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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability. The term dizziness is imprecise: it can refer to vertigo, disequilibrium, or a non-specific feeling such as giddiness or foolishness. Dizziness is a common medical complaint. Dizziness is broken down into 4 main subtypes: vertigo, disequilibrium and nonspecific dizziness. Vertigo is the sensation of having one's surroundings spin about them. Many people find vertigo disturbing and report associated nausea and vomiting. Presyncope describes lightheadedness or feeling faint. Disequilibrium is the sensation of being off balance and is most characterized by frequent falls in a specific direction; this condition is not associated with nausea or vomiting. Non-specific dizziness may be psychiatric in origin, it can sometimes be brought about by hyperventilation. Many conditions cause dizziness because multiple parts of the body are required for maintaining balance including the inner ear, muscles and the nervous system, thus dizziness can be caused by a variety of problems, may reflect a focal process or a diffuse one.

Common physiological causes of dizziness include: inadequate blood supply to the brain due to: a sudden fall in blood pressure heart problems or artery blockages loss or distortion of vision or visual cues disorders of the inner ear distortion of brain/nervous function by medications such as anticonvulsants and sedatives result of side effect from prescription drugs, including medications such as anti-epileptic drugs, proton-pump inhibitors, Coumadin Dizziness may occur from an abnormality involving the brain, inner ear, heart, vascular system, fluid or blood volume, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, or body electrolytes. Dizziness can accompany certain serious events, such as a concussion or brain bleed and seizures, cases of meningitis and encephalitis. However, the most common subcategories can be broken down as follows: 40% peripheral vestibular dysfunction, 10% central nervous system lesion, 15% psychiatric disorder, 25% presyncope/disequilibrium, 10% nonspecific dizziness; some vestibular pathologies have symptoms.

While traditional medical teaching has focused on determining the cause of dizziness based on the category, recent research suggests that this analysis is of limited clinical utility. Medical conditions that have dizziness as a symptom include: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Meniere's disease Labyrinthitis Otitis media Brain tumor Acoustic neuroma Motion sickness Ramsay Hunt syndrome Migraine Multiple sclerosis Pregnancy Low blood pressure Low blood oxygen content Heart attack Iron deficiency Low blood sugar Hormonal changes Panic disorder Hyperventilation Anxiety Depression Age-diminished visual and perception of spatial orientation abilities a stroke is the cause of isolated dizziness in 0.7% of people who present to the emergency department. About 20–30% of the population report to have experienced dizziness at some point in the previous year. In medicine, disequilibrium refers to impaired equilibrioception that can be characterised as a sensation of impending fall or of the need to obtain external assistance for proper locomotion.

It is sometimes described as a sense of floating. This sensation can originate in the inner ear or other motion sensors, or in the central nervous system. Neurologic disorders tend to cause constant vertigo or disequilibrium and have other symptoms of neurologic dysfunction associated with the vertigo. Many medications used to treat seizures, depression and pain affect the vestibular system and the central nervous system which can cause the symptom of disequilibrium. Online Community for Sufferers of Vertigo and Dizziness Dysautonomia Youth Network of America, Inc

Texas Instruments TMS320

Texas Instruments TMS320 is a blanket name for a series of digital signal processors from Texas Instruments. It was introduced on April 8, 1983 through the TMS32010 processor, the fastest DSP on the market; the processor is available in many different variants, some with fixed-point arithmetic and some with floating point arithmetic. The TMS320 processors were fabricated on MOS integrated circuit chips, including both NMOS and CMOS variants; the floating point DSP TMS320C3x, which exploits delayed branch logic, has as many as three delay slots. The flexibility of this line of processors has led to it being used not as a co-processor for digital signal processing but as a main CPU. Newer implementations support standard IEEE JTAG control for boundary scan and/or in-circuit debugging; the original TMS32010 and its subsequent variants is an example of a CPU with a modified Harvard architecture, which features separate address spaces for instruction and data memory but the ability to read data values from instruction memory.

