A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Hewlett-Packard Company or Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government and education sectors; the company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and David Packard, produced a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world's leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, at which time Lenovo ranked ahead of HP. HP specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP directly marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors.
HP had services and consulting business around its products and partner products. Hewlett-Packard company events included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. Hewlett-Packard spun off its enterprise products and services business as Hewlett Packard Enterprise on November 1, 2015. Hewlett-Packard held onto the PC and printer businesses, was renamed to HP Inc. Bill Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935; the company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression.
They considered Terman a mentor in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1938, Packard and Hewlett begin part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. In 1939 Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership, they tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, went public on November 6, 1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their first financially successful product, was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A, their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued production until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.
One of the company's earliest customers was Walt Disney Productions, which bought eight Model 200B oscillators for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia. They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard to be exempt from the draft. HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "traitorous eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices. During the 1960s, HP partnered with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products; the products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan.
HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment; the name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo "dy" of the new company. Dynac changed to Dymec, was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers; these had a simple accumulator-based design, with two accumulator registers and, in the HP 1000 models, two index registers. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers; the HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server redesigned with RISC technology.
The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, introduced screen labeled functio
Compaq was a company founded in 1982 that developed and supported computers and related products and services. Compaq produced some of the first IBM PC compatible computers, being the first company to reverse engineer the IBM Personal Computer, it rose to become the largest supplier of PC systems during the 1990s before being overtaken by HP in 2001. Struggling to keep up in the price wars against Dell, as well as with a risky acquisition of DEC, Compaq was acquired for US$25 billion by HP in 2002; the Compaq brand remained in use by HP for lower-end systems until 2013. The company was formed by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto former Texas Instruments senior managers. Murto departed Compaq in 1987, while Canion and Harris left under a shakeup in 1991, which saw Eckhard Pfeiffer appointed president and CEO. Pfeiffer served through the 1990s. Ben Rosen provided the venture capital financing for the fledgling company and served as chairman of the board for 17 years from 1983 until September 28, 2000, when he retired and was succeeded by Michael Capellas, who served as the last chairman and CEO until its merger with HP.
Prior to its takeover the company was headquartered in a facility in northwest unincorporated Harris County, that now continues as HP's largest United States facility. Compaq was founded in February 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto, three senior managers from semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments; the three of them had left due to lack of faith and loss of confidence in TI's management, considered but decided against starting a chain of Mexican restaurants. Each invested $1,000 to form the company, founded with the temporary name Gateway Technology; the name "COMPAQ" was said to be derived from "Compatibility and Quality" but this explanation was an afterthought. The name was chosen from many suggested by Mather, it being the name least rejected; the first Compaq PC was sketched out on a placemat by Ted Papajohn while dining with the founders in a Houston pie shop. Their first venture capital came from Benjamin M. Rosen and Sevin Rosen Funds who helped the fledgling company secure $1.5 million to produce their initial computer.
Overall, the founders managed to raise $25 million from venture capitalists, as this gave stability to the new company as well as providing assurances to the dealers or middlemen. Unlike many startups, Compaq differentiated its offerings from the many other IBM clones by not focusing on price, but instead concentrating on new features, such as portability and better graphics displays as well as performance—and all at prices comparable to those of IBM's PCs. In contrast to Dell Computer and Gateway 2000, Compaq hired veteran engineers with an average of 15 years experience, which lent credibility to Compaq's reputation of reliability among customers. Due to its partnership with Intel, Compaq was able to maintain a technological lead in the market place as it was the first one to come out with computers containing the next generation of each Intel processor. Under Canion's direction, Compaq sold computers only through dealers to avoid potential competition that a direct sales channel would foster, which helped foster loyalty among resellers.
By giving dealers considerable leeway in pricing Compaq's offerings, either a significant markup for more profits or discount for more sales, dealers had a major incentive to advertise Compaq. During its first year of sales, the company sold 53,000 PCs for sales of $111 million, the first start-up to hit the $100 million mark that fast. Compaq raised $67 million. In 1986, it enjoyed record sales of $329 million from 150,000 PCs, became the youngest-ever firm to make the Fortune 500. In 1987, Compaq hit the $1 billion revenue mark, taking the least amount of time to reach that milestone. By 1991, Compaq held the fifth place spot in the PC market with $3 billion in sales that year. Two key marketing executives in Compaq's early years, Jim D'Arezzo and Sparky Sparks, had come from IBM's PC Group. Other key executives responsible for the company's meteoric growth in the late 80s and early 90s were Ross A. Cooley, another former IBM associate, who served for many years as SVP of GM North America. In the United States, Brendan A. "Mac" McLoughlin led the company's field sales organization after starting up the Western U.
