Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The 10,311 km2 island accounts for 18.7% of Nova Scotia's total area. Although the island is physically separated from the Nova Scotia peninsula by the Strait of Canso, the 1,385 m long rock-fill Canso Causeway connects it to mainland Nova Scotia; the island is east-northeast of the mainland with its northern and western coasts fronting on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The eastern and southern coasts front the Atlantic Ocean, its landmass slopes upward from south to north. One of the world's larger salt water lakes, Bras d'Or, dominates the island's centre; the island is divided into four of Nova Scotia's eighteen counties: Cape Breton, Inverness and Victoria. Their total population at the 2016 census numbered 132,010 "Cape Bretoners". Cape Breton Island has experienced a decline in population of 2.9% since the 2011 census. 75% of the island's population is in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality which includes all of Cape Breton County and is referred to as Industrial Cape Breton, given the history of coal mining and steel manufacturing in this area, Nova Scotia's industrial heartland throughout the 20th century.
The island has five reserves of the Mi'kmaq Nation: Eskasoni, Wagmatcook and Potlotek/Chapel Island. Eskasoni is the largest in both land area, its name may derive from Capbreton near Bayonne, or more from Cape and the word Breton, the French demonym for Bretagne, the French historical region. Cape Breton Island's first residents were Archaic maritime natives, ancestors of the Mi'kmaq; these peoples and their progeny inhabited the island for several thousand years and continue to live there to this day. Their traditional lifestyle centred around hunting and fishing because of the unfavourable agricultural conditions of their maritime home; this ocean-centric lifestyle did, make them among the first indigenous peoples to discover European explorers and sailors fishing in the St Lawrence Estuary. John Cabot visited the island in 1497. However, European histories and maps of the period are of too poor quality to be sure whether Cabot first visited Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island; this discovery is commemorated by Cape Breton's Cabot Trail, by the Cabot's Landing Historic Site & Provincial Park, near the village of Dingwall.
The local Mi'kmaq peoples began trading with European fishermen when the fishermen began landing in their territories as early as the 1520s. In about 1521–22, the Portuguese under João Álvares Fagundes established a fishing colony on the island; as many as two hundred settlers lived in a village, the name of, not known, located according to some historians at what is now Ingonish on the island's northeastern peninsula. These fishermen did not maintain a permanent settlement; this Portuguese colony's fate is unknown, but it is mentioned as late as 1570. During the Anglo-French War of 1627 to 1629, under Charles I, the Kirkes took Quebec City; these claims, larger European ideals of native conquest were the first time the island was incorporated as European territory, though it would be several decades that treaties would be signed. These Scottish triumphs, which left Cape Sable as the only major French holding in North America, did not last. Charles I's haste to make peace with France on the terms most beneficial to him meant the new North American gains would be bargained away in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which established which European power had claim over the territories, but did not in fact establish that Europeans had any claim to begin with.
The French defeated the Scots at Baleine, established the first European settlements on Île Royale: present day Englishtown and St. Peter's; these settlements lasted only one generation, until Nicolas Denys left in 1659. The island did not have any European settlers for another fifty years before those communities along with Louisbourg were re-established in 1713, after which point European settlement was permanently established on the island. Known as "Île Royale" to the French, the island saw active settlement by France. After the French ceded their claims to Newfoundland and the Acadian mainland to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the French relocated the population of Plaisance, Newfoundland, to Île Royale and the French garrison was established in the central eastern part at Sainte Anne; as the harbour at Sainte Anne experienced icing problems, it was decided to build a much larger fortification at Louisbourg to improve defences at the entrance to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and to defend France's fishing fleet on the Grand Banks.
The French built the Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1734, the first lighthouse in Canada and one of the first in North America. In addition to Cape Breton Island, the French colony of Île Royale included Île Saint-Jean, today called Prince Edward Island, Les Î
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland. It was related to Old Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. Place name evidence suggests Cumbric may have been spoken as far south as Pendle and the Yorkshire Dales; the prevailing view is that it became extinct in the 12th century, after the incorporation of the semi-independent Kingdom of Strathclyde into the Kingdom of Scotland. Dauvit Broun sets out the problems with the various terms used to describe the Cumbric language and its speakers; the people seem to have called themselves * Cumbri the same way. The Welsh and the Cumbric-speaking people of what are now southern Scotland and northern England felt they were one ethnic group. Old Irish speakers called them Bretnach, or Bretain; the Norse called them Brettar. In Medieval Latin, the English term Wales and the term Cumbri were Latinised as Wallenses "of Wales" and Cumbrenses "of Cumbria".
