1931 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 19 December 1931. All 75 seats in the House of Representatives and 18 of the 36 seats in the Senate were up for election; the incumbent first-term Australian Labor Party government led by Prime Minister James Scullin was defeated in a landslide by the United Australia Party led by Joseph Lyons. To date, no subsequent sitting government at federal level has been defeated after only a single term in office; the election was held at a time of great social and political upheaval, coming at the peak of the Great Depression in Australia. The UAP had only been formed a few months before the election, as a merger of the Nationalist Party, the Australian Party, a few ALP defectors. Scullin's position eroded further when five left-wing Labor MPs from New South Wales who supported NSW Premier Jack Lang broke away and moved to the crossbenches in protest of Scullin's economic policy. Late in 1931, they brought down the government; the two Labor factions were decimated.
Prior to the election, it was assumed that the Country Party, led by Earle Page, would hold the balance of power, Page tentatively agreed to support the UAP if that were the case. The two parties campaigned separately and stood candidates against each other in the House of Representatives, but ran joint tickets in Senate. However, the UAP came up four seats short of a majority; the UAP's South Australian Emergency Committee counterparts in South Australia joined the UAP party room, giving the UAP enough numbers to form a majority government in their own right. Page was still willing to form a coalition with the Country Party, but negotiations broke down and Lyons decided the UAP would govern by itself – the First Lyons Ministry was composed of UAP members. Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election; the election was dominated by the Great Depression in Australia, at its height. As the Labor Government had come to office two days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, it was seen as being responsible for many of the economic and social problems Australia faced, which sparked the historic Australian Labor Party split of 1931.
The result was Labor's primary vote dropping to its lowest level since 1901. The two Labor factions, official Labor and Lang Labor, won only 18 seats between them. Candidates of the Australian federal election, 1931 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1931–1934 Members of the Australian Senate, 1932–1935 Cook, Peter. "Labor and the Premiers' Plan." Labour History: 97-110. In JSTOR Denning and Alan Douglas Reid. Caucus crisis: the rise & fall of the Scullin government Head, Brian. "Economic crisis and political legitimacy: the 1931 federal election." Journal of Australian Studies 2#3 pp: 14-29. Online Richardson, Nick. "The 1931 Australian Federal Election—Radio Makes History." Historical Journal of Film and Television 30#3 pp: 377-389. DOI:10.1080/01439685.2010.505037 Roberts, Stephen H. "The Crisis in Australia: September, 1930-January, 1932." Pacific Affairs 5#4 pp: 319-332. In JSTOR Robinson, Geoff. "The Australian class structure and Australian politics 1931-40." APSA 2008: Australasian Political Science Association 2008 Conference.
Australasian Political Science Association, 2008. Online Robertson, J. R. "Scullin as Prime Minister: seven critical decisions." Labour History: 27-36. In JSTOR Robertson, John. J. H. Scullin: A political biography University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 Two-party-preferred vote since 1919
1990 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 24 March 1990. All 148 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 seats in the 76-member Senate were up for election; the incumbent Australian Labor Party led by Bob Hawke defeated the opposition Liberal Party of Australia led by Andrew Peacock with coalition partner the National Party of Australia led by Charles Blunt. The election saw the reelection of the fourth successive term. Future opposition leader Simon Crean entered parliament at this election. John Howard lost the 1987 election to Hawke, Andrew Peacock was elected Deputy Leader in a show of party unity. In May 1989 Peacock's supporters mounted a party room coup. Hawke's Treasurer, ridiculed him by asking: "Can the soufflé rise twice?" and calling him "all feathers and no meat". Hawke's government was in political trouble, with high interest rates and a financial crisis in Victoria. Note: there was no federal Australian Greens party as yet; the Greens total includes Greens Western Australia, Green Alliance, Queensland Greens, United Tasmania Group, ACT Green Democratic Alliance.
