Albury is a major regional city in New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the northern side of the Murray River. Albury is the seat of local government for the council area which bears the city's name – the City of Albury. Albury has an urban population of 51,076 and is separated from its twin city in Victoria, Wodonga, by the Murray River. Together, the two cities form an urban area with a population of 92,218 at June 2017, it is 554 kilometres from the state capital Sydney and 326 kilometres from the Victorian capital Melbourne. Said to be named after a village in England, Albury developed as a major transport link between New South Wales and Victoria and was proclaimed a city in 1946; the Wiradjuri people were the first known humans to occupy the area, or Wirraayjuurray people are a group of Indigenous Australian Aboriginal people that were united by a common language, strong ties of kinship and survived as skilled hunter–fisher–gatherers in family groups or clans scattered throughout central New South Wales.
In the 21st century, major Wiradjuri groups live in Condobolin, Peak Hill and Griffith. There are significant populations at Wagga Wagga and Leeton and smaller groups at West Wyalong, Dubbo, Cootamundra and Young; the explorers Hume and Hovell arrived at what their maps called'Crossing Point', but is now known as the Murray River at Albury, on 16 November 1824. They named the river the Hume River, after Hume's father, the next day inscribed a tree by the river bank before continuing their journey south to Westernport in Victoria. In 1830, explorer Captain Charles Sturt discovered the Hume River downstream at its junction with the Murrumbidgee River. Not realising it was the same river, he named it the Murray River. Both names persisted for some time, Hume falling into disuse in favour of Murray; the Aboriginal name for the river was Millewa. A crossing place for the Murray became popular close to. In summer it was possible to cross the river by foot. Among the first squatters to follow in the steps of the explorers and settle in the district were William Wyse and Charles Ebden.
The first European buildings erected at the crossing place were a provisions store and some small huts. A survey for a town was commissioned in 1838 by Assistant Surveyor Thomas Townsend who mapped out Wodonga Place as the western boundary, Hume Street as the northern boundary, Kiewa Street to the east and Nurigong Street to the south, with Townsend Street being the only other north-south road, Ebden and Hovell sreets being the two other east-west roads. Townsend proposed the settlement be named'Bungambrewatha', the Aboriginal name for the area, but when his plan was approved and published in the Government Gazette on 13 April 1839 the name had been changed to Albury. Albury is said to be named after a village in Kent, England which it resembled. By 1847 the Albury settlement included two public houses and a handful of huts, a police barracks and a blacksmiths. A log punt established in 1844 serviced the crossing of the Murray River. Albury Post Office opened on 1 April 1843, closed in 1845 reopened in the township on 1 February 1847.
In 1851, with the separation of Victoria from New South Wales, the border falling on the Murray River, Albury found itself a frontier town. With an increase in commerce with Melbourne, the first bridge was built in 1860 to the design of surveyor William Snell Chauncy. Albury at this time became a Customs Post between the two colonies as New South Wales held a protectionist stance after gaining its constitution in 1856. Albury was at this time starting to grow with German speaking immigrants using the area to grow grapes for wine. By the 1870s a butter factory was established, flour mill and locally brewed cider and soft drinks were available; the railway line from Sydney arrived at Albury in 1881. A temporary wooden railway bridge joined the line to the Victorian network in 1883. New South Wales and Victoria had different track gauges until 1962, when the first train ran direct from Sydney to Melbourne; the two states could not agree which should be the transfer point so they had an expensive and attractive iron lattice bridge sent from Scotland which accommodated both gauges.
In 1888, Albury built its first school house. The city's first mayor, James Fallon, was an innovator of the Public School, funding a demonstration High School to be built on Kiewa Street. Albury High School opened in Kiewa Street in 1927; the Royal Commission on Sites for the Seat of Government of the Commonwealth report of 1903 recommended Albury as the preferred candidate for the national capital, though the proposal met staunch opposition from residents. At a public meeting, just one member of parliament voted in favour of Albury – Isaac Isaacs, member for Indi; the lack of support for other places led to the selection of Canberra as the preferred site. In 1934, a Douglas DC-2 airliner of KLM, a competitor in the MacRobertson Trophy Air Race, made an emergency night landing at the town's racecourse after becoming lost during severe thunderstorms. After signalling by Morse code A-L-B-U-R-Y to the lost aircrew by using the entire town's public lighting system, the "Uiver" was guided in to land safely.
