Abu Mansur Buya, better known his honorific title of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Hamadan, Jibal and Gorgan. He was the third son of Rukn al-Dawla. Abu Mansur Buya was the son of Rukn al-Dawla and a daughter of the Daylamite Firuzanid nobleman Al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan, the cousin of the famous military leader Makan ibn Kaki. Abu Mansur Buya lived in Isfahan during his youth. In 955, a Daylamite military officer named Muhammad ibn Makan, attacked Isfahan. Abu Mansur Buya, along with family and followers, were forced to leave the city; the eldest son of Rukn al-Dawla,'Adud al-Dawla, along with Rukn al-Dawla's vizier Abu'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid marched towards Isfahan and defeated Muhammad ibn Makan. After Isfahan was under safe Buyid hands once again, Abu Mansur Buya along with his family and followers returned to the city. In ca. 958, Abu Mansur Buya went to Baghdad, married Mu'izz al-Dawla's daughter Zubayda. After the marriage, he along with her returned to Isfahan. In 966, Abu Mansur Buya was given the honorific title of "Mu'ayyad al-Dawla" As part of the settlement between Rukn al-Dawla and his eldest son'Adud al-Dawla in early 976, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was to receive Hamadan upon his father's death, in exchange for recognizing'Adud al-Dawla as senior amir.
Only a year Rukn al-Dawla's second son Fakhr al-Dawla, who ruled in Ray, rebelled against'Adud al-Dawla's authority. Mu'ayyad al-Dawla mobilized in support of'Adud al-Dawla, forcing Fakhr al-Dawla to flee to the Ziyarids of Gorgan and Tabaristan; this did not stop the two Buyids. Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was entrusted with the newly captured provinces as'Adud al-Dawla's subordinate.'Adud al-Dawla died in March 983, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla followed him shortly afterwards. His vizier, Sahib ibn'Abbad, summoned a gathering of the army and convinced its leaders to proclaim Fakhr al-Dawla as his successor. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Nagel, Tilman. "BUYIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Pp. 578–586. Amedroz, Henry F.. The Eclipse of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate. Original Chronicles of the Fourth Islamic Century, Vol. V: The concluding portion of The Experiences of Nations by Miskawaihi, Vol. II: Reigns of Muttaqi, Muti and Ta'i.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Madelung, W.. The Assumption of the Title Shāhānshāh by the Būyids and "The Reign of the Daylam". Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 28, no. 2. Pp. 84–108. ISBN 0857731815. JSTOR 543315
Ahmad ibn Buya, after 945 better known by his laqab of Mu'izz al-Dawla, was the first of the Buyid emirs of Iraq, ruling from 945 until his death. The son of Daylamite fisherman who had converted to Islam, Ahmad ibn Buya was born in the mountainous region of Daylam, by 928, he along with his two brothers served the Daylamite military leader Makan ibn Kaki. However, they changed their allegiance to the Ziyarid ruler Mardavij, but some years rebelled against him after founding out that he planned to murder one of the brothers. In 935/6, Ahmad ibn Buya unsuccessfully invaded Kerman, was sent to Istakhr. From there he started making incursions into Khuzestan and Iraq. Throughout his rule, Mu'izz al-Dawla was devoted in conflicts with other dynasties for control over Iraq—in 946, an important battle took place in Baghdad between Mu'izz al-Dawla and the Hamdanid amir Nasir al-Dawla, which lasted several months, with Mu'izz al-Dawla ending as the victor. Mu'izz al-Dawla fought against the Batihah amirate several times, but was unable to decisively defeat it.
Mu'izz al-Dawla had problems with some of his Daylamite kinsmen, who would sometimes rebel against him, the most dangerous rebellion being under Ruzbahan from 955 to 957. By Mu'izz al-Dawla's death in 967, he had defeated all his foes and was the unchallenged ruler of Iraq, he was succeeded by his son Izz al-Dawla. Ahmad was the son of Buya, a Daylamite fisherman from Lahijan, who had left his Zoroastrian faith and converted to Islam. Ahmad had two older brothers named'Ali and Hasan, a sister named Kama. In around 928, Ahmad's brother Ali joined the services of Makan ibn Kaki, the Samanid governor of Ray.'Ali managed to gain military positions for Ahmad and another their other brother Hasan. At the time, Ahmad was about thirteen years old; when Makan attacked his Samanid overlords and was subsequently defeated by the Ziyarid prince Mardavij, the brothers transferred their allegiance to the latter. In the following years,'Ali repudiated his subservience to Mardavij and, after some time, managed to create an empire in Fars, where Ahmad distinguished himself in battle.