The TMS32010 featured a fast multiply-and-accumulate operation useful in both DSP applications as well as transformations used in computer graphics. The graphics controller card for the Apollo Computer DN570 Workstation, released in 1985, was based on the TMS32010 and could transform 20,000 2D vectors every second; the TMS320 architecture has been around for a while. The product codes used by Texas Instruments after the first TMS32010 processor have involved a popular series of processor named TMS320Cabcd where a is the main series, b the generation and cd is some custom number for a minor sub-variant. For this reason people working with DSPs abbreviate a processor as "C5x" when the actual name is something like TMS320C5510, since all products have the name "TMS320" and all processors with "C5" in the name are code compatible and share the same basic features. Sometimes you will hear people talking about "C55x" and similar subgroupings, since processors in the same series and same generation are more similar.

The TMS320 processors were fabricated on MOS integrated circuit chips, including both NMOS and CMOS variants. TMS320C1x, first generation 16-bit fixed-point DSPs. All processors in these series are code-compatible with the TMS32010. TMS32010, the first processor in the first series introduced in 1983, using external memory TMS320M10, the same processor but with an internal ROM of 3 KB TMS320C10, TMS320C15, TMS320C25, etc. TMS320C3x, 32-bit floating point TMS320C30, 27 to 50 MHz, 8 KB internal SRAM, 5 Volt. TMS320C31, 27 to 60 MHz, 8 KB internal SRAM, 5 Volt, subset of TMS320C30 by removing 2nd serial port, removing 2nd memory bus, replacing user ROM with factory ROM bootloader. TMS320LC31, 33 to 40 MHz, 3.3 Volt version of TMS320C31. TMS320C32, 40 to 60 MHz, 2 KB internal SRAM, 5 Volt, adds 2nd DMA coprocessor, changes external memory bus to allow 8/16/32-bit wide memory access where as other C3x parts are 32-bit only. TMS320VC33, 60 to 75 MHz, 136 KB internal SRAM, 3.3 Volt I/O with 1.8 Volt Core, superset of TMS320C31 by adding 128KB internal SRAM.

TMS320C4x, 32-bit floating point TMS320C40, 40 to 50 MHz, CMOS TMS320C44, subset of TMS320C40TMS320C8x, multiprocessor chipTMS320C80 MVP has a 32 bit floating-point "master processor" and four 32-bit fixed-point "parallel processors". In many ways the Cell microprocessor followed this design approach. C2000 microcontroller family consists of 32-bit microcontrollers with performance integrated peripherals designed for real-time control applications. C2000 consists of 5 sub-families: the newer C28x + ARM Cortex M3 series, C28x Delfino floating-point series, C28x Piccolo series, C28x fixed-point series, C240x, an older 16-bit line, no longer recommended for new development; the C2000 series is notable for its high performance set of on-chip control peripherals including PWM, ADC, quadrature encoder modules, capture modules. The series contains support for I²C, SPI, serial, CAN, watchdog, McBSP, external memory interface and GPIO. Due to features like PWM waveform synchronization with the ADC unit, the C2000 line is well suited to many real-time control applications.

The C2000 family is used for applications like motor drive and control, industrial automation and other renewable energy, server farms, digital power, power line communications, lighting. A line of low cost kits are available for key applications including motor control, digital power, LED lighting. TMS320C54x 16-bit fixed-point DSP, 6 stage pipeline with in-order-execution of opcodes, parallel load/store on arithmetic operations, multiply accumulate and other DSP enhancements. Internal multi-port memory. No cache unit. A popular choice for 2G Software defined cellphone radios GSM, circa late 1990s when many Nokia and Ericsson cellphones made use of the C54x. At the time, desire to improve the user interface of cellphones led to the adoption of ARM7 as a general-purpose processor for user interface and control, off-loading this function from the DSP; this led to the creation of a dual core ARM7+C54x DSP, which evolved into the OMAP product line. TMS320C55x generation - fixed-point, runs C54x code but adds more internal parallelism and registers, while supporting much lower power operation.