Independents: Ted Mack Notes Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election. Where redistributions occurred, the pre-1990 margin represents the redistributed margin. Adelaide, SA, won by Labor at the previous election, was won by Liberal in a by-election; the margin listed above is the by-election margin. Deakin, won by Liberal at the previous election, was made notionally Labor in the redistribution and is considered a Liberal gain. Isaacs and Moore, WA, won by Labor at the previous election, were made notionally Liberal in the redistribution and are considered Liberal retains. Henty and Streeton, won by Labor at the previous election, were abolished; the 1990 election resulted in a modest swing to the opposition Coalition. Though Labor had to contend with the late 80s/early 90s recession, they won a record fourth successive election and a record 10 years in government with Bob Hawke as leader, a level of political success not seen by federal Labor; the election was to be Hawke's last as Prime Minister and Labor leader, he was replaced by Paul Keating on 20 December 1991 who would go on to lead Labor to win a record fifth successive election and a record 13 years in government resulting from the 1993 election.
At the election, the Coalition won a slim majority of the two-party vote, slashed Labor's majority from 24 seats to nine. However, it only managed a two-party swing of 0.9 percent, not nearly enough to deliver the additional seven seats the Coalition needed to make Peacock Prime Minister. Despite having regained much of what the non-Labor forces had lost three years earlier, Peacock was forced to resign after the election; this election saw the peak of the Australian Democrats' popularity under Janine Haines, a WA Greens candidate won a seat in the Australian Senate for the first time – although the successful candidate, Jo Vallentine, was a two-term senator, having won a seat for the Nuclear Disarmament Party at the 1984 election, the Vallentine Peace Group at the 1987 election. Until 2010, this was the only post-war election where a third party has won more than 10% of the primary vote for elections to the Australian House of Representatives. Since the 1918 Swan by-election which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote, a predecessor of the Liberals, the Nationalist Party of Australia, changed the lower house voting system from first-past-the-post to full-preference preferential voting as of the subsequent 1919 election which has remained in place since, allowing the Coalition parties to safely contest the same seats.
Full-preference preferential voting re-elected the Hawke government, the first time in federal history that Labor had obtained a net benefit from preferential voting. It saw the Nationals' leader, Charles Blunt, defeated in his own seat of Richmond by Labor challenger Neville Newell--only the second time that a major party leader had lost his own seat. Newell benefited from the presence of anti-nuclear activist Helen Caldicott, her preferences flowed overwhelmingly to Newell on the third count, allowing Newell to win despite having been second on the primary vote. Candidates of the Australian federal election, 1990 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1990–1993 Members of the Australian Senate, 1990–1993 University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 AEC 2PP vote AustralianPolitics.com election details'Give a Damn: Vote Democrat 1' – 1990 commercial with Janine Haines
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".
Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated.
There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩. Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. In 1954, Labor MP Ted Johnson complained in the Parliament of Western Australia that both Hansard and the daily newspapers were still using the spelling "Labour"; as late as the 1980s, historian Finlay Crisp used the spelling "Labour" in academic works about the party. McMullin has observed that "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official decision to use "Labor" to King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform.
It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties"; the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies.
The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of
2004 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 9 October 2004. All 150 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 seats in the 76-member Senate were up for election; the incumbent Liberal Party of Australia led by Prime Minister of Australia John Howard and coalition partner the National Party of Australia led by John Anderson defeated the opposition Australian Labor Party led by Mark Latham. Future Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull entered parliament at this election; as of 2019, this is the most recent federal election in which the leader of the winning party would complete a full term of Parliament as Prime Minister. Independents: Peter Andren, Tony Windsor, Bob Katter The Nationals had candidates in 9 seats where three-cornered-contests existed, with 84.70% of preferences favouring the Liberal Party. The Greens contested all 150 electorates with preferences favouring Labor Family First contested 109 electorates with preferences favouring the Liberal/National Coalition The Democrats contested 125 electorates with preferences favouring Labor One Nation contested 77 electorates with preferences favouring the Liberal/National Coalition In the House of Representatives, the Coalition won eight seats from Labor: Bass, Braddon, Hasluck, Kingston and Wakefield.
