An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Two-star officers hold the rank of rear admiral, counter admiral, major general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air vice-marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded two-star ranks: Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal General de Brigada Contra Almirante Brigadeiro The two-star rank in Brazil is the first rank in a general career; the officers in this position are brigade commanders. Rear-admiral Major general Rather than stars, the Canadian Forces insignia use maple leaves; the maple leaves crossed sabre and baton. Before unification, air vice marshal was the two-star rank for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German two-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalmajor and Konteradmiral Generalstabsarzt and AdmiralstabsarztNot to be confused with Generalmajor and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 and of the National People's Army of East Germany until German reunification in 1990.
Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Inspector-general Major Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps two-star rank Laksamana Muda - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency two-star rank Marsekal Muda - Indonesian Air Force two-star rank Inspektur Jenderal - Indonesian National Police two-star rank Major-general Air vice-marshal Rear admiral Additional inspector general of police Inspector General of Prisons, Additional inspector general of police Air vice-marshal Major-general Rear admiral Major General Major General Rear Admiral Rear Admiral Police Director Fire Director Jail Director Rear admiral Major general Air vice marshal Rear admiral Major general In the Russian and Soviet armies, the rank wearing two stars is lieutenant-general, however the general in charge of a unit equivalent to the one led by a NATO two-star general is major-general. This applies to the air force, MVD, police, FSB and some others, is caused by a Russian brigades being commanded by colonel, with the smallest unit commanded by a general being a division.
In the navy, the equivalent rank is kontr-admiral. Ranks and insignia of NATO Three-star rank One-star rank
Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. Within military terminology a corps may be: an operational formation, sometimes known as a field corps, which consists of two or more divisions, such as the Corps d'armée known as I Corps of Napoleon's Grande Armée); these usages overlap. Corps may be a generic term for a non-military organization, such as the U. S. Peace Corps. In many armies, a corps is a battlefield formation composed of two or more divisions, commanded by a lieutenant general. During World War I and World War II, due to the large scale of combat, multiple corps were combined into armies which formed into army groups. In Western armies with numbered corps, the number is indicated in Roman numerals; the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was raised in 1914, consisting of Australian and New Zealand troops, who went on to fight at Gallipoli in 1915. In early 1916, the original corps was reorganised and two corps were raised: I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps. In the stages of World War I, the five infantry divisions of the First Australian Imperial Force —consisting of personnel who had volunteered for service overseas—were united as the Australian Corps, on the Western Front, under Lieutenant General Sir John Monash.
During World War II, the Australian I Corps was formed to co-ordinate three Second Australian Imperial Force units: the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions, as well as other Allied units on some occasions, in the North African campaign and Greek campaign. Following the commencement of the Pacific War, there was a phased withdrawal of I Corps to Australia, the transfer of its headquarters to the Brisbane area, to control Allied army units in Queensland and northern New South Wales. II Corps was formed, with Militia units, to defend south-eastern Australia, III Corps controlled land forces in Western Australia. Sub-corps formations controlled Allied land forces in the remainder of Australia. I Corps headquarters was assigned control of the New Guinea campaign. In early 1945, when I Corps was assigned the task of re-taking Borneo, II Corps took over in New Guinea. Canada first fielded a corps-sized formation in the First World War; the Canadian Corps consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was nominally organized into corps and divisions but no full-time formations larger than a battalion were trained or exercised.
Early in the Second World War, Canada's contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division. After the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters; this corps was renamed I Canadian Corps as a second corps headquarters was established in the UK, with the eventual formation of five Canadian divisions in England. I Canadian Corps fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps in NW Europe, the two were reunited in early 1945. After the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters. Royal Canadian Army Cadets: A Corps size in the RCAC is different everywhere, depending on the size, the Commanding Officer can be a Captain or Major; the National Revolutionary Army Corps was a type of military organization used by the Chinese Republic, exercised command over two to three NRA Divisions and a number of Independent Brigades or Regiments and supporting units.