The usual English usage was to call them Welsh. In Scots, a Cumbric speaker seems to have been called Wallace, from the Scots Wallis/Wellis "Welsh". In Cumbria itaque: regione quadam inter Angliam et Scotiam sita – "Cumbria: a region situated between England and Scotland"; the Latinate term Cambria is used for Wales. John T. Koch defines the Cumbric region as "the area between the line of the River Mersey and the Forth-Clyde Isthmus", but goes on to include evidence from the Wirral Peninsula in his discussion and does not define its easterly extent. Kenneth Jackson describes Cumbric as "the Brittonic dialect of Cumberland, northern Lancashire, south-west Scotland..." and goes on to define the region further as being bound in the north by the Firth of Clyde, in the south by the River Ribble and in the east by the Southern Scottish Uplands and the Pennine Ridge. The evidence from Cumbric comes entirely through secondary sources, since no contemporary written records of the language are known; the majority of evidence comes from place names of the extreme northwest of England and the south of Scotland.
Other sources include the personal names of Strathclyde Britons in Scottish and Anglo-Saxon sources, a few Cumbric words surviving into the High Middle Ages in southwest Scotland as legal terms. Although the language is long extinct, traces of its vocabulary arguably have persisted into the modern era in the form of "counting scores" and in a handful of dialectal words. From this scanty evidence, little can be deduced about the singular characteristics of Cumbric, not the name by which its speakers referred to it. What is agreed upon by linguists is that Cumbric was a Western Brittonic language related to Welsh and, more distantly, to Cornish and Breton. Around the time of the battle described in the poem Y Gododdin, Common Brittonic was believed to be transitioning into its daughter languages: Cumbric in North Britain, Old Welsh in Wales, Southwestern Brittonic, the ancestor of Cornish and Breton. Kenneth Jackson concludes that the majority of changes that transformed British into Primitive Welsh belong to the period from the middle of the fifth to the end of the sixth century.
This involved the loss of final syllables. If the poem dates to this time, it would have been written in an early form of Cumbric, the usual name for the Brythonic speech of the Hen Ogledd. Jackson suggested the name "Primitive Cumbric" for the dialect spoken at the time. Cumbric place names are found in Scotland south of the firths of Clyde. Brittonic names north of this line are Pictish, they are found in the historic county of Cumberland and bordering areas of Northumberland. They are less common in Westmorland, with some in Lancashire and the adjoining areas of North Yorkshire. Approaching Cheshire, late Brittonic placenames are better described as being Welsh rather than Cumbric; as noted below, any clear distinction between Cumbric and Welsh is difficult to prove. For references see Armstrong et al. Watson and Jackson. Many Brittonic place-names remain in northern England, which should not be described as Cumbric because they originated from a period before Brittonic split into its daughter dialects e.g. Welsh, Breton and – arguably – Cumbric.
Some of the principal towns and cities of the region have names of Cumbric origin, including: Bathgate, West Lothian. Meaning'boar wood'. Carlisle, Cumbria. Recorded as Luguvalium in the Roman period; the Welsh form Caerliwelydd is derived by regular sound changes from the Romano-British name. Glasgow, Scotland. Believed to derive from words equivalent to Welsh glas gau "green hollow". Lanark, Lanarkshire. From the equivalent of Welsh llannerch "glade, clearing". Penicuik, Midlothian. From words meaning "hill of the cuckoo". Penrith, Cumbria. Meaning "chief ford". Several supposed Cumbric elements occur in place names of the region; the following table lists some of them according to the modern Welsh equivalent: Some Cumbric names have been replaced by Gaelic or English equivalents and in some cases
Gaeltacht is an Irish-language word for any Irish-speaking region. In Ireland, the term Gaeltacht refers individually to any, or collectively to all, of the districts where the government recognises that the Irish language is the predominant vernacular, or language of the home; the Gaeltacht districts were first recognised during the 1920s in the early years of the Irish Free State, following the Gaelic Revival, as part of a government policy aimed at restoring the Irish language. It is now recognised. Research published in 2015 showed that of the 155 electoral divisions in the Gaeltacht, only 21 are communities where Irish is spoken on a daily basis by two-thirds or more of the population. Two-thirds is regarded by some academics as a tipping point for language survival. In 1926 the official Gaeltacht was designated as a result of the report of the first Gaeltacht Commission Coimisiún na Gaeltachta; the exact boundaries were not defined. The quota at the time for classification as Gaeltacht was 25%+ of the population to be Irish-speaking, although in many cases Gaeltacht status was accorded to areas that were linguistically weaker than this.
