Tula Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically in the European Russia region of the country and is part of the Central Federal District, covering an area of 25,700 square kilometers and a population of 1,553,925. Tula is the capital of Tula Oblast. Tula Oblast borders Moscow Oblast in the north, Ryazan Oblast in the east, Lipetsk Oblast in the southeast, Oryol Oblast in the southwest, Kaluga Oblast in the west. Tula Oblast is one of the most developed and urbanized territories in Russia, the majority of the territory forms the Tula-Novomoskovsk Agglomeration, an urban area with a population of over 1 million; the Tula Oblast area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, as shown by discoveries of burial mounds and old settlements. By the Eighth Century, these lands were occupied by the Vyatichi, an East Slavic tribe who cultivated the land and worked at crafts, confirmed by records in property registers which mention an "ancient settlement" located at the confluence of the Upa River and Tulitsa River.
The first mention of the city of Tula in 1146 is found in the Nikon Chronicle, in reference to the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov. At the time the lands belonged to the Ryazan Principality, Prince Sviatoslav passed through a number of settlements, including Tula, while heading for Ryazan. Tula Oblast is located in Russia's Central Federal District and borders Moscow, Lipetsk and Kaluga Oblasts. Tula Oblast streams. Major rivers include: Don River Oka River Upa River The oblast is rich in iron ore, clay and deposits of lignite; the lignite deposit is part of the Moscow coal basin. Tula Oblast has a moderate continental climate, with cold winters. Average January temperature is − 9 °C in south. Average July temperature is about +19 °C to +20 °C. Annual precipitation is 470 millimetres in 575 millimetres in northwest. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tula CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Tula Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Tula Oblast Duma is the province's standing legislative body. The Oblast Duma exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 1,553,925 . Ethnic composition: Russians - 95.3% Ukrainians - 1% Armenians - 0.6% Tatars - 0.5% Azeris - 0.4% Romani people - 0.3% Belarusians - 0.2% Germans - 0.2% Others - 1.5% 19,778 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. 2002 Census population: Urban: 1,366,818 Rural: 308,940 Males: 755,057 Females: 920,701 Females per 1000 Males: 1219 Average age: 41.7 years Urban: 41.5 years Rural: 42.8 years Male: 37.8 years Female: 44.9 years2012Births: 15 499 Deaths: 27 197 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.31 | 2010 - 1.31 | 2011 - 1.32 | 2012 - 1.43 | 2013 - 1.42 | 2014 - 1.47 | 2015 - 1.57 | 2016 - 1.56 According to a 2012 survey 62% of the population of Tula Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims. In addition, 19% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, 3% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Tula Oblast is part of the Central economic region, it is a prominent industrial center with metalworking, engineering and chemical industries. Major industrial cities include Aleksin. Historical industries, such as firearm and accordion manufacturing, still play an important role in the region.
The oblast has a developed agricultural sector, which ranks 33rd in Russia in agricultural production. The sector includes farming grain, sugar beets, vegetable growing, livestock raising, dairying. Tula Oblast has as many as 32 museums. Several are located in the administrative center of the oblast, the city of Tula, notably the Tula State Arms Museum, the Tula Kremlin, the Tula Samovar Museum. Another important cultural tourist attractions is the home and country estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, located 12 km outside of the city of Tula; the oblast has four professional theaters, a philharmonic orchestra, a circus. List of Chairmen of the Tula Oblast Duma 2005 Moscow power blackouts Tula Arms Plant Official website of the Museum-Estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana"
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ivan Fyodorovich Michurin
Ivan Fyodorovich Michurin was a Russian architect whose designs marked a transition of Russian architecture from early Muscovite Baroque to mature Rastrelliesque style. Michurin studied in the Naval Academy and was apprenticed to Nicola Michetti before completing his education in Holland, he worked in Moscow, devising the first general plan of that city between 1734 and 1739. His best-known original building could be the main church of Svensky Monastery in Bryansk, although its attribution is disputed, he was responsible for the belfry of St. Clement's Church in Moscow. Empress Elizabeth sent him to Kiev to realize Rastrelli's design of Saint Andrew Church. Michurin's last project was the bell-tower of the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, finished by his disciple Dmitry Ukhtomsky
The Neglinnaya River known as Neglinka, Neglimna, is a 7.5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River. It flows in the tunnels under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Neglinnaya Street and Alexander Garden and Zaryadye; the Neglinnaya discharges into the Moskva River through two separate tunnels near Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge and Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge. The river in its natural state used to flow from the northern parts of Moscow to the south across the centre of the city; the Kremlin was built on a hill east of the Neglinnaya, using the river as a moat. The moat did not stop foreign invasions, but slowed down development of territories west of the Kremlin; when Muscovites began settling on the western side, territories around the Neglinnaya remained vacant due to frequent flooding. Muscovites constructed a number of dams, creating a chain of six interconnected ponds, used for firefighting, with watermills, forges and public baths. There were four bridges across the Neglinnaya River: Voskresensky Bridge, three-span Kuznetsky Bridge, Troitsky Bridge and Petrovsky Bridge.
