In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community. Common arguments for partitions include: historicist – that partition is inevitable, or in progress last resort – that partition should be pursued to avoid the worst outcomes, if all other means fail cost–benefit – that partition offers a better prospect of conflict reduction than the if existing borders are not changed better tomorrow – that partition will reduce current violence and conflict, that the new more homogenized states will be more stable rigorous end – heterogeneity leads to problems, hence homogeneous states should be the goal of any policy Notable examples are: Partition of Africa, between 1881 and 1914. Partition, multiple times, of the Roman Empire into the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire, following the Crisis of the Third Century. Partition of Prussia by the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 creating Royal Prussia, Duchy of Prussia in 1525 Partition of Catalonia by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659: Northern Catalan territories were given to France by Spain.
In the Treaty of Versailles, France agreed upon the partition of Prussia Partition of the U. S. state of Virginia, twice: in 1792, nine Trans-Appalachian counties became the Commonwealth of Kentucky. German occupation of Czechoslovakia and Munich Agreement of 1938. * Three Partitions of Luxembourg, the last of which in 1839, divided Luxembourg between France, Prussia and the independent Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Three Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793, 1795, which led to the complete annihilation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1905 Partition of Bengal and 1947 Partition of Bengal Partition of Macedonia by the Treaty of Bucharest Partition of Tyrol by the London Pact of 1915 Partition of the German Empire in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles Partition of Prussia in 1919 Partition of the Ottoman Empire Partition of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye Partition of Ireland in 1920 into the independent Irish Free State and Northern Ireland Treaty of Kars of 1921, which partitioned Ottoman Armenia between the republic of Turkey and the Soviet Union Partition of Germany and Berlin after World War II, annexation of former eastern territories of Germany Partition of East Prussia between the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union Partition of Korea in 1945 1947 UN Partition Plan for British Mandate of Palestine.
Partition of India in 1947 into the independent dominions of India and Pakistan Partition of Korea in 1953 Partition of Punjab in 1966 into the states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh Partition of Pakistan in 1971, when East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War Partition of Vietnam in 1954 The hypothetical partition of the Canadian province of Quebec Partition of Yugoslavia in the 1990s Independence of Croatia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Slovenia from Yugoslavia Failed partition of Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia Ethno-political partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities, Republika Srpska and Federation of B&H Partition of Cyprus in 1974, into Cyprus and Northern Cyprus Possible Partition of Kosovo after disputed independence in 2008. See Kosovo independence precedent. Partition of China Partition of Indonesia to approve Annexation of Borneo to the Philippines Separatism Secession Sambanis and Jonah Schulhofer-Wohl. "What's in a line?
Is partition a solution to civil war?." International Security 34.2: 82–118. Berg, Eiki. "Re-examining sovereignty claims in changing territorialities: reflections from ‘Kosovo Syndrome’." Geopolitics 14.2: 219-234. Fearon, James D. "Separatist wars and world order." Security Studies 13.4: 394–415. Downes, Alexander B. "More Borders, Less Conflict? Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Civil Wars." SAIS Review of International Affairs 26.1: 49–61. Kumar, Radha. "Settling Partition Hostilities: Lessons Learned, Options Ahead." The Fate of the Nation-state: 247. O'Leary, Brendan. "Debating partition: justifications and critiques." Revised version of portion of a paper presented at final conference of the Mapping frontiers, plotting pathways: routes to North-South cooperation in a divided island programme, City Hotel, Armagh, 19–20 January 2006. University College Dublin. Institute for British-Irish Studies, 2006. Horowitz, Michael C. Alex Weisiger, Carter Johnson. "The limits to partition." International Security 33.4: 203–210.
Kumar, Radha. "The Partition Debate: Colonialism Revisited or New Policies?." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 7.1: 3–11
A beam compass is a compass with a beam and sliding sockets or cursors for drawing and dividing circles larger than those made by a regular pair of compasses. The instrument made on the spot with individual sockets and any suitable beam. A draftsman's beam compass consists of a set of points and holders, mounted on a plated brass, aluminum, or German'silver' rod. One end is locked down at the end of the rod, while the other has both rough and fine adjustments, though some are opposite in construction; the locked tip holder consists of a needle, for the centre of the radius, the other holds either a lead clutch, or an inking nib. There are older variants. Another similar type is a Machinist or Engineers beam compass, which uses scribing points only, similar to ones used by woodworkers, except that its fine adjustment is more refined; these beam compasses can be extended by using a lockable rod connector. Trammels or trammel points are the sockets or cursors that, together with the beam, make up a beam compass.