The Irish Free State recognised that there were predominately Irish-speaking or semi-Irish-speaking districts in 15 of its 26 counties. In the 1950s another Gaeltacht Commission concluded, it recommended that Gaeltacht status be based on the strength of language use in an area. In the 1950s, Gaeltacht districts were defined and excluded many areas in which the number of Irish speakers had declined. Gaeltacht areas were recognised in seven of the state's 26 counties; the Gaeltacht boundaries have not been altered since apart from minor changes: The inclusion of An Clochán and Cé Bhréanainn in County Kerry in 1974. A study in 2005 by An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta said that Gaeltacht schools were facing a crisis, it forecast. This would threaten the future of the Gaeltacht. Parents felt that the educational system did not support their efforts to pass on Irish as a living language to their children; the study added that a significant number of Gaeltacht schools had switched to teaching in English, others were wavering.
In 2002 the third Coimisiún na Gaeltachta stated in its report that the erosion of the use of Irish in the Gaeltacht was now such that it was only a matter of time before the Gaeltacht disappeared. In some areas, Irish had ceased to be a community language. In the strongest Gaeltacht areas, current patterns of bilingualism were leading to the dominance of English. Policies implemented by the State and voluntary groups were having no effect; the report recommended that a new language reinforcement strategy was required, one that had the confidence of the community itself. The Commission recommended, among many other things, that the boundaries of the official Gaeltacht should be redrawn, it recommended a comprehensive linguistic study to assess the vitality of the Irish language in the remaining Gaeltacht districts. The study was undertaken by Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge. On 1 November 2007 Staidéar Cuimsitheach Teangeolaíoch ar Úsáid na Gaeilge sa Ghaeltacht was published. Concerning Gaeltacht boundaries, it suggested creating three linguistic zones within the Gaeltacht region: A – 67%/+ daily Irish speaking – Irish dominant as the community language B – 44%–66% daily Irish speaking – English dominant, with large Irish-speaking minority C – 43%/- daily Irish speaking – English dominant, but with Irish-speaking minority much higher than the national average of Irish speakingThe report suggested that Category A districts should be the State's priority in providing services through Irish and development schemes.
It said that Category C areas that showed a further decline in the use of Irish should lose their Gaeltacht status. The 2006 Census data shows that of the 95,000 people living within the official Gaeltacht 17,000 belonged to Category A areas, 10,000 to Category B, 17,000 to Category C, leaving about 50,000 in Gaeltacht areas that did not meet the minimum criteria. In response to this situation, the government introduced the Gaeltacht Bill 2012, its stated aim was to provide for a new definition of boundaries based on language criteria, but it was criticised for doing the opposite of this. Critics drew attention to Section 7 of the Bill, which stated that all areas "currently within the Gaeltacht" would maintain their current Gaeltacht status, regardless of whether Irish was used; this status could only be revoked. The Bill was criticised for placing all responsibility for the maintenance of Irish on voluntary organisations, with no increase in government resources; the annual report in 2012 by the Language Commissioner for Irish reinforced these criticisms by emphasising the failure of the State to provide Irish-language services to Irish speakers in the Gae
Northern Catalonia, French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recent founded Catalan Republic. The area corresponds to the modern French département of the Pyrénées-Orientales which were part of Catalonia since the old County of Barcelona, lasted during the times of the Crown of Aragon and the Principality of Catalonia until they were given to France by Spain; the equivalent term in French, Catalogne Nord, is used nowadays, although less than the more politically neutral Roussillon. Northern Catalonia forms a triangle between the Pyrenees to the south, the Corbières to the north-west and the Mediterranean Sea to the east; the Roussillon plain in the east, by far the most populated area, is formed by the flood plains of the Tech, Têt and Agly rivers. The districts of Vallespir and Conflent cover the upper valleys of the Tech and the Têt respectively.