In 935 or 936,'Ali sent Ahmad to Kerman with the task of conquering that province from the Banu Ilyas. Ahmad overran much of Kerman, but encountered resistance from the Baluchis and Arab Qafs, receiving a wound to the head and losing a hand and several fingers on the other. Direct Buyid control over Kerman was not established; the latter was sent to Istakhr to await further orders. Ahmad's next opportunity to expand the possessions of the Buyids came when the Baridis requested help from'Ali; the Baridis, who ruled in Khuzestan, were nominally subordinate to the Abbasid Caliphate, but were attempting to establish their independence. Ahmad was sent by'Ali to the area. From Khuzestan he launched several campaigns into Iraq, where the Caliphate was in serious internal disarray; these expeditions were of his own initiative. In 944, Ahmad captured Wasit, but was near Al-Mada'in met by an Abbasid army under the de facto ruler of the Caliphate, Tuzun. Ahmad emerged victorious during the battle, marched towards Baghdad, but was on July 28 forced to retreat back to Ahvaz after Tuzun had destroyed the bridge to Baghdad.
In 945, a Abbasid officer, Yanal Kushah, joined Ahmad. Ahmad gained control of Baghdad on December 19, 945 without a struggle, he took charge of the administration of the Caliphate by taking the position of amir al-umara'. The Caliph Al-Mustakfi gave him the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla".'Ali was given the title of "'Imad al-Dawla". Mu'izz had brought many of his Daylamite soldiers to Iraq, he brought many prominent Persian statesmen, including Abu'l-Fadl al-Abbas ibn Fasanjas from the Fasanjas family, who served as the financial minister of Basra. Despite the fact that Mu'izz al-Dawla had taken control of Iraq by himself, he remained subordinate to'Imad al-Dawla, who ruled in Shiraz. Coins bearing'Imad al-Dawla's name in addition to his own were made, his title of amir al-umara', which in theory made him the senior amir of the Buyids, meant little in reality and was soon claimed by'Imad al-Dawla. Although he maintained a certain level of independence, it was clear that he should respect the authority of the'Imad al-Dawla.
News of this event was received negatively by the Hamdanid amir Nasir al-Dawla, who ruled over Mosul and the districts of the eastern Jazira. Nasir al-Dawla had controlled Baghdad in 942 and he still entertained hopes of regaining the city. Nasir al-Dawla had reason to be confident that he could defeat Mu'izz al-Dawla if he made an attempt to capture Baghdad, his army had been bolstered by the arrival of numerous Turkish soldiers who had fled from Baghdad just before Mu'izz al-Dawla's entrance into the capital, he was much more familiar with the territory between Mosul and Baghdad than his rival was. Mu'izz al-Dawla, on the other hand, was on less secure ground
Abu Kalijar Marzuban known as Samsam al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Iraq, as well as Fars and Kerman. He was the second son of'Adud al-Dawla; the Abbasids conferred upon him the title Samsam al-Dawla. He lacked the qualities of his father'Adud al-Dawla and failed to have a grip upon his state affairs, his rule was marked by civil wars. Abu Kalijar Marzuban was born in 963, he was the son of Adud al-Dawla and Sayyida ibn Siyahgil, a daughter of Siyahgil, a Gilite ruler, thus making Abu Kalijar Marzuban distantly related to Ziyarid dynasty, who were descended from a sister of the Gilite ruler Harusindan, the father of Siyahgil. During'Adud al-Dawla's lifetime, Abu Kalijar Marzuban was assigned the governorships of Buyid Oman and Khuzestan. Despite Marzuban's status as second son, he was considered to be his father's heir; this issue was never clarified by'Adud al-Dawla before his death, resulting in a succession crisis. Marzuban, in Baghdad when his father died, at first kept his death secret in order to ensure his succession.