Today, most C55x DSPs are sold as discrete chips OMAP1 chips combine an ARM9 with a C55x series DSP. OMAP2420 chips combine an ARM11 with a C55x series DSP. TMS320 C6000 series, or TMS320C6x: VLIW-based DSPs TMS320C62x fixed-point - 2000 MIPS/1.9 W TMS320C67x floating point - code compatible with TMS320C62x TMS320C64x fixed-point - code compatible with TMS320C62x TMS320C67x+ floating point

Empresas Polar

Empresas Polar is a Venezuelan corporation that started as a brewery, founded in 1941 by Lorenzo Alejandro Mendoza Fleury, Rafael Lujan and Karl Eggers in Antímano "La Planta de Antimano", Caracas. It is the largest and best known brewery in Venezuela, but has since long diversified to an array of industries related to food processing and packaging covering markets abroad. Production of Cerveza Polar, a 5% abv lager began during the 1940s, the company grew into the largest beer producing company in Venezuela, producing Solera, Solera Heavy, Polar Heavy, Polar Fuego and Polar Zilch; the name comes from the polar bear. Maltin Polar “energia natural y full sabor”, is another of their most famous products, a Malta, similar to a nonalcoholic ale style beer, suited for all ages; the company produces five different brands of lager with slight variations in abv strength and taste, such as "Solera" at 6% abv, called Velde because of its bottle color, "Polar Pilsen" at 5% abv, called Negra or Negrita, "Solera Heavy" at 4.3% abv, called Cazul, "Polar Fuego" at 4.5% abv, "Polar Heavy" at 4% abv.

There is a nonalcoholic beer called "Polar Zilch". Polar's signature Pilsen product started distribution in the United States in 1985 under the leadership of Carlos Eduardo Stolk and Chairman of the Board of Empresas Polar for over 30 years, their non-alcoholic product aimed at the youth market, Maltin Polar, is a type of soft drink called Malta, similar to ale beers with hops but with some caramel flavouring. Its taste is comparable to that of a dark sweet beer; the company has diversified its range of products by acquiring other companies and now produces snacks, maize flour, ice-creams, soft drinks and malt beverages. Polar bought the food manufacturer Mavesa, which produces mayonnaise, margarine and a blue biodegradable soap; the company set a joint venture with the French cognac manufacturer Martell in the state of Lara to produce wines locally. The company's name is Bodegas Pomar. Polar is trying to expand their frontiers, by exporting some of their products to other countries some Polar products can be purchased in the United States of America.

Maltin Polar, Polar Beer and Harina PAN. The "Maltin Polar" and "Polar ICE" have been introduced into the Puerto Rican market. Cervecería Polar, C. A. Alimentos Polar, C. A. Pepsi Cola Venezuela, C. A. During the economic crisis in Venezuela in 2016 production of beer was suspended due to the firm's inability to access a supply of barley. RateBeer Empresas Polar

Snowden Bridge

Snowden Bridge is a high-clearance, vertical-lift railroad bridge, built in 1913, that spans the Missouri River between Roosevelt and Richland Counties in Montana, USA, between Bainville and Fairview and near Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site and the ghost town of Mondak near Montana's eastern border with North Dakota. Snowden Bridge is a near twin of the Fairview Bridge, which crosses the Yellowstone River in North Dakota, both bridges having been built by Montana Eastern Railway within ten miles of each other over different rivers in different states; the designer, John Alexander Low Waddell, based the Snowden Bridge on the South Halsted Street Bridge in Chicago. When completed, Snowden Bridge was the longest vertical-lift bridge in the world, its cost was $465,367, equivalent to at least $10,000,000 at the beginning of the 21st century. The War Department required a movable span on the grounds that large steamboats might venture up the Missouri during the month or so that the river was navigable that far north.

A kerosene engine in the lift house could raise it 43 feet in about thirty minutes. In theory, the movable span might be lifted by a hand-turned capstan; the span was last raised in 1935 and the lift machinery was removed in 1943. In 1925 a plank roadbed was built for one-way vehicular and foot traffic, while the bridge continued to be used by the Great Northern Railroad. Although a long bridge with one-way traffic and shared with railroad trains should have been spectacularly hazardous, a 1981 study found that it was "so dangerous that it safe" because drivers were extraordinarily cautious when crossing it. In 1977, when the Burlington Northern moved to exclude motor vehicles from the bridge, funds for a modern road bridge were appropriated. Snowden Bridge remained usable for vehicular traffic until 1985, when the MonDak Bridge was completed nearby in North Dakota. Debbie Crossland, “Snowden Bridge,” Sidney Herald, November 27, 2009. John Matzko, Reconstructing Fort Union, 153-54. Frederick L. Quivik, Historic Bridges of Montana 38, 71.

