanish Square and the new park of La Torrassa are the at heart of this neighbourhood and is where the holiday celebrations at the beginning of every summer are largest. Santa Eulàlia Its origins are dated back to Medieval times thanks to the presence of the Santa Eulàlia de Provençana hermitage (dated in the 12th century thanks to an inscription in the faç
Unió Esportiva Santboiana is a Spanish rugby union club. The club was established in 1921 and competes in the División de Honor de Rugby competition, the highest level of Spanish club rugby; the club are based in Sant Boi de Llobregat in Catalonia, considered to be one of the capitals of Spanish rugby. Santboiana play in white colours; the team have in the past won both the Spanish League and the Copa del Rey de Rugby as well as the Copa de Catalunya and Copa Ibèrica. They were champions of Spain in the 2005-06 season. Santboiana are the former club of Sant Boi de Llobregat native Oriol Ripol, among Spain's most successful rugby players, he played professionally in England's Guinness Premiership. División de Honor: 7 Champions: 1983–84, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1995–96, 1996–97, 2004–05, 2005–06 Copa del Rey: 12 Champions: 1931, 1933, 1943, 1948, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1989, 2000, 2017 Copa Ibérica: 4 Champions: 1987, 1989, 2005, 2006 Copa Pirineos: 2 Champions: 1960, 1961 Copa de Catalunya: 17 Champions: 1923, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1956, 1959, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2005 Source: Federación Española de Rugby 46 seasons in División de Honor Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Víctor Acevedo Sergi Guerrero Marc Puigbert Víctor Marlet Juan Severino Mario Sagario Pablo Llorens Víctor Gallego Vicenç Lazaro Leonardo Pereira Jonathan Phipps Grant Polson Isaac Thomspon Juan Pablo Socino Isaac Richmond Pablo Llorens Doug Tietjens Arnaud Astruc Rugby union in Spain Official website Catalan Rugby website
Ciencias Sevilla CR
Ciencias Club de Rugby is a Spanish rugby team based in Seville, Spain. Spanish championship Champions: 1992 and 1994 Spanish King's cup Champions: 1994, 1995 and 1996 Runners-up: 1997 Copa Ibérica Champions: 1995 Runners-up: 1993 27 seasons in División de Honor 5 seasons in División de Honor B Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Javier de Juan Corey Smith Kurt Morath Oscar Durán Leonardo de Oliveira Juan Francisco Galindo Sebastián Hattori José María Bohórquez Leandro Fernández Jesús Recuerda Rafael Camacho Alejandro Ortega Carlos Arenas Jeremías Palumbo Manuel Mazo Jorge Prieto Andrea Bresolin Former player from Petrarca Padova in italien Super10 Official site