When he made the death of his father public, he took the title "Samsam al-Dawla". Shirdil laid his claims to the succession, from his province of Kerman invaded and captured Fars, he took the title "Sharaf al-Dawla". Sharaf al-Dawla's invasion of Fars provided two more of Samsam al-Dawla's brothers, Taj al-Dawla and Diya' al-Dawla, to set up their own rule in Basra and Khuzestan. In Diyar Bakr, a Kurd named Badh ibn Hasanwaih took power and forced Samsam al-Dawla to confirm him as its ruler. To the north, Samsam al-Dawla's uncle Fakhr al-Dawla ruled an extensive territory from Ray; the rulers of Basra and Khuzestan soon acknowledged Fakhr al-Dawla as senior amir, making the latter the most powerful of the Buyids and moving the senior amirate from Iraq to Jibal. Despite Fakhr al-Dawla's power, it was Sharaf al-Dawla who posed the largest threat to Samsam al-Dawla, he recovered Buyid Oman. In 983, the Turkic soldiers of Iraq betrayed Samsam al-Dawla, went towards to the court of Sharaf al-Dawla. However, his relative from his mother's side Ziyar ibn Shahrakawayh managed to make most of them change their mind and stay loyal to Samsam al-Dawla.
In 985, a Dailamite chief Saffar ibn Quddawiyah revolted against the authority of Samsam he joined with (Shirdil. Saffar lead a force against Samsam to Baghdad. Samsam sent a stronger force in retaliation Saffar was defeated. In early 986 Samsam captured Basra and Khuzestan, forcing the two brothers to flee to Fakhr al-Dawla's territory. During the same period, another Dailamite named Asfar ibn Kurdawayh rebelled against Samsam al-Dawla, changed his allegiance to Sharaf al-Dawla. However, Asfar changed his mind, declared allegiance to the latter's other brother Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh, shortly given the honorific epithet of "Baha' al-Dawla." However, Samsam al-Dawla, with the aid of Fuladh ibn Manadhar, suppressed the rebellion, imprisoned Baha al-Dawla, executed his supporters executed, including Bahram ibn Ardashir al-Majusi. Samsam al-Dawla made peace with Sharaf al-Dawla, agreed to release Baha al-Dawla. However, Sharaf betrayed Samsam, marched against him. Sharaf occupied Ahwaz sent his forces to Wasit which fell to him in 986 AD.
From there Samsam marched to Baghdad. Before any confrontation could take place, there was a revolt in the army of Samsam, he was therefore forced to surrender. There upon Baghdad fell to Samsam was put in prison. Sharaf al-Dawla's death in 988 or 989 provided Samsam al-Dawla with the opportunity to make a return to power. Despite having been blinded shortly before Sharaf al-Dawla's death, he managed to escape from prison and with the aid of Sharaf al-Dawla's former vizier Ala ibn Hasan, wrested control of Fars and Khuzestan from his brother Baha' al-Dawla, who had succeeded Sharaf al-Dawla. Both Baha' al-Dawla and his brother found; the latter invaded Khuzestan in an attempt to split the two brothers' territories. This act prompted the both of them to draw up an alliance. Samsam al-Dawla recognized Baha' al-Dawla as the ruler of Iraq and Khuzestan, while he himself kept Arrajan and Kerman. Both promised to consider each other as equals, took the title of "king". In 991 Baha' al-Dawla attempted to get rid of Samsam al-Dawla.
He invaded the latter's territory. His forces were defeated and Samsam al-Dawla regained Khuzestan, he gained control of the Buyid territories in Oman. In order to further strengthen his position, Samsam al-Dawla decided to recognise Fakhr al-Dawla as senior amir, submitting to his authority. Fakhr al-Dawla's death in 997, coupled with Samsam al-Dawla's increasing troubles within his realm, made Baha' al-Dawla the strongest of the Buyid princes, he prepared for the expedition. The invasion began in December of 998. Scarcely had the campaign begun, when Samsam al-Dawla was murdered by one of the sons of'Izz al-Dawla near Isfahan while fleeing from Shiraz. Baha' al-Dawla took Shiraz, defeated'Izz al-Dawla's sons, reunited Iraq and Kerman. Madelung, W.. "The Minor Dynasties of Northern Iran". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 198–249. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N.