Coordinates: 48°00′00″N 104°05′44″W

Harry T. Edwards

Harry Thomas Edwards, an American jurist and legal scholar, is a Senior United States Circuit Judge and chief judge emeritus of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in Washington, D. C. and a professor of law at the New York University School of Law. Edwards was born in New York City, New York, the oldest of three children and the son of Arline Ross Edwards and George H. Edwards, his parents were divorced in 1950 and Edwards and his two sisters, Verne Debourg and Pamela Matthews, were raised by their mother. From 1952 to 1953, his mother attended Smith College, where she earned a Master's degree in social work. While his mother was away, Edwards lived with his grandparents, in the Harlem section of Manhattan, New York; when his mother returned, the family moved to Long Island, where Edwards attended Uniondale High School and was president of the first graduating class. In 1961, Edwards' mother married Thomas Lyle. Edwards received a Bachelor of Science degree from Cornell University in 1962 and a Juris Doctor from University of Michigan Law School in 1965.

He graduated from law school with distinction and was a member of the Michigan Law Review and the Order of the Coif. When he graduated from Michigan, he was the only African American in the law school. During his time in Michigan, Edwards spent time with his father, George H. Edwards, a long-time member of the Michigan House of Representatives. Despite his strong academic record in law school, Edwards had difficulty finding a job in the legal profession because he was African American. All of the major law firms to which he applied rejected him because of his race, it was only after Professor Russell Smith, his mentor at Michigan, interceded on his behalf that he was hired at Seyfarth, Fairweather & Geraldson. He worked with the firm in Chicago, Illinois from 1965 to 1970, specializing in labor relations law and collective bargaining. In 1970, he accepted an invitation to join the faculty of the University of Michigan Law School and became the first African American to teach at the law school.

His teaching and scholarship focused on labor law, collective bargaining, labor law in the public sector, employment discrimination, arbitration and higher education and the law. In 1974, he and his then-wife Becky, their children and Michelle, traveled to Brussels, where Edwards was a Visiting Professor of Law at the Free University of Brussels. In 1975, Edwards accepted an invitation to visit at Harvard Law School, he was a Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard Law School during the 1975–76 school year and accepted a tenured position on the law school faculty in 1976. While at Harvard, Edwards was a faculty member at the Institute for Educational Management at Harvard University from 1976 through 1982. During this period, he co-authored a book on Higher Education and the Law, a major shift in his academic work. In the spring of 1977, Edwards and his family returned to Ann Arbor, where he rejoined the faculty of the University of Michigan Law School. In 1980, Edwards was the co-author of four different casebooks.

In 1977, Edwards was nominated by President Carter and confirmed by the Senate to serve on the Board of Directors of Amtrak. He was subsequently elected Chairman by the other members of the Board, he resigned his position with Amtrak when he was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 1980. From 1970 until 1980, Edwards served as neutral labor arbitrator on a number of major company and union arbitration panels; when President Carter took office in 1977, there were only two blacks and one woman among the active federal court of appeals judges. To address this situation, the President established merit selection panels to identify and recommend qualified female and minority attorneys for appointment to the federal bench. In 1979, the judicial selection panel for the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit sent nine names to then-Attorney General Griffin Bell. From that list, President Carter nominated Patricia Wald, Abner Mikva, Edwards to serve on the court.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg was nominated when an additional opening arose on the D. C. Circuit. Edwards was nominated by the President on December 6, 1979 to a seat vacated by Judge David L. Bazelon, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 20, 1980; the President signed his commission to join the court on February 20, 1980. He was 39 years old when he joined the court, reputedly the youngest federal court of appeals judge sitting at the time. Judge Edwards served as Chief Judge from the fall of 1994 until July 2001. During his nearly seven years as Chief Judge of the D. C. Circuit, Edwards directed numerous IT initiatives at the D. C. Circuit. S. Courthouse, he assumed senior status on November 3, 2005. Since 1980, Judge Edw

