State Council (Russian Empire)
The State Council was the supreme state advisory body to the Tsar in Imperial Russia. From 1906, it was the upper house of the parliament under the Russian Constitution of 1906. Early Tsars' Councils were small and dealt with the external politics. Peter I of Russia introduced the Secret Council. Catherine I of Russia introduced the Supreme Secret Council, its role varied during different reigns. Peter III of Russia created the Imperial Council on May 20, 1762, or, formally "The Council at the Highest Court", it was dismissed shortly after the succession of Catherine II of Russia. The State Council was established by Alexander I of Russia in 1810 as part of Speransky's reforms. Although envisaged by Speransky as the upper chamber of the Russian parliament, it was an advisory legislative body composed of people whom the tsar could trust; the number of members varied at different periods. Upon its establishment in 1810 there were 35 members; the main duty of the Council was the preliminary investigation and abrogation of laws.
There were four departments of the Council: Legislative. Each department had its own presiding officer and met separately to discuss matters assigned to their departments. There were plenary sessions of the whole Council presided over by the Chairman of the State Council; the Council as a whole examined projects of law proposed by the ministers who were ex-officio members. The majority of their sessions concerned the budget and state expenditures but they would examine anything submitted to them, they had no authority to propose changes to the law, to examine anything, not submitted to them for examination or decision-making authority. The Council only made recommendations to the monarch, who could support the majority, a minority, or disregard the Council's recommendations altogether, as he saw fit. According to Dominic Lieven it "played no part in the formulation of foreign policy and its members' access to the Emperor was limited. During 1906–1917, the status of the State Council was defined by the Russian Constitution of 1906.
Its chairman was appointed by the Tsar. Half of its members were appointed by the Tsar from persons distinguished at civil and military service, half by elections from various categories of society, separately: 56 seats from Zemstvo, 18 seats from Assemblies of Nobility, 6 seats from the Russian Orthodox Church: 3 of them from white clergy, 3 from black clergy, 12 seats from stock exchange committees, chambers of commerce and business associations, 6 seats from the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 seats from the Parliament of Finland, which refused to send delegates; the State Council was the upper house of the parliament, while the State Duma of the Russian Empire was the lower house. Compared to the contemporary British House of Lords and Prussian Herrenhaus, the Russian upper chamber was more democratically constituted, as half of its members were democratically elected from different sections of society, while the Herrenhaus consisted of hereditary peers, the House of Lords consisted of hereditary peers and clergy from privileged dioceses.
The State Council ceased to exist after the February Revolution of 1917. List of Chairmen of the State Council of Imperial Russia State Council of the Soviet Union State Council Out of My Past: Memoirs of Count Kokovtsov; the Russian ruling elite under Nicholas II. In: Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, vol. 25, n°4, Octobre-Décembre 1984. Pp. 429-454. DOI: 10.3406/cmr.1984.2022
Battle of Kars
The Battle of Kars was a decisive Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War. In June 1877, Russian forces attempted a siege of Kars but were driven off by an Ottoman army at the Battle of Kizil-Tepe. In November the Russian commander in the Caucasus, Grand Duke Michael, demanded the surrender of Kars but was refused; the Grand Duke sent a force under Ivan Lazarev to take the city by storm. From 9 October onwards, Lazarev led a 28,000 Russian army during the Battle of Kars. Among these 28,000 soldiers, the majority were Armenian volunteers who signed up to join the army of Lazarev. On November 17, Loris-Melikov attacked and succeeded in capturing the eastern fortifications and cutting off the garrison under Hussein Hami Pasha. Hussein Pasha attempted to cut his way out. Of the original 25,000 Turkish army, 7,000 died and 18,000 surrendered to Lazarev and were taken prisoner; the Treaty of San Stefano gave Kars to Russia and it remained in Russian possession until the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk after World War I.
In 1880, Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky wrote a triumphal march named "The Capture of Kars" in honor of the victory. Battles of the Russo-Turkish War Castle of Kars Compton's Home Library: Battles of the World CD-ROM
Kharkov Military District
The Kharkov Military District was a military district of the Russian Empire, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Soviet Union. Throughout its history, the district headquarters was located in the city of Kharkov in northeastern Ukraine. First established in 1864 in the Russian Empire as part of reforms of the military administrative system, the district was disbanded and its territory transferred to the Kiev Military District and the Moscow Military District in 1888; the district was reestablished by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War in January 1919, but disbanded in September after its territory was taken over by White troops. It was reestablished in January 1920 after its territory was recaptured by the Red Army, but was disbanded in 1922 and its troops subordinated to the Southwestern Military District, which soon became the Ukrainian Military District. In 1935, the district was reestablished when the Ukrainian Military District was split into the Kiev and Kharkov Military Districts.
