# Division by two

In mathematics, **division by two** or **halving** has also been called **mediation** or **dimidiation**.^{[1]} The treatment of this as a different operation from multiplication and division by other numbers goes back to the ancient Egyptians, whose multiplication algorithm used division by two as one of its fundamental steps,^{[2]} some mathematicians as late as the sixteenth century continued to view halving as a separate operation,^{[3]}^{[4]} and it often continues to be treated separately in modern computer programming.^{[5]} Performing this operation is simple in decimal arithmetic, in the binary numeral system used in computer programming, and in other even-numbered bases.

## Binary[edit]

In binary arithmetic, division by two can be performed by a bit shift operation that shifts the number one place to the right, this is a form of strength reduction optimization. For example, 1101001 in binary (the decimal number 105), shifted one place to the right, is 110100 (the decimal number 52): the lowest order bit, a 1, is removed. Similarly, division by any power of two 2^{k} may be performed by right-shifting *k* positions. Because bit shifts are often much faster operations than division, replacing a division by a shift in this way can be a helpful step in program optimization.^{[5]} However, for the sake of software portability and readability, it is often best to write programs using the division operation and trust in the compiler to perform this replacement.^{[6]} An example from Common Lisp:

```
(setq number #b1101001) ; #b1101001 — 105
(ash number -1) ; #b0110100 — 105 >> 1 ⇒ 52
(ash number -4) ; #b0000110 — 105 >> 4 ≡ 105 / 2⁴ ⇒ 6
```

The above statements, however, are not always true when dealing with dividing signed binary numbers. Shifting right by 1 bit will divide by two, always rounding down. However, in some languages, division of signed binary numbers round towards 0 (which, if the result is negative, means it rounds up), for example, Java is one such language: in Java, `-3 / 2`

evaluates to `-1`

, whereas `-3 >> 1`

evaluates to `-2`

. So in this case, the compiler *cannot* optimize division by two by replacing it by a bit shift, when the dividend could possibly be negative.

## Binary floating point[edit]

In binary floating-point arithmetic, division by two can be performed by decreasing the exponent by one (as long as the result is not a subnormal number). Many programming languages provide functions that can be used to divide a floating point number by a power of two, for example, the Java programming language provides the method `java.lang.Math.scalb`

for scaling by a power of two,^{[7]} and the C programming language provides the function `ldexp`

for the same purpose.^{[8]}

## Decimal[edit]

The following algorithm is for decimal. However, it can be used as a model to construct an algorithm for taking half of any number *N* in any even base.

- Write out
*N*, putting a zero to its left. - Go through the digits of
*N*in overlapping pairs, writing down digits of the result from the following table.

If first digit is | Even | Even | Even | Even | Even | Odd | Odd | Odd | Odd | Odd |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

And second digit is | 0 or 1 | 2 or 3 | 4 or 5 | 6 or 7 | 8 or 9 | 0 or 1 | 2 or 3 | 4 or 5 | 6 or 7 | 8 or 9 |

Write | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |

Example: 1738/2=?

Write 01738. We will now work on finding the result.

- 01: even digit followed by 1, write 0.
- 17: odd digit followed by 7, write 8.
- 73: odd digit followed by 3, write 6.
- 38: odd digit followed by 8, write 9.

Result: 0869.

From the example one can see that 0 is even.

If the last digit of *N* is odd digit one should add 0.5 to the result.

## See also[edit]

- One half
- Median, a value that splits a set of data values into two equal subsets
- Bisection, the partition of a geometric object into two equal halves
- Dimidiation, a heraldic method of joining two coats of arms by splitting their designs into halves

## References[edit]

**^**Steele, Robert (1922),*The Earliest arithmetics in English*, Early English Text Society,**118**, Oxford University Press, p. 82.**^**Chabert, Jean-Luc; Barbin, Évelyne (1999),*A history of algorithms: from the pebble to the microchip*, Springer-Verlag, p. 16, ISBN 978-3-540-63369-3.**^**Jackson, Lambert Lincoln (1906),*The educational significance of sixteenth century arithmetic from the point of view of the present time*, Contributions to education,**8**, Columbia University, p. 76.**^**Waters, E. G. R. (1929), "A Fifteenth Century French Algorism from Liége",*Isis*,**12**(2): 194–236, doi:10.1086/346408, JSTOR 224785.- ^
^{a}^{b}Wadleigh, Kevin R.; Crawford, Isom L. (2000),*Software optimization for high-performance computing*, Prentice Hall, p. 92, ISBN 978-0-13-017008-8. **^**Hook, Brian (2005),*Write portable code: an introduction to developing software for multiple platforms*, No Starch Press, p. 133, ISBN 978-1-59327-056-8.**^**"Math.scalb".*Java Platform Standard Ed. 6*. Retrieved 2009-10-11.**^***Programming languages — C, International Standard ISO/IEC 9899:1999*, Section 7.12.6.6.