The massif of the Canigou, 2785 m, dominates much of the territory. The climate is of the Mediterranean type, with hot, dry summers and winters which are mild, at least on the Roussillon plain where snow is rare; the city of Perpignan accounts for over a quarter of the population, over one-third if its urban area is taken into account, is the only major administrative and service centre. Major road and rail links run north–south through Northern Catalonia between France and Spain, while a railway line links Perpignan to Latour-de-Carol via Prades. Haute-Cerdagne is geographically distinct from the rest of Northern Catalonia, lying to the south of the Pyrenean watershed in the upper valley of the Segre, it is a mountainous and sparsely-populated district, includes the town of Llívia, an enclave, a part of Spain. The district lies on the most direct route between Toulouse and Barcelona, a railway line still links the two cities via Latour-de-Carol. Northern Catalonia formed part of the Spanish Marches, established by Charlemagne as a buffer territory against the Moorish forces.
As such, it was divided into feudal counties, Rosselló, Conflent north of the Pyrenees and Cerdanya to the south. By the end of the ninth century, these counties had gained de facto independence from the Carolingian kings and operated as princely states; as the seigneury of the counties became hereditary, the total number of Catalan counts fell steadily. One individual had the charge of several counties, but these were not always transmitted on the basis of ]. Hence Count Miró II the Young, third son of Wilfred I the Hairy, inherited the counties of Cerdanya and Conflent from his father in 897, the counties of Besalú and Vallespir from his elder brother Sunyer I when the latter became Count of Barcelona in 911; the Counts of Rosselló, in alliance with their cousins the Counts of Empuriés, tried to resist this dilution of their power. However the Counts of Barcelona gained suzerainty over the other Catalan counts, a process, complete by the twelfth century; the last Count of Rosselló, Girard II, left his title to the Crown of Aragon on his death in 1172 to prevent the territory passing to his illegitimate half-brothers.
Royal administration in Catalonia under the Crown of Aragon was organised on the basis of vegueries, under the charge of a veguer appointed by the King of Aragon as Count of Barcelona. In Northern Catalonia, the vegueries followed the boundaries of the old counties; the district of Capcir was a sotsvegueria, based around the castle of Puigbalador but subordinate to the vegueria of Conflent. The Treaty of Corbeil of 1258 confirmed the frontier between France and Aragon as the Cerbères, leaving the Occitan district of Fenolheda to France. On the death of King James I the Conqueror in 1276, Northern Catalonia was combined with the Balearic Isles to form a new Kingdom of Majorca, which passed to James II while the rest of the territory of the Crown of Aragon passed to his brother Peter III; this division satisfied neither branch of the family, the Kingdom of Majorca was retaken militarily by the Crown of Aragon in 1344. The Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659 ceded Northern Catalonia to France, where it became the province of Roussillon.
The French provinces were abolished at the Revolution, Roussillon was joined with the district of Fenouillèdes to form the département of the Pyrénées-Orientales, with Perpignan as its administrative centre. The département of the Pyrénées-Orientales is divided into the arrondissements of Céret and Prades, which are further divided into cantons and communes. Perpignan and sixteen surrounding communes are associated in the Communauté d'agglomération Têt Méditerranée, created in 2001. Enclaved in the southwest of the département there is the Spanish exclave of Llívia; as is common, the present-day arrondissements do not correspond to pre-Revolutionary boundaries. The arrondissement of Prades covers the whole of Haute-Cerdagne and Conflent, as well as about a third of Fenolheda; the arrondissement of
Bunscoill Ghaelgagh is a Manx-language primary school in St John's, Isle of Man. As of 2011 it is the only school in the world where children are taught their lessons in Manx and which allows children to learn the language fluently. Pupils may go on to Queen Elizabeth II High School in Peel or to their catchment area's high school, where General Certificate of Secondary Education Manx is offered from the age of 12. In 1999 a parents' society, Sheshaght ny Paarantyn, was formed with an interest in establishing a Manx-language school; that year they approached the Isle of Man's Department of Education with their request. The school opened in September 2001. At the time it had one class and shared premises at Ballacottier School in Douglas. In January 2003 it moved to its own building in the old St John's School; the school won the annual Reih Bleeaney Vanannan award in January 2006 for its efforts in preserving and promoting Manx language and heritage. It was presented by the Speaker of the House of Keys, James "Tony" Brown, chairman of the Manx Heritage Foundation.