The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-2009
Ali ibn Buya, known by his laqab Imad al-Dawla, was the founder of the Buyid dynasty in Iran. Ali first entered the services of the Samanids under Nasr II, where he became a member of the ruler's entourage. From there he joined Makan, who ruled Gorgan and Ray as a governor of the Samanids, in around 928, he may have done so at Nasr's suggestion. In 930, Makan rebelled against the Samanids by seizing Khurasan. Ali and his brothers managed to defect to Mardavij's side just as the Ziyarid was preparing to undertake the conquest to the south of the Alborz mountains as far as Qazvin. Not long afterwards Mardavij granted Ali administrative rule over Karaj, a strategically important town situated near modern Bahramabad. While making a stop in Ray on his way to Karaj, Ali was warned by Mardavij's vizier al-'Amid that the Ziyarid was planning to eliminate him. Hurriedly leaving Ray, he took over Karaj. With a small number of Dailamite troops to support him, Ali sought to expand his position. Moving against the heretical Khurramites, who controlled the surrounding mountains, he gained control of the region and was enriched by the expeditions.
At the same time, he managed to maintain his troops' loyalty, despite Mardavij's attempts to incite them against their master. In order to further secure his position, Ali decided to seize the nearby city of Isfahan under control of the Abbasid governor Yaqut; the enemy army outnumbered Ali's, but a large portion of it defected to him upon his appearance before the city. Yaqut, refused to negotiate with him, Mardavij's approach forced him to abandon Isfahan in favor of the Ziyarids. Having fled Karaj as well, Ali now took a city between Fars and Khuzestan. Having stayed for the winter in Arrajan, Ali decided to campaign in Fars in the spring of 933. There he encountered the resistance of Yaqut, the governor of Fars and from whom Ali had stripped Arrajan, he found an ally, Zaid ibn'Ali al-Naubandagani, a wealthy landowner who disliked the Abbasids. After a series of battles, Ali managed to prove the victor. By May or June 934, he entered the capital of Fars. In order to prevent Mardavij from pressing claims on his territory, Ali sought the recognition of the Abbasid Caliph, who confirmed him as his viceroy in September or October 934.
Although the caliph's emissary arrived with the insignia for his office, Ali delayed giving the requisite tribute. Mardavij continued to pose a threat; this invasion prompted the caliph to reach an agreement with the Ziyarid, which forced Ali to recognize Mardavij's authority. This recognition proved short-lived, as Mardavij was assassinated in January of 935. Ali decided to press claims on Khuzestan, occupied'Askar Mukram; the Buyid and the caliph came to terms with one another. Bolstered by many of Mardavij's Turkish mercenaries that had joined him, as well as the collapse of Ziyarid control over central Iran, Ali decided that Isfahan should be taken, he sent his brother Hasan to accomplish this. Hasan managed to take Isfahan but encountered difficulties. After Hasan took Isfahan, Ali sent his other brother Ahmad to take Kerman. Although the bulk of that province was compelled to recognize Buyid authority, direct control was not established, Ali recalled him. Ali next sent Ahmad to Khuzestan, where the Basrian clan of the Baridis had become the de facto rulers of the province but were trying to throw off caliphal rule.
They asked Ali for their struggle against the Abbasids, providing the pretext for Ahmad to enter Khuzestan. Although the Baridis temporarily recovered the province and managed to take Baghdad a few times, Ahmad took control of Khuzestan himself. From Khuzestan Ahmad waged a series of campaigns in Iraq; the caliph gave him the title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla", while Ali and Hasan were given the titles of "Imad al-Dawla" and "Rukn al-Dawla," respectively. By 948 Rukn al-Dawla had secured his position in central Iran, causing a clear definition of the borders of the Buyid state. Imad al-Dawla was not the master of the entire Buyid empire. Rukn al-Dawla as a result of Imad al-Dawla's failure to send him military support during his struggles in central Iran, was independent of his brother. Mu'izz al-Dawla, on the other hand, had been given support by his brother in his efforts to take Khuzestan, was a subordinate of Imad al-Dawla, he was not listed as an independent ruler on contemporary sources, the name of his brother appeared before his own on coins struck by him.