Canada's Wonderland

Canada's Wonderland is a 134-hectare theme park located in Vaughan, Ontario, a suburb 25 kilometres north of Downtown Toronto. Opened in 1981 by the Taft Broadcasting Company and The Great-West Life Assurance Company as the first major theme park in Canada, it remains the country's largest; the park owned by Cedar Fair, has been the most visited seasonal amusement park in North America for several consecutive years. As a seasonal park, Canada's Wonderland is open daily from May to Labour Day, with weekend openings in late April and after Labour Day until October 27th, they removed Halloween day Halloween Haunt due to the transition between Halloween Haunt and Winterfest. With seventeen roller coasters, Canada's Wonderland is ranked second in the world by number of roller coasters, after Six Flags Magic Mountain, tied with Cedar Point; the 134-hectare park includes an 8-hectare water park named Splash Works. The park holds Halloween Haunt, a Halloween-themed event, each fall, as well as special events throughout the season, including various food festivals, as well as "Celebration Canada", a month-long Canada Day festival, among others.

Beginning in 2019, the park launched WinterFest, a holiday-themed event that would extend the park's operating season to late December. The park was known as Paramount Canada's Wonderland when it was owned by National Amusements via Paramount Parks from 1993 to 2006. Following Cedar Fair's purchase of the park in 2006, "Paramount" was dropped from the name. In 2018, it was the most visited seasonal amusement park in North America as well as the second most visited Cedar Fair amusement park, behind Knott's Berry Farm in California with an estimated 3.79 million visitors. When Canada's Wonderland was planned the region lacked a seasonal amusement park. Toronto had hosted two amusement parks which had roller-coasters, Sunnyside Amusement Park in the west end and Scarboro Beach Amusement Park in the east, but both were closed in the 1950s to build the Gardiner Expressway and housing developments, respectively. In 1972, the Taft Broadcasting Company, headed by Kelly Robinson, first proposed building a 134-hectare theme park in the small village of Maple, part of Vaughan, Ontario.

Several other possible locations in Ontario were considered, including Niagara Falls and Milton, but Maple was selected because of its proximity to the City of Toronto and the 400-series of highways. Others had considered the Greater Toronto Area as a spot to build a theme park, among them the Conklin family. Walt Disney considered the idea before choosing Florida for Walt Disney World, rejecting Toronto because of the seasonal climate, which would make the operating season too short to be profitable. Construction of the park was opposed on multiple fronts. Many cultural institutions in Toronto such as Ontario Place, the Royal Ontario Museum, the operators of the Canadian National Exhibition felt that the Toronto market was not large enough to support more competition. Other groups that fought the building of Wonderland included a Vaughan residential association called SAVE, which thought the increased traffic would reduce property values. People in the region were concerned that the new park would be similar in aesthetics to a carnival or midway.

Some of the concessions the company made included a landscaped berm around the park to reduce noise and modifying the appearance of the large parking lot. Taft was concerned about opposition and flew a group of opponents and regional councillors to Mason, Ohio to show them the positive impact of one of its theme parks on the local community. Canada's Wonderland was responsible for changing the master development plan for the province of Ontario; the provincial government wanted to increase residential and commercial development to the east of Toronto in the Regional Municipality of Durham, which includes Pickering and Oshawa, while keeping the lands to the north of Toronto agricultural, as a Greenbelt. The Wonderland promoters were able to convince the province to amend the planning policy for the region, the park secured infrastructure improvements, including a highway overpass and sewage systems, that were expanded and built out to the site; this infrastructure paved the way for increased development throughout the region.

Concerns were raised about the cultural implications of allowing an American theme park to open in Canada. Many felt. To counter the criticism, Taft planned to open Frontier Canada, a part of the park devoted to Canada's history. Early park maps show the area encompassing what is now Splash Works, White Water Canyon, the Action Theatre and the southern part of Kidzville. Taft proposed including a steam passenger train. While Frontier Canada was not brought up as an idea until 2019, several original themes remain in the area. Unlike its sister parks, Kings Island and Kings Dominion, it was decided early that the centrepiece of the park would not be a replica of Paris's famous Eiffel Tower. Instead, the park's designers chose to build a massive mountain, known as Wonder Mountain, situated at the top of International Street. Wonder Mountain featured a huge waterfall and interior pathways that led visitors to a look-out point; the interior pathways have remained closed. Hyatt House and Hyatt Place Vaughan at Canada's Wonderland, a hotel, was being built during the first half of 2019 and set to open late 2020.

On 13 June 1979, Ontario Premier Bill Davis depressed the plunger on an electronic detonating device at St. Lawrence H