Numbers continued to increase, from nine in 2001 when the school moved to its current premises to 47 in 2006 to 65 in 2009 and 69 in 2012. The school is part of the Manx language revival. Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland is read in translation after 30 copies were presented to the Bunscoill Ghaelgagh by the Manx Gaelic Society when the book was launched; the school itself refers to studies that have been made in Finland that demonstrate advantages from bilingual education. Researcher Aini-Kristiina Jäppinen examined the achievement of 334 pupils in 12 schools on'content and language-integrated learning' programmes and compared them with 334 pupils studying only in Finnish, she concluded that a foreign language seems to improve results. According to Jäppinen, "When pupils have to conceptualise and grasp issues in a foreign language as well as their mother tongue, it will help develop an ability to understand complex and multifaceted relationships between various themes." The Finnish research used pupils who were studying three different languages and found that "the choice of language did not seem to have a major impact on performance" in a number of subjects including maths and geography.
As the school notes, this conclusion is not universal to other previous studies. Studies at Luton University have shown that there can be a "trivial" delay in language development but the overall benefits in the long run outweigh this temporary disadvantage. Bilingual education Gaelic medium education – Scottish Gaelic medium education Gaelscoil – Irish medium education Official site Official wiki
La Bressola is a cultural association founded in Perpignan, France in 1976 to promote a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs in France in the comarques of so-called North Catalonia. The first center was opened in Sant Galdric in September 1976. Subsequently, other centers have been opened in El Vernet, Pontellà, Prades, El Soler and Sant Esteve del Monestir. Since 1983, the schools of La Bressola have hosted students from two to eleven years. In 2005, they maintained eight educational centers for nursery and primary school children, one of them being, since 2003, the first to impart secondary education in Catalan in France. With seven primary schools and one high school, some 600 students are being taught. Together with the Calandretas, the Diwan schools, the Seaska and the association ABCM-Zweisprachigkeit, form a confederation of bilingual schools in France. Càldegues (in the commune of Bourg-Madame, Alta Cerdanya Nils (in the commune of Ponteilla, Roussillon Prades, Conflent Saint-Estève, Roussillon Perpignan-Sant Galdric, Roussillon Le Soler, Roussillon Col·legi del Soler, Roussillon El Vernet Perpignan, Roussillon The pedagogy, practiced is the so-called "active pedagogy" and it maintains a comparable level to its French-language counterparts.
The administration's relations with the association, which since 1982 has tried to obtain government subsidies, have been difficult because of pressures for the introduction of bilingualism in equal parts. In 1995, the introduction of bilingual education at the end of primary school was agreed to. In 1987, the Generalitat of Catalonia awarded the Honor Award to Lluís Carulla. In 1981, a split led to the creation of the association Arrels, directed by Laura Manaut and Pere Manzanares; the general director is Joan Pere Le Bihan. In March 2007, the players of FC Barcelona, Lilian Thuram and Oleguer Presas participated in the reading of a manifesto in defense of the Catalan language and of these schools at a ceremony in Perpignan; the manifesto has been further supported by club president Joan Laporta, the coach of the French national football team Raymond Domenech, the singers Manu Chao, the group Zebda, I Muvrini. Website of the La Bressola schools. Association of Friends of La Bressola; the director of La Bressola, Joan-Pere Le Bihan y Rullan a Association des Cadres Catalans de Toulouse