Their small size makes them easy to store or transport. They consist of two separate metal pieces that are connected by a piece of wood, The wood timber is not included in the purchase of the trammel points, it can be ripped on a table saw. A lumber yard or woodworking store should have a piece available to fit the opening metal, or pipe, they work like a scratch awl. As for any compass, there are two uses; the beam compass is used to scribe a circle, either by drawing with lead, penning by ink, or scratching with a sharpened point. The radius can be adjusted by sliding the metal point holder across a wood beam or metal rod, locking it by turning a knob at the desired location; some have a fine radius adjustment. The threaded adjustment is similar to that of a Screw; the only limitation is the rigidity of the wood metal rod being used. Longer wooden beams tend to sag depending on the species of wood used. Metal rods can be used as an alternative, but they have length limitations; some trammel sets include a support roller for attachment at mid span of the beam or rod, to take out the sag.
Trammel points score a precise line by using a sharpened point, or draw a line using a lead clutch, or an ink nib. When the circular knob is turned, it micro adjusts the radius of the circle. On some, a spring and screw mechanism locks the compass at the precise desired location. Turning clockwise decreases the radius. A beam compass can be used to make a series of repetitive measurements in a precise manner; each point is rotated 180° along a straight line or large circle, this process is repeated until the desired measurement or division is reached. The indentation created by the sharp point of the trammel is seen and makes a precise point to reference to the next location; the circle cutter is a basic variation of the beam compass. There are many types of circle cutters; this cutter is used to score a circular pattern in the drywall to fit over recessed lighting in the ceiling. The tool consists of a square shank with a sliding pivot, locked into the desired location with a turn knob; the shank is graduated into 16 units and each unit is further divided into increments of one quarter.
One end of the shank has a fixed cutter wheel. Technical drawing tools McMaster-Carr catalog, McMaster-Carr
Division station (CTA Blue Line)
Division is a subway station on the Chicago Transit Authority's'L' system, serving the Blue Line. The station is located at the Polonia Triangle and serves the Wicker Park and East Ukrainian Village areas of West Town. From Division, trains take 6 minutes to reach downtown. CTA 9 Ashland X9 Ashland Express 56 Milwaukee 70 Division Media related to Division at Wikimedia Commons Division/Milwaukee Station Page Milwaukee Avenue and Ashland Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View
Division (10 Years album)
Division is 10 Years's fourth studio album and second major label release, released May 13, 2008. The first single was "Beautiful", it has so far sold over 250,000 copies in the US. Additionally, an acoustic version of "Beautiful" is available for download with purchases through retailer f.y.e. 10 Years added the second single, So Long, Good-Bye. A rock version was added to their Myspace page, released on October 7, 2008 and was made available on iTunes on December 16, 2008; the third single, Actions & Motives, was released as a digital bundle with the song, an acoustic version of "Russian Roulette", the video Actions & Motives on iTunes on May 26, 2009. Jesse Hasek – Vocals Ryan "Tater" Johnson – Guitar Matt Wantland – Guitar Lewis "Big Lew" Cosby – Bass Brian Vodinh – Drums Joe Carolus – Piano on "Proud of You" Alaina Alexander – Background vocals on "Proud of You" and spoken word on "Planets 2" Travis Wyrick – Co-wrote "Beautiful" and "Picture Perfect" Dean DeLeo – Co-wrote "Focus"
Division of the assembly
In parliamentary procedure, a division of the assembly, division of the house, or division is a method of taking a vote that physically counts members voting. And still today, members are divided into physically separate groups; this was the method used in the Roman Senate, in Athenian democracy. Westminster system parliament chambers have separate division lobbies for the "Ayes" and "Noes" to facilitate physical division. In several assemblies, a division bell is rung throughout the building when a division is happening, in order to alert members not present in the chamber. In the United Kingdom, division bells are present in a number of bars and restaurants near the Palace of Westminster in order to call members to vote who may be outside the building. In the Australian House of Representatives divisions follow a form similar to that of the United Kingdom, but the requirements are more stringent. For instance, a Member in the Chamber when the tellers are appointed must vote, while a Member not present may not.