Labor won four seats from the Coalition: Adelaide, Hindmarsh and Richmond. The Coalition thus had a net gain of four seats; the redistribution had delivered them McMillan held by Christian Zahra of Labor and won by Liberal Russell Broadbent. Labor, received the new seat of Bonner and the redistributed Wakefield, both of which were lost to the Liberal Party; the Labor Party regained the seat of Cunningham, lost to the Greens in a by-election in 2002. *Con Sciacca was in fact the member for the seat of Bowman, which had become Liberal in a redistribution. Martyn Evans was the member for the abolished seat of Bonython. Julian McGauran left the Nationals and joined the Liberals; the Coalition parties won 46.7 % of a gain of 3.7 % over the 2001 election. The opposition Australian Labor Party polled a loss of 0.2 percentage points. The Australian Greens emerged as the most prominent minor party, polling 7.2%, a gain of 2.2 points. Both the Australian Democrats and One Nation had their vote reduced. After a notional distribution of preferences, the Australian Electoral Commission estimated that the Coalition had polled 52.74% of the two-party-preferred vote, a gain of 1.7 points from 2001.
The Liberal Party won 74 seats, the National Party 12 seats and the Country Liberal Party one seat, against the Labor opposition's 60 seats. Three independent members were re-elected; the Coalition won 39 seats in the 76-member Senate, making the Howard Government the first government to have a majority in the Senate since 1981. The size of the government's win was unexpected: few commentators had predicted that the coalition would increase its majority in the House of Representatives, none had foreseen its gaining a majority in the Senate. Howard had described that feat as "a big ask"; the election result was a triumph for Howard, who in December 2004 became Australia's second-longest serving Prime Minister, who saw the election result as a vindication of his policies his decision to join in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The results were a setback for the Labor leader, Mark Latham, contributed to his resignation in January 2005 after assuming the leadership from Simon Crean in 2003; the defeat made Labor's task more difficult: a provisional pendulum for the House of Representatives, showed that Labor would need to win 16 seats to win the following election.
However, Kim Beazley said that the accession of Latham to the ALP leadership, in December 2003, had rescued the party from a much heavier defeat. Beazley stated that polling a year before the election indicated that the ALP would lose "25–30 seats" in the House of Representatives. Instead the party lost a net four seats in a swing of 0.21 percentage points. There was a 1.1-point swing to the ALP in the Senate. The Coalition gaining control of the Senate was enabled by a collapse in first preferences for the Australian Democrats and One Nation. Members and Senators defeated in the election include Larry Anthony, the National Party Minister for Children and Youth Affairs, defeated in Richmond, New South Wales. Liberal Senator John Tierney, dropped to number four on the Coalition Senate ticket, was defeated. Celebrity candidates Peter Garrett and Malcolm Turnbull won their contests. Prominent clergyman Fred Nile failed to win a Senate seat in New South Wales; the first Muslim candidate to be endorsed by a major party in Australia, Ed Husic, failed to win the seat of Greenway, New South Wales, for Labor.
The former One Nation leader, Pauline Hanson, failed in her bid to win a Senate seat in Queensland as an independent. Minor parties had mixed results; the Australian Democrats polled their lowest vote since their creation in 1977, did not
2010 Australian federal election
A federal election was held on Saturday, 21 August 2010 for members of the 43rd Parliament of Australia. The incumbent centre-left Australian Labor Party led by Prime Minister Julia Gillard won a second term against the opposition centre-right Liberal Party of Australia led by Opposition Leader Tony Abbott and Coalition partner the National Party of Australia, led by Warren Truss, after Labor formed a minority government with the support of three independent MPs and one Australian Greens MP. Labor and the Coalition each won 72 seats in the 150-seat House of Representatives, four short of the requirement for majority government, resulting in the first hung parliament since the 1940 election. Six crossbenchers held the balance of power. Greens MP Adam Bandt and independent MPs Andrew Wilkie, Rob Oakeshott and Tony Windsor declared their support for Labor on confidence and supply. Independent MP Bob Katter and National Party of Western Australia MP Tony Crook declared their support for the Coalition on confidence and supply.
The resulting 76–74 margin entitled Labor to form a minority government. The Prime Minister, government ministers and parliamentary secretaries were sworn in on 14 September 2010 by the Governor-General Quentin Bryce. In November 2011, Coalition MP and Deputy Speaker Peter Slipper replaced Labor MP Harry Jenkins as Speaker of the House of Representatives, increasing Labor's parliamentary majority from 76–74 to 77–73. In the 76-seat Senate, the Greens won one seat in each of the six states, gaining the sole balance of power with a total of nine seats, after holding a shared balance of power with the Family First Party and independent Nick Xenophon; the Coalition was reduced from 37 to 34 and Labor was reduced from 32 to 31. The two remaining seats were occupied by Xenophon and Victoria's new Democratic Labor Party Senator John Madigan. Family First Party Senator Steve Fielding was defeated; these changes took effect in the Senate on 1 July 2011. More than 13 million Australians were enrolled to vote at the time of the election.