Despite the fact that Mu'izz al-Dawla's capture of Baghdad resulted in him gaining the title of senior amir, which in theory made him the highest ranking individual out of all three Buyids, he remained little more than a provincial ruler under Imad al-Dawla's authority. Imad al-Dawla himself claimed the title of senior amir during his lifetime, although he never held it, nor was entitled to do so, he was recognized as the de facto holder of that position. Imad al-Daw
Clifford Edmund Bosworth
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies. Bosworth was born in Yorkshire, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Oxford and MA and PhD degrees from the University of Edinburgh. He held permanent posts at the University of St Andrews, University of Manchester, at the Center for the Humanities at Princeton University, he was a visiting professor at the University of Exeter, where he held the post since 2004. Bosworth died on 28 February 2015, Somerset, he is the author of hundreds of articles in composite volumes. His other contributions include nearly 200 articles in the Encyclopaedia of Islam and some 100 articles in the Encyclopædia Iranica, as well as articles for Encyclopædia Britannica and Encyclopedia Americana, he was the chief editor of the Encyclopaedia of Islam and a consulting editor of Encyclopædia Iranica. His book The Islamic Dynasties has been translated to Persian; the Ghaznavids, their empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran 994–1040, Edinburgh University Press 1963, 2nd ed. Beirut 1973, repr.
New Delhi 1992. The Islamic dynasties, a chronological and genealogical handbook, Edinburgh University Press 1967, revised ed. 1980. Sistan under the Arabs, from the Islamic conquest to the rise of the Saffarids, IsMEO, Rome 1968; the Book of curious and entertaining information, the Lata'if al-ma'arif of Tha'ālibī translated into English, Edinburgh University Press 1968. Iran and Islam, in memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press 1971; the legacy of Islam, new edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1974. The mediaeval Islamic underworld, the Banu Sasan in Arabic society and literature, 2 vols. Brill, Leiden 1976; the medieval history of Iran and Central Asia, Collected Studies Series, London 1977. The Ghaznavids and decay: the dynasty in Afghanistan and northern India 1040–1186, Edinburgh University Press 1977, repr. New Delhi 1992 Al-Maqrizi's "Book of contention and strife concerning the relations between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim" translated into English, Journal of Semitic Studies Monographs, 3, Manchester 1981.
Medieval Arabic culture and administration, Collected Studies Series, London 1982. Qajar Iran, political and cultural change 1800–1925, Edinburgh University Press 1984; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXXII; the reunification of the Abbasid Caliphate. The caliphate of al-Ma'mun A. D. 812-833/A. H. 198–213, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1987; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXX; the Abbasid Caliphate in equilibrium. The caliphates of Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid A. D. 785-809/A. H. 169–193, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1989. Baha' al-Din al-Amili and his literary anthologies, Journal of Semitic Studies Monographs 10, Manchester 1989; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXXIII. Storm and stress along the northern frontiers of the Abbasid Caliphate; the caliphate of al-Mu'tas'im A. D. 833-842/A. H. 218–227, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1991. Richard Bell, A commentary on the Qur'an, University of Manchester 1991, 2 vols.
The History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz, Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies no. 7, Costa Mesa, Calif. and New York 1994. The Arabs and Iran. Studies in early Islamic history and culture, Collected Studies Series, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot 1996; the New Islamic dynasties. A chronological and genealogical manual, Edinburgh University Press 1996; the UNESCO history of civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, The age of achievement. A. D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part 1, The historical and economic setting, Paris 1998. Part 2, The literary, cultural and scientific achievements, Paris 2000; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. V; the Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids and Yemen and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1999. A century of British orientalists 1902–2001, Oxford University Press for the British Academy 2001. Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarkh-i Mas'udi translated into English with a historical and linguistic commentary, to appear in the Persian Heritage Series, Columbia University, 3 volumes, New York, 2006.
Some 100 articles in learned journals, composite volumes, etc.. III, IV, V, in The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature, vols. I, III, in UNESCO History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vols. IV, V. UNESCO Avicenna Silver Medal, 1998 Dr Mahmud Afshar Foundation Prize for contributions to Iranian Studies, 2001 Prize by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, for contributions to Iranian historical studies, 2003 Triennial Award, 2003 Curriculum vitae Works by or about Clifford Edmund Bosworth in libraries (World
Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh, better known by his laqab of Baha' al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Iraq, along with Fars and Kerman. His early reign was dominated by struggles with his rival relatives over control of the western Persian provinces, but by 998 he managed to establish his supremacy over the Buyid confederation, his reign saw the increasing encroachment of neighbouring powers on Buyid territory, marks the beginning of the decline of the Buyids' power. He was the third son of'Adud al-Dawla. In 986, a Dailamite officer named Asfar ibn Kurdawayh rebelled against the ruler of Iraq, Samsam al-Dawla, changed his allegiance to Sharaf al-Dawla. However, Asfar changed his mind, declared allegiance to the latter's other brother Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh, shortly given the honorific epithet of "Baha' al-Dawla." However, Samsam al-Dawla, with the aid of Fuladh ibn Manadhar, suppressed the rebellion, imprisoned Baha al-Dawla. Samsam al-Dawla shortly made peace with Sharaf al-Dawla, agreed to release Baha al-Dawla.