S. Area of Operations; these executives, along with other key contributors, including Kevin Ellington, Douglas Johns, Steven Flannigan, Gary Stimac, helped the company compete against the IBM Corporation in all personal computer sales categories, after many predicted that none could compete with the behemoth. The soft-spoken Canion was popular with employees and the culture that he built helped Compaq to attract the best talent. Instead of headquartering the company in a downtown Houston skyscraper, Canion chose a West Coast-style campus surrounded by forests, where every employee had similar offices and no-one had a reserved parking spot. At semi-annual meetings, turnout was high. In 1987, company co-founder Bill Murto resigned to study at a religious education program at the University of St. Thomas. Murto had helped to organize the company's marketing and authorized-dealer distribution strategy, held the post of senior vice president of sales since June
OneWest Bank, a division of CIT Bank, N. A. is a regional bank with over 60 retail branches in Southern California. OneWest Bank specializes in consumer deposit and lending including personal checking and savings accounts, Money Market accounts, CDs, home loan products. OneWest offers small business checking, savings, CD and Money Market accounts as well as small business loans and treasury management products, it established on March 19, 2009 by IMB Holdco, a holding company owned by a consortium of private equity investors led by Steven Mnuchin. In August 2015, OneWest was acquired by CIT Group. CIT Bank, N. A. consists of OneWest Bank and an online bank. From 2008 to 2012 465 banks failed in the United States following the financial crisis of 2007–2012; when the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation closed the banks, their assets were sold. On March 19, 2009, a seven-member investor group, IMB Holdco, led by Steven Mnuchin—which included billionaire Christopher Flowers, John Paulson, Michael Dell, George Soros—purchased Independent National Mortgage Corporation of Pasadena, California for $13.65 billion from the FDIC and created OneWest from the remains of IndyMac, which had 33 branches and $32 billion in assets.
IndyMac Bank's failure was the fourth largest Bank run in the United States. Through OneWest Bank the investment group purchased two other failed banks from the FDIC, the First Federal Bank of California on December 18, 2009, which had $6 billion in assets and $5 billion in deposits, La Jolla Bank, FSB in February 2010, which represented $3.6 billion in assets. In November 2010, OneWest Bank, purchased a $1.4 billion multifamily and commercial real estate loan portfolio from Citibank, N. A. which included 600 loans, as part of their Commercial Real Estate lending business. According to the New York Daily News, OneWest Bank foreclosed on the homes of thousands of people. In enforcing its rights under the loans purchased from IndyMac, OneWest Bank took a much more aggressive approach to foreclosing on properties. According to the Wall Street Journal, OneWest Bank attempted to foreclose on the home of Diana Yano-Horoski and her husband, they spent years fighting the foreclosure in court. On November 25, 2009, Judge Spinner in Long Island, New York penalized OneWest for their “harsh, repugnant and repulsive” actions in trying to work out a distressed mortgage, by canceling the debt in favor of the borrower.
A year after the New York Judge Spinner wiped away the debt, an appellate panel ruled that the judge had no right to do it. While Judge Spinner ruled that the bank's practices warranted him erasing the homeowners' debt, the appellate judges found that he had no authority to render such a judgment—and did not give the bank fair notice that such consequences were on the table. After the ruling, in a unreported twist, senior OneWest executives reviewing the bank’s past-due mortgages came across a delinquent loan made to the judge, a person familiar with the matter said; the bank asked the judge to recuse himself. He did. Judge Spinner said Wednesday that while he fell behind on his mortgage, this had no bearing on his decision in the Horoskis’ case. After Judge Spinner recused himself, a higher court overturned his decision canceling the Horoskis’ loan; the Horoskis’ home was foreclosed on in 2012 and sold by the bank. OneWest, now owned by CIT Group Inc. is still trying to get more than $400,000 from Mrs. Yano-Horoski, she said.
On December 8, 2009 OneWest worked with the Hennepin County, Minnesota Sheriff’s department to change the locks on a distressed home despite stating in a Nov. 25 e-mail that they were rescinding both the foreclosure and the sheriffs sale. OneWest Bank said, "You expressed concern that … you and your mother will be evicted from the property. Rest assured, that will not take place …". Changing the locks was done without any court action which bypasses acknowledged and mandated Due Process on home foreclosures in Minnesota. OneWest Bank stopped originating reverse mortgages, prior to CIT’s acquisition of the bank. In May 2017, CIT agreed to pay $89 million in settlement claims related to its reverse mortgage program. In August 2015 the Mnuchin investor group sold OneWest to the New York-based CIT Group. OneWest's "reverse mortgage servicing business", Financial Freedom, was part of CIT's acquisition but was "reported in CIT's discontinued operations". In 2017, The reverse mortgage portfolio is reported as part of the company's continuing operations.
In 2017, CIT Group sold Financial Freedom—which includes "its reverse mortgage portfolio"—c.$900 million of "reverse mortgage whole loans" and other "real estate owned assets", to an "undisclosed buyer". On October 4, 2010 OneWest Bank implemented the Principal Reduction Alternative loan modification program as outlined under the Home Affordable Modification Program; the program aimed to help struggling homeowners by modifying their loans and reducing their monthly mortgage payments. With this announcement, OneWest became one of the first servicers to launch the program. On August 3, 2015, CIT Bank, the U. S. commercial subsidiary of CIT Group Inc. was combined with OneWest Bank, N. A. under the charter of the latter. The resulting financial institution became known as CIT Bank, N. A. CIT published a four year Community Reinvestment Act Plan on October 19, 2015 targeting $5 Billion in new lending and investing activities by December 31, 2019. Efforts focus on financial and personal empowerment through affordable housing, single family and multifamily lending, small business lending, economic development, financial education and other outreach activities with the local community.