The Chinese Republic had 133 Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War. After losses in the early part of the war, under the 1938 reforms, the remaining scarce artillery and the other support formations were withdrawn from the Division and was held at Corps, or Army level or higher; the Corps became the basic tactical unit of the NRA having strength nearly equivalent to an allied Division. The French Army under Napoleon used corps-sized formations as the first formal combined-arms groupings of divisions with reasonably stable manning and equipment establishments. Napoleon first used the Corps d'armée in 1805; the use of the Corps d'armée was a military innovation that provided Napoleon with a significant battlefield advantage in the early phases of the Napoleonic Wars. The Corps was designed to be an independent military group containing cavalry and infantry, capable of defending against a numerically superior foe; this allowed Napoleon to mass the bulk of his forces to effect a penetration into a weak section of enemy lines without risking his own communications or flank.
This innovation stimulated other European powers to adopt similar military structures. The Corps has remained an echelon of French Army organization to the modern day; as fixed military formation in peace-time it was used in all European armies after Battle of Ulm in 1805. In Prussia it was introduced by Order of His Majesty from November 5, 1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war; the paramilitary forces of Pakistan's two main western provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are the Frontier Corps founded in 1907 during British Rule as at least three various organizations before being combined together. They are charged with guarding the country's wes
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general; the disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant. In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term. General de Brigada is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army.
See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is the equivalent of a naval flag officer; the major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead; the rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, it is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers. Major-generals are entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor; the Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, generalmajor in Swedish and Danish. The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces; the major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources and discipline, his role is analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff; the five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General is a position and the major general is of the rank of corps general. The French army had some sergent-majors généraux called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle; these sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp, the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade in 1793; the rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ. In Georgia, the rank major-general has one star as for security forces; the army, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia. The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U. S. with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, the rank of Brigadegeneral added below them. The rank of Generaloberst was no longer used; the Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor, abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral. In the Magyar Honvédség, the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy. In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are sartip dovom, sarlashkar and arteshbod.
Civil Guard (Spain)
The Civil Guard is the oldest law enforcement agency covering the whole of Spain. It is organised as a military force charged with police duties under the authority of both the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence; the corps is colloquially known as the benemérita. In annual surveys, it ranks as the national institution most valued by Spaniards followed by other law enforcement agencies and the military, it undertakes specific foreign peace-keeping missions. As a national police force, the Guardia Civil is comparable today to the French National Gendarmerie, the Italian Carabinieri, the Portuguese National Republican Guard and the Dutch Royal Marechaussee as it is part of the European Gendarmerie Force; as part of its daily duties, the Guardia Civil patrols rural areas and investigates crimes there, whilst the Policía Nacional deals with safety in urban situations. Most cities have a Policia Municipal; the three forces are nationally coordinated by the Ministry of the Interior.
The Guardia Civil is stationed at casas cuartel, which are both minor residential garrisons and equipped police stations. The Guardia Civil was founded as a national police force in 1844 during the reign of Queen Isabel II of Spain by a Navarrese aristocrat, The 2nd Duque de Ahumada and 5th Marqués de las Amarillas, an 11th generation descendant of Mexican emperor Moctezuma II. Law enforcement had been the responsibility of the "Holy Brotherhood", an organization of municipal leagues. Corruption was pervasive in the Brotherhood, where officials were subject to local political influence, the system was ineffective outside the major towns and cities. Criminals could escape justice by moving from one district to another; the first Guardia police academy was established in the town of Valdemoro, south of Madrid, in 1855. Graduates were given the Guardia's now famous tricorne or Cavaliers hat as part of their duty dress uniform; the Guardia was charged with putting an end to brigandage on the nation's highways in the province of Andalusia, which had become notorious for numerous robberies and holdups of businessmen, peddlers and foreign tourists.
Banditry in this region was so endemic that the Guardia found it difficult to eradicate it completely. As late as 1884, one traveler of the day reported that it still existed in and around the city of Málaga: The favorite and original method of the Malagueño highwayman is to creep up behind his victim, muffle his head and arms in a cloak, relieve him of his valuables. Should he resist, he is disembowelled with the dexterous thrust of a knife... wears a profusion of amulets and charms...all of undoubted efficacy against the dagger of an adversary or the rifle of a Civil Guard. The Guardia Civil was given the political task of restoring and maintaining land ownership and servitude among the peasantry of Spain by the King, who desired to stop the spread of anti-monarchist movements inspired by the French Revolution; the end of the First Carlist War combined with the unequal distribution of land that resulted from prime minister Juan Álvarez Mendizábal's first Desamortización had left the Spanish landscape scarred by the destruction of civil war and social unrest, the government was forced to take drastic action to suppress spontaneous revolts by a restive peasantry.