On 22 June 1941, Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in World War II, began. A series of German victories resulted in the Soviet retreat from the district's territory, it was disbanded in late November. After Soviet troops recaptured the region in the Battle of the Dnieper, the Kharkov Military District was reestablished in late September 1943. After the end of the war it was downgraded to a territorial military district in February 1946 and disbanded several months with its territory being transferred to the Kiev Military District; the Kharkov Military District was first established on 22 August 1864 as part of Dmitry Milyutin's reform of the military administrative system. Its headquarters was in Kharkov, it controlled troops on the territory of Voronezh, Oryol, Poltava and Chernigov Governorates; the district was abolished on 31 October 1888, with most of its territory being transferred to the Kiev Military District, excluding Voronezh and Oryol Governorates, which became part of the Moscow Military District.
The following Imperial Russian Army officers commanded the district in the Russian Empire period between 1864 and 1888: General of Cavalry Vasily Launits General of Cavalry Sigizmund Merkhilevich General of Cavalry Pontus Brevern-de la Gardie General of Infantry Alexander Kartsov Lieutenant General Felix Sumarokov-Elston General of Infantry Alexander Minckwitz General of Cavalry Mikhail Loris-Melikov General of Cavalry Alexander Dondukov-Korsakov General of Infantry Dmitry Sviatopolk-Mirsky General of Infantry Fyodor Radetzky The Kharkov Military District was established for a second time by Order No. 39 of the military department of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of Ukraine, dated 27 January 1919. It controlled troops on the territory of Yekaterinoslav, Poltava and Chernigov Governorates; the headquarters of the All-Ukrainian General Staff was used to form the district military commissariat, it was subordinated to the Revolutionary Military Council of the Southern Front on 8 June.
The district was tasked with training reserve units for the front. On 10 May, in order to suppress to the uprising of Nikifor Grigoriev's Red Army troops, Kliment Voroshilov took temporary command of the district's troops until 25 May, when the uprising was defeated. In June the district's territory was taken over by the White Armed Forces of South Russia, the advance of the Volunteer Army on Kharkov forced the headquarters to flee the city before it was captured. Retreating in the face of the White advance, the district military commissariat was successively located in Sumy and Bryansk. On 1 September it moved to Moscow, was disbanded on 16 September. After the White retreat from its territory, the district was reestablished by Order No. 118/23 of the Revolutionary Military Council dated 23 January 1920, controlling troops on the territory of Yekaterinoslav, Poltava and Kharkov Governorates. The military commissariat of the disbanded Yaroslavl Military District was used to man the new district military commissariat, it was subordinated to the Revolutionary Military Council of the Southwestern Front.
On 23 February, the staff of the Ukrainian Reserve Army was merged with the district headquarters, the latter's commander became commander of the district military commissariat. The district was transferred to the control of the commander of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Crimea, Mikhail Frunze, on 3 December, after the defeat of the last White troops in Crimea. Nikolayev Governorate and Odessa Governorate became part of the district in May 1921; the troops of the district fought Ukrainian anti-Soviet partisans during this period, on 21 April 1922 it was merged with the Kiev Military District to form the Southwestern Military District, which soon became the Ukrainian Military District. The following commanders led the district military commissariat between 1919 and 1920: Sergey Kozyura A. I. Kashkarov Alexander Surik Vitaly Sharapov Ivan Shelykhmanov Georgy Bazilevich The following commanders led the district between 1920 and 1922: Fyodor Orlov Robert Eideman August Kork The district was reestablished by Order No. 079 of the People's Commissariat of Defense, dated 17 May 1935, which s
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Imperial Russian Army
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars; the last living veteran of the Russian Imperial Army was Ukrainian supercentenarian Mikhail Krichevsky, who died in 2008. Russian tsars before Peter the Great maintained professional hereditary musketeer corps known as streltsy; these were raised by Ivan the Terrible. In times of war the armed forces were augmented by peasants; the regiments of the new order, or regiments of the foreign order, was the Russian term, used to describe military units that were formed in the Tsardom of Russia in the 17th century according to the Western European military standards. There were different kinds of regiments, such as the regulars and reiters. In 1631, the Russians created two regular regiments in Moscow. During the Smolensk War of 1632–1634, six more regular regiments, one reiter regiment, a dragoon regiment were formed.