The first plans to rebuild the Neglinnaya River, presented in 1775, materialized in 1792. A new masonry canal, one sazhen wide, was laid parallel to the Neglinnaya. After the Fire of Moscow, the canal was so polluted that the city cleared it and covered with a masonry vault, creating the first Neglinnaya Tunnel; this formed present-day Neglinnaya Street and Theatre Square. Before centralised city sewage, the tunnel doubled as a sewer, dumping the refuse into the Moskva river; the first reconstruction replaced part of the tunnel with a larger pipe, but was terminated by World War I. This new pipe, designed by engineer Schekotov, was adequate by any standard, could suffice, if completed in full length. Narrow cross-section of old pipe, could not accommodate the volume of water during high water and freshets, flooding central streets. In 1966, the city built a second arm for the Neglinnaya River. In 1974—1989, after the 1973 flood, the city built a new 4-kilometer tunnel, 3.47 metres high and 4.90 metres wide, from Durova Street to Metropol Hotel.
The old tunnel was re-used as a cable conduit. Present-day ponds on Manezhnaya Square are not an imitation; the real river runs too deep to be properly displayed. The area is dotted with diminutive statues on subjects taken from Russian fables designed by Zurab Tsereteli. Contractors report with photographs of 1965 flood www.mosinzhproekt.ru Russia Today image gallery
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Elizabeth of Russia
Elizabeth Petrovna known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country during the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, her domestic policies allowed the nobles to gain dominance in local government while shortening their terms of service to the state. She encouraged Mikhail Lomonosov's establishment of the University of Moscow and Ivan Shuvalov's foundation of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, she spent exorbitant sums of money on the grandiose baroque projects of her favourite architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli in Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. The Winter Palace and the Smolny Cathedral in Saint Petersburg are among the chief monuments of her reign, she remains one of the most popular Russian monarchs due to her strong opposition to Prussian policies and her decision not to execute a single person during her reign. Elizabeth was born at Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, on 18 December 1709, the daughter of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, by his second wife, Catherine I.
Catherine had been a maid in the household of Peter the Great and, although no documentary record exists, they are said to have married secretly at the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in St. Petersburg at some point between 23 October and 1 December 1707. Peter valued Catherine and married her again at Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg on 9 February 1712. On this day, the two children born to them were legitimized by their father; the circumstances of Elizabeth's birth would be used by her political opponents to challenge her right to the throne on grounds of illegitimate birth. Of the twelve children born to Peter and Catherine, only two daughters and Elizabeth survived to adulthood. Both of them were given the title of Tsarevna on 6 March 1711, of Tsesarevna on 23 December 1721, they had one older surviving sibling, crown prince Alexei Petrovich, Peter's son by his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina, a noblewoman. As a child, Elizabeth was the particular favorite of her father, she resembled him both temperamentally.
She was a bright girl, if not brilliant, but received only a desultory formal education. Though he adored his daughter, Peter did not devote time or attention to her education, he had a son from his first marriage to a noblewoman, did not anticipate that a daughter born to his former maid and second wife might one day inherit the throne. Indeed, no woman had sat upon the throne of Russia, it was therefore left to Catherine to raise the girls as best she could, but she was herself too uneducated to be able to superintend the formal education of her daughters. Elizabeth had a French governess and grew fluent in Italian and French, she was an excellent dancer and rider. Like her father, Elizabeth was physically active and loved riding, sledging and gardening. From her earliest years, she delighted everyone with her extraordinary beauty and vivacity, was regarded as the leading beauty of the Russian Empire; the wife of the British minister described Elizabeth as "fair, with light brown hair, large sprightly blue eyes, fine teeth and a pretty mouth.
She is inclinable to be fat, but is genteel and dances better than anyone I saw. She speaks German and Italian, is gay and talks to everyone..." Peter was enamored of western Europe, much of his fame rests on his efforts to westernize Russia. A corollary to this proclivity was his desire to see his children married into the royal houses of Europe, something which his predecessors had avoided. Peter's only son and heir was born of his first marriage to a nobleman's daughter, no problem was encountered in securing a bride for him from the ancient house of Brunswick-Lüneburg. However, Peter was hard put to arrange similar marriages for the daughters born of his second wife, a maid in his household, he was roundly snubbed by the Bourbons of France when, during a visit to that country, he offered either of his daughters in marriage to the future Louis XV. The French court conveyed to him in essence that the circumstance of their post-facto legitimization, the antecedents of their mother, made the girls unacceptable.
The young French king Louis XV would end up marrying the Polish noblewoman Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of the briefly-reigned King Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland, looked down by all of Europe as of insufficient rank to be Queen of France but politically suitable for the French ministers, much to the chagrin of the Empress Elizabeth. In 1724, Peter betrothed his daughters to two young princes, first cousins to each other, who hailed from the tiny north German principality of Holstein-Gottorp, whose family was undergoing a period of political and economic stress. Anna Petrovna was to marry Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, living in exile in Russia as Peter's guest after having failed in his attempt to succeed his maternal uncle as King of Sweden, whose patrimony was at that time under Danish occupation. Despite all this, the prince was of impeccable birth and well-connected to many royal houses; some time and in the same year, Elizabeth was betrothed to marry Charles Frederick's first cousin, Charles Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, the eldest son of Christian Augustus, Prince of Eu