Furthermore, members must vote in accordance to their voice votes. The voice vote is held as in the British House of Commons. If a Member objects the division bells are rung throughout the Parliamentary estate; when not less than four minutes have elapsed since the question was first put, the Speaker orders that the doors to the Chamber be locked, directs that the Ayes proceed to the right side of the Chamber, that the Noes proceed to the left. Members take seats on the appropriate side of the Chamber, rather than entering a lobby, the Speaker appoints tellers for each side, unless fewer than five Members are seated on one side, in which case the Speaker calls off the division and declares the result for the side with the greater number of Members. If the division is still on, the tellers record the names of the Members; the Speaker does not vote unless there is an equality of votes. In the Australian Senate, a procedure similar to that of the House of Representatives is followed; the voice vote is taken.
Senators take seats in the right or left of the Chamber as in the House, the President of the Senate appoints one teller for each side to record the votes. The President may vote by stating to the Senate the side. If the result of the division is an equality of votes the motion is in all cases disagreed to; the procedure used in the House of Commons of Canada is similar to that in the British House of Commons, with a few differences. The Speaker reads the question aloud, asks, "Is it the pleasure of the house to adopt the motion?" If anyone dissents, the Speaker states "all those in favour of the motion will please say yea." After the cries of'yea', the Speaker says "all those opposed will please say nay," and all members opposed to the question cry out'nay' all at once. The Speaker announces his opinion of the outcome of the vote. If five or more MPs challenge the Speaker's opinion, a formal division follows. A formal division is invoked by the Speaker asking to "call in the members." Bells are rung throughout the Parliament Buildings for either 15 or 30 minutes to allow all present MPs time to enter the chamber and take their seats.
The division begins with the whips from both the government and the official opposition bowing to the Speaker and each other before returning to their seats. There are no division lobbies in the House of Commons, so each member votes by standing up from his or her seat. "Yea" votes are recorded first, followed by the "Nay" votes, on the Speaker's order. The clerk of the house reads the result of the vote aloud to the Speaker. In the German Bundestag and some state parliaments the president can call for the so-called Hammelsprung if an undisputed majority couldn't be established by either MPs raising their hands or standing in order to cast their votes. In this voting procedure the MPs leave the plenary hall and re-enter through one of three doors designated for “yes“, “no”, or “abstention”. According to the Duden dictionary, the expression refers to the MPs grouping themselves like sheep behind their respective bellwethers before re-entering the chamber; the procedure was introduced in 1874 by a Reichstag vice president.
In 1894 the architect of the new Reichstag building made a reference to the Hammelsprung: above the door for "yes", he depicted Ulysses and his friends escaping from Polyphemus. In Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas, a division is a formal count that can be called for if a voice vote is deemed insufficient; the procedure for divisions is specified by standing orders 70–77. The Ceann Comhairle puts the question and TDs present say the Irish word Tá or Níl if they agree or disagree; the Ceann Comhairle gives an opinion on the voice vote. Any TD may demand a division by calling Vótáil. Since 2016, in an effort to reduce delays, many divisions are deferred until a weekly division time on Thursdays when they are taken one after another; when divisions are taken the division bell sounds around Leinster House and the adjoining Oireachtas buildings, calling TDs to the chamber to vote. The bells ring for between two and six minutes, the doors to the chamber are locked after a further four minutes.