They recruited children of the landless boyars and streltsy, volunteers and others. Commanding officers comprised foreigners. After the war with Poland, all of the regiments were disbanded. During another Russo-Polish War, they were created again and became a principal force of the Russian army. Regular and dragoon regiments were manned with datochniye lyudi for lifelong military service. Reiters were manned with small or landless gentry and boyars' children and were paid with money for their service. More than a half of the commanding officers were representatives from the gentry. In times of peace, some of the regiments were disbanded. In 1681, there were 25 dragoon and reiter regiments. In the late 17th century, regiments of the new type represented more than a half of the Russian Army and in the beginning of the 18th century were used for creating a regular army. Conscription in Russia was introduced by Peter the Great in December 1699, though reports say Peter's father used it; the conscripts were called "recruits" Peter I formed a modern regular army built on the German model, but with a new aspect: officers not from nobility, as talented commoners were given promotions that included a noble title at the attainment of an officer's rank.
Conscription of peasants and townspeople was based on quota system, per settlement. It was based on the number of households it was based on the population numbers; the term of service in the 18th century was for life. In 1793 it was reduced to 25 years. In 1834, it was reduced to 20 years plus five years in the reserve, in 1855 to 12 years plus three years in the reserve; the history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Russian General Alexander Suvorov, considered one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. From 1777 to 1783 Suvorov served in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, becoming a lieutenant-general in 1780, general of infantry in 1783, on the conclusion of his work there. From 1787 to 1791 he again fought the Turks during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won many victories. Suvorov's leadership played a key role in a Russian victory over the Poles during the Kościuszko Uprising; as a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving Revolutionary France and the First French Empire, but as an adversary to Napoleon, the leadership of the new tsar, Alexander I of Russia, who came to the throne as the result of his father's murder became crucial.
The Russian army in 1805 had many characteristics of Ancien Régime organization: there was no permanent formation above the regimental level, senior officers were recruited from aristocratic circles, the Russian soldier, in line with 18th-century practice, was beaten and punished to instill discipline. Furthermore, many lower-level officers were poorly trained and had difficulty getting their men to perform the sometimes complex manoeuvres required in a battle; the Russians did have a fine artillery arm manned by soldiers trained in academies and who would fight hard to prevent their pieces from falling into enemy hands. Napoleon defeated the Russians and Austrians at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. On August 26, 1827, Nicholas I of Russia declared the "Statute on Conscription Duty"; this statute made it mandatory that all Russian males ages twelve to twenty-five were now required to serve in the Russian armed forces for 25 years. This was the first time that the massive Jewish population was required to serve in the Russian military.
The reasoning for Nicolas for mandatory conscription was because “in the military they would learn not only Russian but useful skills and crafts, they would become his loyal subjects."Many Jewish families began to emigrate out of the Russian Empire in order to escape the conscription obligations. Due to this, the government began to employ khappers who would kidnap Jewish children and turn them over to the government for conscription, it became known that "the khappers were not scrupulous about adhering to the minimum age of 12 and impressed children as young as 8."
Nice is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2. Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is 13 kilometres from the principality of Monaco and 30 kilometres from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region; the city is nicknamed Nice la Belle, which means Nice the Beautiful, the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. The area of today's Nice contains Terra Amata, an archaeological site which displays evidence of a early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, the goddess of victory.
Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port contributed to its maritime strength. For centuries it was a dominion of Savoy, was part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia until its re-annexation by France in 1860; the natural environment of the Nice area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century, when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winters there. The city's main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais owes its name to visitors to the resort; the clear air and soft light have appealed to notable painters, such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Their work is commemorated in many of the city's museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts. Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year.
It has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice; the first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years. Nice was founded around 350 BC by the Greeks Phoceans of Massalia, was given the name of Nikaia in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; the city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice. In the 7th century, Nice joined. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens. During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy; as an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence though related to Genoa; the medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.
The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was defended by walls. Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin. In 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy until 1860; the maritime strength of Nice now increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice. During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence. In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, the two monarchs concluded a ten years' truce.
In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580. In 1600, Nice was taken by the Duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, proclaiming full freedom of trade, the commerce of the city was given great stimulu