The makeshift runway at the racecourse was illuminated by the headlights of cars belonging to local residents who had responded to a special news bulletin on ABC radio station 2CO. After refuelling the next day, many local volunteers h
Division of Farrer
The Division of Farrer is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division is named for William Farrer, an agricultural scientist; the division is located in the far south-western area of the state and includes Albury, Narrandera, Griffith, Hay and Wentworth. The sitting member, since the 2001 election, is Sussan Ley, a member of the Liberal Party of Australia, it has always been a safe non-Labor seat, alternating between the Liberal Party and the National Party. All four of its members have gone on to serve in cabinet, most notably Tim Fischer, leader of the National Party from 1990 to 1999 and Deputy Prime Minister from 1996 to 1999 during the first half of the Howard Government. Division of Farrer - Australian Electoral Commission
Division of Werriwa
The Division of Werriwa is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The name Werriwa derives from a local Aboriginal name for Lake George, located in the division when it was established in 1900; the division was one of the original 65 divisions first contested at the first federal election. Werriwa now covers an area in south-west Sydney, including the suburbs of Ashcroft, Bonnyrigg Heights, Carnes Hill, Casula, Cecil Hills, Edmondson Park, Green Valley, Hinchinbrook, Horningsea Park, Hoxton Park, Long Point, Macquarie Fields, Macquarie Links, Middleton Grange, Minto, Prestons and West Hoxton; the current Member for Werriwa, since the 2016 federal election, is Anne Stanley, a member of the Australian Labor Party. Werriwa was a large and rural electorate that stretched from southwest Sydney to the northern part of what is now the ACT, included the Southern Highlands and part of the South West Slopes. In succeeding years following its establishment, with demographic change and electoral redistributions, Werriwa began to shrink and from 1913 onwards no longer contained Lake George.
It underwent several other major changes to its borders over the years. The 1949 expansion of Parliament saw Werriwa lose most of its remaining rural territory to the newly created Division of Macarthur and move to its current position in southwest Sydney, over 150 kilometres away from Lake George. However, it has retained the name of Werriwa as it is an original Federation electorate—the Australian Electoral Commission's guidelines on electoral redistributions require it to preserve the names of original Federation electorates where possible, it is a safe seat for Labor, which has held it continuously since 1934 and for all but nine years since 1906. Werriwa is best remembered for being the electorate of former Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, who held it from 1952 to 1978, it was represented from 1994 to 2005 by one of Whitlam's former aides, Mark Latham, the leader of the ALP and Leader of the Opposition from 2003 to 2005. It more recent times, a by-election in March 2005 resulted in Labor's Chris Hayes elected with over 55% of the vote, in a 16-candidate race which saw no other candidate poll above 8%.
Division of Werriwa – Australian Electoral Commission
Division of Blaxland
The Division of Blaxland is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was created in 1949 and is named after Gregory Blaxland, a farmer and an early Australian explorer of the Blue Mountains in New South Wales; the division is based in the western suburbs of Sydney, includes the working-class suburbs of Bass Hill, Birrong, Chester Hill, Georges Hall, Lansvale, Potts Hill, Regents Park, Sefton and Yagoona. The current Member for Blaxland, since the 2007 federal election, is Jason Clare, a member of the Australian Labor Party; the division has been a comfortably safe seat for Labor since its creation. It was created in 1949 as a notional Lang Labor seat, reflecting its but the official ALP narrowly won it over former NSW Premier Jack Lang; this is the only election at which Labor has won less than 56 percent of the two-party vote, as well as the only one in which it did not win an outright majority on the first count. Presently, it is the safest Labor seat in Australia, with a 19.5 percent swing required for the Liberals to win it.
Its most notable member has been Paul Keating, Prime Minister of Australia from 1991 until 1996 after having served as Treasurer of Australia from 1983 until 1991. In 2007, Keating's successor, Michael Hatton, lost preselection for this seat to Jason Clare, a staffer for former New South Wales Premier Bob Carr. Notably in 2017, the division had the highest percentage of "No" responses in the Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey, with 73.9% of the electorate's respondents to the survey responding "No". Division of Blaxland - Australian Electoral Commission
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland, it has an area of 135 square kilometres. Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island; the main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin, with significant numbers of Malays and European Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion; the first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615.
The island was named on Christmas Day 1643 by Captain William Mynors but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, of interest to scientists and naturalists; the majority of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899; the first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, an English East India Company vessel, named the island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day, in 1643; the island was included on English and Dutch navigation charts as early as the beginning of the 17th century, but it was not until 1666 that a map published by Dutch cartographer Pieter Goos included the island. Goos labelled the island "Mony" or "Moni", the meaning of, unclear. English navigator William Dampier, aboard the English ship Cygnet, made the earliest recorded visit to the sea around the island in March 1688.