The Ceann Comhairle appoints two tellers for each side and deputies present are given one minute to vote. Voting is electronic, with deputies pressing either the Tá or Níl button on their desks. After the voting time has concluded a Division Paper recording the result and each TD's vote is signed by the four tellers and given to the Ceann Comhairle, who d
Division Mountain is located on the Continental Divide along the Alberta - British Columbia border of Canada. It straddles the shared boundary of Banff National Park with Kootenay National Park in the Canadian Rockies, it was named in 1919 by Charles D. Walcott since the mountain divides the Lyell Icefield from the Mons Icefield; the mountain is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Precambrian to Jurassic periods. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, the mountain experiences a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below -20 °C with wind chill factors below -30 °C in the winter. List of peaks on the British Columbia-Alberta border Mountains of Alberta Mountains of British Columbia
A division is a large military unit or formation consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 30,000 in nominal strength. In most armies, a division is composed of several brigades; the division has been the default combined arms unit capable of independent operations. Smaller combined arms units, such as the American regimental combat team during World War II, were used when conditions favored them. In recent times, modern Western militaries have begun adopting the smaller brigade combat team as the default combined arms unit, with the division they belong to being less important. While the focus of this article is on army divisions, in naval usage division has a different meaning, referring to either an administrative/functional sub-unit of a department aboard naval and coast guard ships, shore commands, in naval aviation units, to a sub-unit of several ships within a flotilla or squadron, or to two or three sections of aircraft operating under a designated division leader.
Some languages, like Russian, Serbo-Croatian and Polish, use a similar word divizion/dywizjon for a battalion-size artillery or cavalry unit. In administrative/functional sub-unit usage, unit size varies though divisions number far fewer than 100 people and are equivalent in function and organizational hierarchy/command relationship to a platoon or flight. In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller combined-arms units was Maurice de Saxe, Marshal General of France, in his book Mes Rêveries, he died without having implemented his idea. Victor-François de Broglie put the ideas into practice, he conducted successful practical experiments of the divisional system in the Seven Years' War. The first war in which the divisional system was used systematically was the French Revolutionary War. Lazare Carnot of the Committee of Public Safety, in charge of military affairs, came to the same conclusion about it as the previous royal government, the army was organised into divisions.
It made the armies more flexible and easy to maneuver, it made the large army of the revolution manageable. Under Napoleon, the divisions were grouped together because of their increasing size. Napoleon's military success spread the corps system all over Europe; the divisional system reached its numerical height during the Second World War. The Soviet Union's Red Army consisted of more than a thousand divisional-size units at any one time, the total number of rifle divisions raised during the Great Patriotic War is estimated at 2,000. Nazi Germany had hundreds of numbered and/or named divisions, while the United States employed 91 divisions, two of which were disbanded during the war. A notable change to divisional structures during the war was completion of the shift from square divisions to triangular divisions that many European nations started using in World War I; this was done to pare down chain of command overhead. The triangular division allowed the tactic of "two forward, one back", where two of the division's regiments would be engaging the enemy with one regiment in reserve.
All divisions in World War II were expected to have their own artillery formations the size of a regiment depending upon the nation. Divisional artillery was seconded by corps level command to increase firepower in larger engagements. Regimental combat teams were used by the US during the war as well, whereby attached and/or organic divisional units were parceled out to infantry regiments, creating smaller combined-arms units with their own armor and artillery and support units; these combat teams would still be under divisional command but have some level of autonomy on the battlefield. Organic units within divisions were units which operated directly under Divisional command and were not controlled by the Regiments; these units were support units in nature, include signal companies, medical battalions, supply trains and administration. Attached units were smaller units that were placed under Divisional command temporarily for the purpose of completing a particular mission; these units were combat units such as tank battalions, tank destroyer battalions and cavalry reconnaissance squadrons.
In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures. This does not mean that divisions are equal in size or structure from country to country, but divisions have, in most cases, come to be units of 10,000 to 20,000 troops with enough organic support to be capable of independent operations; the direct organization of the division consists of one to four brigades or battle groups of its primary combat arm, along with a brigade or regiment of combat support and a number of direct-reporting battalions for necessary specialized support tasks, such as intelligence, logistics and combat engineers. Most militaries standardize ideal organization strength for each type of division, encapsulated in a Table of Organization and Equipment which specifies exact assignments of units and equipment for a division; the modern division became the primary identifiable combat unit in many militaries during the second half of the 20th century, supplanting the brigade.