Australia has compulsory voting and uses preferential ballot in single-member seats for the House of Representatives and single transferable vote with optional group voting tickets in the proportionally represented Senate. The election was conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission. *All results are final. Labor and the Coalition each won 72 seats in the 150-seat House of Representatives, a loss of eleven and a gain of seven respectively. Labor retained a majority of seats in a majority of states against the Coalition − New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, but fell in Queensland with a pre-existing minority in Western Australia. Labor won their largest two-party preferred vote in Victoria and Tasmania since official two-party records began in 1949, in South Australia, their fourth-largest. On the crossbench, one member of the Australian Greens, one member of the National Party of Western Australia and four independent members held the balance of power. After gaining the support of four crossbenchers Labor was able to form a minority government.
On the crossbenches: Adam Bandt won the first seat for the Greens at a general election in the seat of Melbourne. He had announced he would align with Labor in the event of a hung parliament. On 1 September the Greens declared their support for Labor on supply. Andrew Wilkie, a former Greens candidate and now independent, was elected as the Member for Denison. On 2 September 2010 he declared his support for Labor on supply. Tony Crook won the seat of O'Connor for the National Party of Western Australia, defeating Liberal Party incumbent Wilson Tuckey. There was dispute over affiliation, with some classing Crook as a member of the Coalition and including him in their Coalition totals; the WA National Party subsequently issued a statement saying in part, "The Nationals WA as an independent political party are not bound by the rules of a coalition agreement". Crook says, "In every news report and press report we see, my number is being allocated in with the Coalition and it shouldn't be"; the National Party of Western Australia prior to and for more than 20 months subsequent to the election were in no federal Coalition agreement, Crook stated he was a crossbencher, that he and the WA Nationals were open to negotiating with either side to form government.
On 6 September Crook declared his support for the Coalition on confidence and supply, but would otherwise sit on the crossbenches. On 6 May 2012, it was announced that Crook would join the Nationals party room and be formally part of the Coalition. Bob Katter, Tony Windsor and Rob Oakeshott, all independents, were re-elected. Both Katter and Windsor were successful at previous elections, while Oakeshott was elected at the 2008 Lyne by-election. All are former members of a minor party in the Coalition. However, all three said, they vote individually. On 7 September, Katter declared his support for the Coalition on supply; that day and Oakeshott declared their support for Labor on confidence and supply. A year after the election, The Age summarised the collective positions of the crossbenchers as one of "no regrets". On 24 November 2011, the Coalition's Peter Slipper replaced Labor's Harry Jenkins as Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, increasing Labor's parliamentary majority from 75–74 to 76–73.
On 21 January 2012 Andrew Wilkie withdrew his support for Labor, changing the majority to 75–73. *All results are final. The Senate has 76 seats. Forty seats were up for election
Division of South Australia
The Division of South Australia was an Australian Electoral Division covering South Australia. The seven-member statewide seat existed from the inaugural 1901 election until the 1903 election; each elector cast seven votes. Unlike most of the other states, South Australia had not been split into individual single-member electorates; the other exception was the five-member Division of Tasmania. The statewide seats were abolished at a redistribution conducted two months prior to the 1903 election and were subsequently replaced with single-member divisions, one per displaced member, with each elector now casting a single vote. Sorted in order of votes received *Though labelled a Free Trader, Poynton was an Australasian National League candidate; the Division was split into seven single-member seats at the 1903 election – Adelaide, Barker, Grey and Wakefield. Elected members in bold. South Australia elected seven members, with each elector casting seven votes
2019 Australian federal election
The 2019 Australian federal election will be held on 18 May 2019 to elect members of the 46th Parliament of Australia. The election was called following the dissolution of the 45th Parliament as elected at the 2016 double dissolution federal election. All 151 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 of the 76 seats in the Senate will be up for election; the second-term incumbent minority Coalition Government, led by Prime Minister Scott Morrison, is attempting to win a third three-year term against the Labor opposition, led by Opposition Leader Bill Shorten. Minor parties and independents will contest the election, the most popular of which are the Greens and One Nation, according to nationwide opinion polls; the Greens, Centre Alliance, Katter's Australian Party are defending one House of Representatives seat each. Australia enforces compulsory voting and uses full-preference instant-runoff voting in single-member seats for the House of Representatives and optional preferential single transferable voting in the proportionally represented Senate.