Based on the model of light infantry used by Napoléon in his European campaigns, the Guardia Civil was transformed into a military force of high mobility that could be deployed irrespective of inhospitable conditions, able to patrol and pacify large areas of the countryside. Its members, called'guardias', maintain to this day a basic patrol unit formed by two agents called a "pareja", in which one of the'guardias' will initiate the intervention while the second'guardia' serves as a backup to the first. During the Spanish Civil War, the Guardia Civil forces split evenly between those who remained loyal to the Republic, 53% of the members and the rebel forces. However, the highest authority of the corps, Inspector General Sebastián Pozas, remained loyal to the republican government, their contribution to the Republican war efforts were invaluable, but proved effective on both sides in urban combat. The proportion of Guardia Civil members that supported the rebel faction at the time of the 1936 coup was high compared to other Spanish police corps such as the Guardias de Asalto and the Carabineros, where when the Civil War began over 70% of their members stayed loyal to the Spanish Republic.
Loyalist General of the Guardia Civil José Aranguren, commander of the 4th Organic Division and Military Governor of Valencia, was arrested by the victorious Francoist troops when they entered the city of Valencia at the end of March 1939. After being court-martialed, General José Aranguren was given the death penalty and was executed on 22 April in the same year. Following the Civil War, under the authoritarian government of General Francisco Franco, the Guardia Civil was reinforced with the members of the Carabineros, the "Royal Corps of Coast and Frontier Carabiniers", following the disbandment of the carabinier corps; the involvement of Guardia Civil figures in politics continued right up until the end of the twentieth century: on 23 February 1981, Lt. Col. Antonio Tejero Molina, a member of the Guardia Civil, participated with other military forces in the failed 23-F coup d'état. Along with 200 members o
Rogatywka is the Polish generic name for an asymmetrical, four-pointed cap used by various Polish military formations throughout the ages. It is a distant relative of its 18th-century predecessor, although similar caps have been used by light cavalry since the 14th century, it consists of a four-pointed top and a short peak made of black or brown leather. Although rogatywka in English seems to mean the same as czapka, the word'czapka' in Polish designates not only rogatywka, but all caps, it comes in two variants: the hardened and soft version. The hardened model, based on the rogatywka Mk. 1935, olive green with black peak, is used in full gala uniforms, while the rim colour marks unit type. It was not worn during most of the People's Republic of Poland era but was reintroduced for ceremonial wear by the Honour Guard Company in 1983; the soft version was used before World War II and during the People's Republic of Poland period for garrison dress. Polish soldiers, unlike in most militaries, decorate caps not with the emblem of their corps, but with their service's version of the Polish military eagle.
The military eagle insignia is based on an early 19th-century design, comprising a modified White Eagle perched atop an'amazon shield'. Army branches are indicated by the following colored cap bands: navy blue – generals, mechanized troops, legal corps, logistics corps, National Honour Guard orange – units dedicated to honour historical armoured troops, scouts dark green – rocket forces, anti-aircraft units black – engineering units, chemical corps, cartographic service, technical cadets cornflower – adjutant general corps and communication corps cherry – medical service, medical cadets scarlet – military police violet – chaplains yellow – headquarters of 1st Warsaw Mechanized Division, 1st Warsaw Armoured Division Rogatywka is used by Polish firefighters and Polish State Railways staff. Green rogatywka with brown leather peak and scout Fleur-de-lis symbol, is traditionally worn by Polish boy scouts, grey is sometimes used by girl guides
Epaulette is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations. In the French and other armies, epaulettes are worn by all ranks of elite or ceremonial units when on parade, it may bear rank or other insignia, should not be confused with a shoulder mark - called an shoulder board, rank slide, or slip-on - a flat cloth sleeve worn on the shoulder strap of a uniform. Epaulettes are fastened to the shoulder by a shoulder strap or passenten, a small strap parallel to the shoulder seam, the button near the collar, or by laces on the underside of the epaulette passing through holes in the shoulder of the coat. Colloquially, any shoulder straps with marks are called epaulettes; the placement of the epaulette, its color and the length and diameter of its bullion fringe are used to signify the wearer's rank. At the join of the fringe and the shoulderpiece is a metal piece in the form of a crescent. Although worn in the field, epaulettes are now limited to dress or ceremonial military uniforms.