Sharaf al-Dawla shortly betrayed Samsam al-Dawla, conquered Iraq, had him imprisoned in a fortress. Upon the death of Sharaf al-Dawla in 988, Baha' al-Dawla succeeded him, whereupon he took the additional title of Diya' al-Milla. Samsam al-Dawla, who managed to flee from prison, prevented Baha' al-Dawla from gaining all of Sharaf al-Dawla's possessions by taking control of Fars and Khuzestan. Both Baha' al-Dawla and Samsam al-Dawla, were threatened by their granduncle Fakhr al-Dawla, the ruler of Jibal, who invaded Khuzestan in an attempt to drive a wedge between the two brothers' territories; this act prompted the brothers to draw up an alliance. Samsam al-Dawla recognized Baha' al-Dawla as the ruler of Iraq and Khuzestan, while he himself kept Arrajan and Kerman. Both promised to consider each other as equals, took the title of king. In 990, Baha' al-Dawla appointed Sabur ibn Ardashir as his vizier. In 991 Baha' al-Dawla attempted to gain supremacy over Samsam al-Dawla's realm, he invaded the latter's territory.
His forces were defeated and Samsam al-Dawla regained Khuzestan and gained control of the Buyid territories in Oman. He recognized Fakhr al-Dawla as senior amir, submitting to his authority. Fakhr al-Dawla's death in 997, coupled with Samsam al-Dawla's increasing troubles within his realm, provided Baha' al-Dawla with the opportunity to assert his authority in Persia, he prepared for the expedition. The invasion began in December 998. Baha' al-Dawla took Shiraz, defeated'Izz al-Dawla's sons, was joined by the Dailamites of Fars under Ibn Ustadh-Hurmuz. For the rest of his life Baha' al-Dawla remained in Fars, he managed to gain indirect control over northern Iran, where Fakr al-Dawla's two sons Majd al-Dawla and Shams al-Dawla recognized him as senior amir by 1009 or 1010. In 1001, Baha' al-Dawla appointed Ibn Ustadh-Hurmuz as the governor of Ahvaz, one year appointed him as the governor of Iraq, where he made order by solving disputes between different religious sects, by defeating bandits who had caused chaos in the region.
He managed to defeat the former governor of Iraq, Abu Ja'far al-Hajjaj, supported by Kurds and Shayban Arabs. In 1007, Baha' al-Dawla made peace with the Al-Mazeedi ruler Ali ibn Mazyad, given the honorific title of "Sanad al-Dawla", agreed to become a vassal of Baha' al-Dawla in return of recognition of his rule; this treaty was in favor of Baha' al-Dawla, who managed to use Ali ibn Mazyad as the keeper of Buyid influence in Iraq and its surrounding regions. In 1011, Ibn Ustadh-Hurmuz died and was succeeded by Baha' al-Dawla's new vizier Fakhr al-Mulk as the governor of Iraq. Baha' al-Dawla's reign coincided with the beginning of the decline of the Buyids; the Kurdish chief Badh laid the foundations for the Marwanid amirate in Diyarbakr, while the subservient'Uqaylids of Mosul expanded into Iraq at the Buyids' expense. By the time Baha' al-Dawla died and Wasit were the only two major Iraqi cities directly under his control. In the north, where Fakhr al-Dawla's sons ruled, the Buyid frontier fell back, as the Ziyarids of Gorgan and Tabaristan permanently wrested themselves from Buyid control.