The outcome of the 2016 federal election could not be predicted on election night, with too many seats in doubt. After a week of vote counting, neither the incumbent Turnbull Government led by Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull of the Liberal/National Coalition nor the Shorten Opposition led by Opposition Leader Bill Shorten of the Australian Labor Party had won enough seats in the 150-seat House of Representatives to form a majority government. During the uncertain week following the election, Turnbull negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter and from independents Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government. During crossbench negotiations, Turnbull pledged additional staff and resources for crossbenchers, stated "It is my commitment to work in every way possible to ensure that the crossbenchers have access to all of the information they need and all of the resources they need to be able to play the role they need in this parliament".
On 10 July, eight days after the election took place and following Turnbull's negotiations with the crossbench where he secured sufficient confidence and supply support, Shorten conceded defeat, acknowledging that the incumbent Coalition had enough seats to form either a minority or majority government. Turnbull claimed victory that day. In the closest federal majority result since the 1961 election, the ABC declared on 11 July that the incumbent Coalition would be able to form a one-seat majority government, it was the first election result since federation where the post-election opposition won more seats than the post-election government in both of Australia's two most populous states, New South Wales and Victoria. In the 150-seat House of Representatives, the one-term incumbent Liberal/National Coalition government suffered a 14-seat swing, reducing it to 76 seats—a bare one-seat majority. With a national three-point two-party swing against the government, the Labor opposition picked up a significant number of government-held seats to gain a total of 69 seats.
On the crossbench, the Greens, the Nick Xenophon Team, Katter's Australian Party, independents Wilkie and McGowan won a seat each. On 19 July, the Australian Electoral Commission announced a re-count for the Coalition-held but provisionally Labor-won Division of Herbert. At the start of the Herbert re-count, Labor led by eight votes; the AEC announced on 31 July. The final outcome in the 76-seat Senate took more than four weeks to determine, despite significant voting changes. Earlier in 2016, legislation changed the Senate voting system from a full-preference single transferable vote with group voting tickets to an optional-preferential single transferable vote; the final Senate result was announced on 4 August: Liberal/National Coalition 30 seats, Labor 26 seats, Greens 9 seats, One Nation 4 seats and Nick Xenophon Team 3 seats. Derryn Hinch won a seat, while Jacqui Lambie, Liberal Democrat David Leyonhjelm and Family First's Bob Day retained their seats; the number of crossbenchers increased by two to a record 20.
The Liberal/National Coalition will require at least nine additional votes to reach a Senate majority, an increase of three. As per convention, the government and opposition agreed to support a motion in the parliament that the first six senators elected in each state would serve a six-year term, while the last six elected would serve a three-year term. Since the 2016 election, a number of parliamentarians resigned from their seats, while some were disqualified by the High Court of Australia in the parliamentary eligibility crisis as a result of the dual citizenship of some MPs. However, in the cases of disqualified House of Representatives MPs, most of these were returned in resulting by-elections; some MPs changed their party affiliation or their independent status. Following the leadership spill in the Liberal Party in August 2018, Malcolm Turnbull was replaced as Australia’s Prime Minister by Scott Morrison on 24 August. Turnbull resigned from parliament on 31 August 2018, triggering a by-election in the seat of Wentworth.
The Liberals lost the by-election to an Independent, the Coalition lost its majority in the House of Representatives. Further dissatisfaction within the Liberal Party has seen a number of centrist and economically-liberal candidates announce that they will be nominating as independents in wealthy electorates, with a specific focus on "addressing climate change"; the nomination of candidates will close on 23 April 2019. After effects of boundary redistributions for the next election, the 2018 Wentworth by-election, the Mackerras pendulum has the Liberal/National Coalition governm