Épaulette is a French word meaning "little shoulder". Epaulettes bear some resemblance to the shoulder pteruges of ancient Roman military costumes; however their direct origin lies in the bunches of ribbons worn on the shoulders of military coats at the end of the 17th century, which were decorative and intended to prevent shoulder belts from slipping. These ribbons were tied into a knot; this established the basic design of the epaulette as it evolved through the 18th and 19th centuries. From the 18th century on, epaulettes were used in the other armies to indicate rank; the rank of an officer could be determined by whether an epaulette was worn on the left shoulder, the right shoulder or on both. A "counter-epaulette" was worn on the opposite shoulder of those who wore only a single epaulette. Epaulettes were made in silver or gold for officers, in cloth of various colors for the enlisted men of various arms. Certain categories of cavalry wore flexible metal epaulettes referred to as shoulder scales worn on the field.
By the early 18th century, epaulettes had become the distinguishing feature of commissioned rank. This led officers of military units still without epaulettes to petition for the right to wear epaulettes, to ensure that their status would be recognized. During the Napoleonic Wars and subsequently through the 19th century, light infantry and other specialist categories of infantry in many European armies wore cloth epaulettes with wool fringes in various colours to distinguish them from ordinary line infantry. "Flying artillery" wore "wings", similar to an epaulette but with only a bit of fringe on the outside, which matched the shoulder seam. Heavy artillery wore small balls representing ammunition on their shoulders."An intermediate form in some services, such as the Russian Army, is the shoulder board, which neither has a fringe nor extends beyond the shoulder seam. This originated during the 19th century as a simplified version for service wear of the heavy and conspicuous full dress epaulette with bullion fringes.
Today, epaulettes have been replaced by a five-sided flap of cloth called a shoulder board, sewn into the shoulder seam and the end buttoned like an epaulette. From the shoulder board was developed the shoulder mark, a flat cloth tube, worn over the shoulder strap and carries embroidered or pinned-on rank insignia; the advantages of this are the ability to change the insignia as occasions warrant. Airline pilot uniform shirts include cloth flattened tubular epaulettes having cloth or bullion braid stripes, attached by shoulder straps integral to the shirts; the rank of the wearer is designated by the number of stripes: Traditionally four for captain, three for first officer, two for second officer. However, rank insignia are airline specific. For example, at some airlines, two stripes denote junior first officer and one stripe second officer. Airline captains' uniform caps will have a braid pattern on the bill. In the Belgian army, red epaulettes with white fringes are worn with the ceremonial uniforms of the Royal Escort while red ones are worn by the Grenadiers.
Trumpeters of the Royal Escort are distinguished by all red epaulettes while officers of the two units wear silver or gold respectively. In the Canadian Armed Forces, epaulettes are still worn on some Army Full Dress, Patrol Dress, Mess Dress uniforms. Epaulettes in the form of shoulder boards are worn with the officer's white Naval Service Dress. After the unification of the Forces, prior to the issue of the Distinct Environmental Uniforms, musicians of the Band Branch wore epaulettes of braided gold cord; until 1914, officers of most French Army infantry regiments wore gold epaulettes in full dress, while those of mounted units wore silver. No insignia was worn on the epaulette itself, though the bullion fringe falling from the crescent differed according to rank. Other ranks of most branches of the infantry, as well as cuirassiers wore detachable epaulettes of various colours with woollen fringes, of a traditional pattern that dated back to the 18th Century. Other cavalry such as hussars and chasseurs à cheval wore special epaulettes of a style intended to deflect sword blows from the shoulder.
In the modern French Army, epaulettes are still worn by those units retaining 19th-century-style full dress uniforms, notably the ESM Saint-Cyr and the