In October 2017, CIT announced the sale of Financial Freedom, the
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, organ. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships and educational institutions. A hybrid organisation is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organisation consisting of volunteers; such organisations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organisations may operate secretly or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organisations and resistance movements. Compare the concept of social groups, which may include non-organizations.
The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising organisational structure. According to management science, most human organisations fall into four types: Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organisations Pyramids or hierarchies These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group by voting; the difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables. Committees are the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote.
The problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better. Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions; this organisational structure promotes internal competition. Inefficient components of the organisation starve. Everybody is paid for what they do, so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology, it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in general, compete with one another in any way, but are autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon; this organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, measured by a boss, super-expert in the same field.
The other direction tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, customer types, or some other schemes; as an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc. Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation; this arrangement is associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."
In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, psychology and organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is referred to as organisational structure, organisational studies, organisational behaviour, or organisation analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being organised, the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions. Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity. In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product.
This action is framed by formal membership and form (in
Google Video was a free video hosting service from Google, similar to YouTube, that allowed video clips to be hosted on Google servers and embedded on to other websites. This allowed websites to host lots of video remotely without running into bandwidth or storage-capacity issues; the service was launched on January 25, 2005. A year YouTube was acquired by Google, Google Videos began its evolution into its current form as a video search engine. In 2009, Google Videos stopped accepting new video uploads, users had the opportunity to migrate their videos onto YouTube. Google Videos was shut down on August 20, 2012. Thereafter, the web address video.google.com has been reused to host Google Videos search engine. Google Video was geared towards providing a large archive of searchable videos. Besides amateur media, Internet videos, viral ads, movie trailers, the service aimed to distribute commercial professional media, such as televised content and movies. A number of educational discourses by Google employees were recorded and made available for viewing via Google Video.
The lectures were done at the employees' former universities. The topics covered Google technologies and software engineering but include other pioneering efforts by major players in the software engineering field. On January 6, 2009, the Google Video Store launched to sell downloads through Google Video; the service launched with independent films Aardvark'd: 12 Weeks with Geeks, Waterborne, as well as content from media partners CBS, the NBA, The Charlie Rose Show, Sony BMG. The content of a number of broadcasting companies was available as free streaming content or stills with closed captioning. In addition, the U. S. National Archive used Google Video to make historic films available online, but this project was discontinued. Google Video searched other non-affiliated video sites from web crawls. Sites searched by Google Video in addition to their own videos and YouTube included GoFish, ExposureRoom, Myspace and Yahoo! Video. Google Videos offered both free services and commercial videos, the latter controlled with digital rights management.
Until 2009, users were able to upload videos either through the Google Video website. While the Video Uploader application was available as three separate downloads, the Linux version was written in Java, a cross-platform programming language, would therefore work on other operating systems without modifications, providing that the Java Runtime Environment is installed; this Java executable file was a standalone application. It could be run from removable media such as USB flash drives, CD-ROMs, or network storage; this allowed users to upload video if the computer terminal on which they were working would not allow them to install programs, such as a public library computer. Uploaded videos were saved as a.gvi files under the "Google Videos" folder in "My Videos" and reports of the video details were logged and stored in the user account. The report sorted and listed the number of times that each of the user's videos had been viewed and downloaded within a specific time frame; these ranged from the previous day, month or the entire time the videos have been there.
Totals were calculated and displayed and the information could be downloaded into a spreadsheet format or printed out. The basic way to watch the videos was through video.google.com. Each video had a unique web address in the format of http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=<video_id>, that page contained an embedded Flash Video file which could be viewed in any Flash-enabled browser. Permalinks to a certain point in a video were possible, in the format of http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=<video_id>#XXhYYmZZs. The browser automatically cached the Flash file while it played, it could be retrieved from the browser cache once it had played. There were several tools and browser extensions to download the file, it could be viewed in video players that could handle flash, for example VLC media player, Media Player Classic, MPlayer or an FLV player. Google Video Player was another way to view Google videos; the Google Video Player plays back files in Google's own Google Video File media format and supported playlists in "Google Video Pointer" format.
When users downloaded to their computers, the resulting file used to be a small.gvp file rather than a.gvi file. When run, the.gvp file would download a.gvi file to the user's default directory. As of August 17, 2007, Google Video Player has been discontinued and is no longer available for download from the Google Video website; the option to download videos in GVI format has been removed, the only format available being MP4 format. While early versions of Google's in-browser video player code were based on the open source VLC Media Player, the last version of Google Video Player was not based on VLC, according to its readme file. However, it did include the OpenSSL cryptographic toolkit and some libraries from the Qt widget toolkit. Google Videos and the Google Video Player were phased out due to Google's acquisition of YouTube. Google Video Files, latterly its.avi files, are modified Audio Video Interleave files that have an extra list containing the FourCC "goog" following the header. Audio Video Interleaved, known by its initials AVI, is a multimedia container format in