The Ghaznavids kept putting pressure on the Khurasan border, while the Kakuyids began to set up a state in Isfahan. For various reasons, Baha' al-Dawla did not defend the borders. Having gained undisputed control of the Buyid state, he seemed content to allow external enemies to seize territories in the west and north, he died in Arrajan in December 1012. Shortly before his death, he named his son Sultan al-Dawla as his successor. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. Nagel, Tilman. "BUYIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Pp. 578–586. Donohue, John J.. The Buwayhid Dynasty in Iraq 334h. 945 to 403h. 1012: Shaping Institutions for the Future. ISBN 9789004128606. Retrieved 13 February 2014. Houtsma, M. Th. First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936. BRILL. Pp. 1–42. ISBN 9789004097964. Kraemer, Joel L..
Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age. BRILL. Pp. 1–329. ISBN 9789004097360. Kennedy, Hugh N.. The Prophet an
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids known as Buwaihids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire; the Buyid dynasty was founded by'Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital. His younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, made Baghdad his capital, he received the honorific title of Mu'izz al-Dawla. The eldest,'Ali, was given the title of'Imad al-Dawla, Hasan was given the title of Rukn al-Dawla; as Daylamite Iranians, the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Iran's Sasanian Empire. Beginning with'Adud al-Dawla, they used the ancient Sasanian title Shahanshah "king of kings".
At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty encompassed territory of most of today's Iran, Iraq and Syria, along with parts of Oman, the UAE, Turkey and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East. Under king'Adud al-Dawla, it became the most powerful dynasty in the Middle East; the word Būya is a Middle Persian name ending in the diminutive ـویه. The Buyids were descendants of a Zoroastrian from Daylam, he had a son named Buya, a fisherman from Lahijan, left Zoroastrianism and converted to Islam. Buya had three sons, named Ahmad,'Ali, Hasan, who would carve the Buyid kingdom together. Most historians agree; the Buyids claimed royal lineage from 15th king of the Sasanian Empire. The founder of the dynasty,'Ali ibn Buya, was a soldier in the service of the Daylamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki, but changed his adherence to the Iranian ruler Mardavij, who had established the Ziyarid dynasty, was himself related to the ruling dynasty of Gilan, a region bordering Dailam.'Ali was joined by his two younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya.
In 932,'Ali was given Karaj as his fief, thus was able to enlist other Daylamites into his own army. However,'Ali's independent actions made Mardavij plan to have him killed,'Ali was informed of Mardavij's plan by the latter's own vizier; the Buyids brother, with 400 of their Daylamite supporters fled to Fars, where they managed to take control of Arrajan. However, the Buyids and the Abbasid general Yaqut shortly came into a struggle for the control of Fars, which the Buyids emerged victorious in; this victory opened the way for the conquest of the capital of Fars, Shiraz.'Ali made an alliance with the landowners of Fars, which included the Fasanjas family, which would produce many prominent statesmen for the Buyids. Furthermore,'Ali to enlist more soldiers, which included the Turks, who were made part of cavalry.'Ali sent his brother Ahmad on an expedition to Kirman, but was forced to withdraw from them after opposition from the Baloch people and the Qafs. However, who sought to depose the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad and recreate a Zoroastrian Iranian Empire, shortly wrested Khuzestan from the Abbasids and forced'Ali to recognize him as his suzerain.
Luckily for the Buyids, Mardavij was shortly assassinated in 935, which caused chaos in the Ziyarid territories, a perfect situation for the Buyid brothers. In 945, Ahmad entered Iraq and made the Abbasid Caliph his vassal, at the same receiving the laqab Mu'izz ad-Dawla, while'Ali was given the laqab Imād al-Dawla, Hasan was given the laqab Rukn al-Dawla. In addition to the other territories the Buyids had conquered, Kirman was conquered in 967, the Jazira and Gorgan. After this, the Buyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent; the death of Adud al-Dawla is considered the starting point of the decline of the Buyid dynasty. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war. Meanwhile, a Marwanid chieftain named Badh, seized Diyabakr and forced Samsam al-Dawla to recognize him as the vassal ruler of the region.
Furthermore, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla died during this period, he was succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla, who with the aid of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's vizier Sahib ibn'Abbad became the ruler of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's possessions. Another son of Adud al-Dawla, Abu Tahir Firuzshah, established himself as the ruler of Basra and took the title of "Diya' al-Dawla", while another son, Abu'l-Husain Ahmad, established himself as the ruler of Khuzistan, taking the title of "Taj al-Dawla". Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris seize