He found. Dampier gave an account of the visit. Dampier was trying to reach Cocos from New Holland, his ship was blown off course in an easterly direction, arriving at Christmas Island twenty-eight days later. Dampier landed at the Dales. Two of his crewmen became the first Europeans to set foot on Christmas Island. Captain Daniel Beeckman of the Eagle passed the island on 5 April 1714, chronicled in his 1718 book, A Voyage to and from the Island of Borneo, in the East-Indies; the first attempt at exploring the island was in 1857 by the crew of the Amethyst. They found the cliffs impassable. During the 1872–76 Challenger expedition to Indonesia, naturalist John Murray carried out extensive surveys. In 1886, Captain John Maclear of HMS Flying Fish, having discovered an anchorage in a bay that he named "Flying Fish Cove", landed a party and made a small collection of the flora and fauna. In the next year, Pelham Aldrich, on board HMS Egeria, visited the island for ten days, accompanied by J. J. Lister, who gathered a larger biological and mineralogical collection.
Among the rocks obtained and submitted to Murray for examination were many of nearly pure phosphate of lime. This discovery led to annexation of the island by the British Crown on 6 June 1888. Soon afterwards, a small settlement was established in Flying Fish Cove by G. Clunies Ross, the owner of the Cocos Islands some 900 kilometres to the southwest, to collect timber and supplies for the growing industry on Cocos. Phosphate mining began in 1899 using indentured workers from Singapore and China. John Davis Murray, a mechanical engineer and recent graduate of Purdue University, was sent to supervise the operation on behalf of the Phosphate Mining and Shipping Company. Murray was known as the "King of Christmas Island" until 1910, when he married and settled in London; the island was administered jointly by the British Phosphate commissioners and district officers from the United Kingdom Colonial Office through the Straits Settlements, the Crown Colony of Singapore. Hunt provides a detailed history of Chinese indentured labor on the island during those years.
In 1922, scientists attempted unsuccessfully to view a solar eclipse from the island to test Einstein's Theory of Relativity. From the outbreak of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II in December 1941, Christmas Island was a target for Japanese occupation because of its rich phosphate deposits. A naval gun was installed under four NCOs and 27 Indian soldiers; the first attack was carried out on 20 January 1942, by Japanese submarine I-59, which torpedoed a Norwegian freighter, the Eidsvold. The vessel drifted and sank off West White Beach. Most of the European and Asian staff and their families were evacuated to Perth. In late February and early March 1942, there were two aerial bombing raids. Shelling from a Japanese naval group on 7 March led the district officer to hoist the white flag, but after the Japanese naval group sailed away, the British officer raised the Union Flag once more. During the night of 10–11 March, a mutiny of the Indian troops, abetted by Sikh policemen, led to the killing of the five British soldiers and the imprisonment of the remaining 21 Europeans.
At dawn on 31 March 1942, a dozen Japanese bombers launched the attack, destroying the radio station. The same day, a Japanese fleet of nine vessels arrived, an
Division of Solomon
The Division of Solomon is an Australian Electoral Division in the Northern Territory. It is coextensive with the Darwin/Palmerston metropolitan area; the only other division in the territory, the Division of Lingiari, covers the remainder of the territory. The division was one of the two established when the former Division of Northern Territory was redistributed on 21 December 2000, it is named for Hon Vaiben Louis Solomon, a Premier of South Australia, a delegate to the second Constitutional convention and member of the first Australian Parliament. He represented the Northern Territory in the South Australian House of Assembly, when it was still part of that state; the Division was first contested at the 2001 federal election. Although the Darwin/Palmerston area had been a stronghold for the Country Liberal Party at the territorial level, recent gains by Labor have made it much more competitive, it has taken on a character similar to mortgage belt seats. As such, for most of its history, it has been a marginal seat held by the party of government.
The CLP's Dave Tollner held the seat for its first two terms of existence before narrowly losing it to Labor's Damian Hale at the 2007 election. At the 2010 election, the CLP's Natasha Griggs won Solomon with a two-party-preferred margin of 1.75 percent from a 1.94 percent swing. She therefore became the first opposition member in the seat's history. Griggs was re-elected with a reduced two-party margin of 1.4 percent at the 2013 election as the Coalition won government. A MediaReach seat-level opinion poll in Solomon of 513 voters conducted 22−23 June during the 2016 election campaign unexpectedly found Labor leading the Liberals 61–39 on the two-party vote from a large 12.4 percent swing. Griggs and the CLP lost Solomon to Labor's Luke Gosling at the 2016 election held on 2 July, with Gosling defeating Griggs on a 56–44 two-party vote from a record 7.4 percent swing—in both cases, the strongest result in the seat's history. Gosling is the second opposition member to hold the seat. Division of Solomon - Australian Electoral Commission
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s