A status symbol is a perceived visible, external denotation of one's social position and perceived indicator of economic or social status. Many luxury goods are considered status symbols. Status symbol is a sociological term – as part of social and sociological symbolic interactionism – relating to how individuals and groups interact and interpret various cultural symbols; as people aspire to high status, they seek its symbols. As with other symbols, status symbols may change in value or meaning over time, will differ among countries and cultural regions, based on their economy and technology. For example, before the invention of the printing press, possession of a large collection of laboriously hand-copied books was a symbol of wealth and scholarship. In centuries, books became more common, so a private library became less-rarefied as a status symbol, though a sizable collection still commands respect. In some past cultures of East Asia and jade were major status symbols, reserved for royalty.
Similar legal exclusions applied to the toga and its variants in ancient Rome, to cotton in the Aztec Empire. Special colors, such as imperial yellow or royal purple were reserved for royalty, with severe penalties for unauthorized display. Another common status symbol of the European medieval past was heraldry, a display of one's family name and history. Status symbols indicate the cultural values of a society or a subculture. For example, in a commercial society, having money or wealth and things that can be bought by wealth, such as cars, houses, or fine clothing, are considered status symbols. Where warriors are respected, a scar can represent courage. Among intellectuals being able to think in an intelligent and educated way is an important status symbol regardless of material possessions. In academic circles, a long list of publications and a securely tenured position at a prestigious university or research institute are a mark of high status, it has been speculated that the earliest foods to be domesticated were luxury feast foods used to cement one's place as a "rich person".
A uniform symbolizes membership in an organization, may display additional insignia of rank, specialty and other details of the wearer's status within the organization. A state may confer decorations, medals or badges that can show that the wearer has heroic or official status. Elaborate color-coded academic regalia is worn during commencement ceremonies, indicating academic rank and specialty. In many cultures around the world, diverse visual markers of marital status are used. Coming of age rituals and other rites of passage may involve granting and display of symbols of a new status. Dress codes may specify who ought to wear particular kinds or styles of clothing, when and where specific items of clothing are displayed; the condition and appearance of one's body can be a status symbol. In times past, when most workers did physical labor outdoors under the sun and had little food, being pale and fat was a status symbol, indicating wealth and prosperity. Now that workers do less-physical work indoors and find little time for exercise, being tanned and thin is a status symbol in modern cultures.
Dieting to reduce excess body fat is practiced in Western society, while some traditional societies still value obesity as a sign of prosperity. Development of muscles through exercise disdained as a stigma of doing heavy manual labor, is now valued as a sign of personal achievement; some groups, such as extreme bodybuilders and sumo wrestlers use special exercise and diet to "bulk up" into an impressive appearance. Ancient Central American Maya cultures artificially induced crosseyedness and flattened the foreheads of high-born infants as a permanent, lifetime sign of noble status; the Mayans filed their teeth to sharp points to look fierce, or inset precious stones into their teeth as decoration. Luxury goods are perceived as status symbols. Examples may include a mansion or penthouse apartment, a trophy spouse, haute couture fashionable clothes, jewellery, or a luxury vehicle. A sizeable collection of high-priced artworks or antiques may be displayed, sometimes in multiple seasonally occupied residences located around the world.
Owned aircraft and luxury yachts are movable status symbols that can be taken from one glamorous location to another. Status symbols are used by persons of much more modest means. In the Soviet Union before the fall of the Berlin Wall, possession of American-style blue jeans or rock music recordings was an important status symbol among rebellious teenagers. In the 1990s, foreign cigarettes in China, where a pack of Marlboro could cost one day's salary for some workers, were seen as a status symbol. Mobile phone usage had been considered a status symbol, but is less distinctive today, because of the spread of inexpensive mobile phones. Nonetheless Apple products such as iPod or iPhone are common status symbols among modern teenagers. A common type of modern status symbol is a prestigious luxury branded item, whether apparel or other type of a good; the brand name or logo is prominently displayed, or featured as a graphic design element of decoration. Certain brands are so valued that cheap counterfeit goods or knock-off copies are purchased and displayed by those who do not want to, or are unable to, pay for the genuine item
The Scottish Blackface is the most common breed of domestic sheep in the United Kingdom. This tough and adaptable breed is found in the more exposed locations, such as the Scottish Highlands or roaming on the moors of Dartmoor, it is known as Blackfaced Highland, Linton, Scottish Mountain, Scottish Highland, Scotch Blackface and Scotch Horn. Blackfaces are horned in both sexes, as their name suggests, they have a black face, black legs; this breed is raised for meat. The origins of the breed are uncertain, it was developed on the Anglo-Scottish border but it is not clear when it became a distinct breed. It replaced the earlier Scottish Dunface or Old Scottish Short-wool, a Northern European short-tailed sheep type similar to the modern Shetland. Records show that in 1503 James IV of Scotland established a flock of 5,000 Scottish Blackface Sheep in Ettrick Forest in the area south of Peebles in the Borders. Today the Blackface is the most numerous breed in the British Isles. Thirty percent of all sheep in the UK are Scottish Blackface.
The Blackface epitomises the mountain sheep. They have long coarse wool that biting winds, they are able to survive the harshest winters in the most extreme parts of Great Britain. Several types of Scottish Blackface have developed over the years, but the most common are the Perth variety, large framed, with a longer coat, found in north-east Scotland, Devon and Northern Ireland, the medium-framed Lanark type, with shorter wool found in Scotland and Ireland; the introduction of Black Faced Highland sheep to America first occurred in June, 1861, Hugh Brodie imported one ram and two ewes for Brodie & Campbell, New York Mills, New York. In 1867 this flock and increase was purchased by T. L. Harison of Morley, St. Lawrence County, New York. Isaac Stickney of New York imported a small flock about 1867 for his farm in Illinois. Blackface ewes are excellent mothers and will attempt to defend their lambs against predators, they are good milkers and are able to yield a lamb crop and a wool clip when on marginal pastures.
The breed spread from the border areas during the 19th century to the highlands and the Scottish islands. They crossed to Northern Ireland and the US. There are flocks scattered across the USA but this robust little breed has remained a minor breed in North America. Blackface lambs yield a carcass ideal for the modern consumer; the meat is known the world over for its distinct flavour. Although they are not large sheep they have enormous potential for the production of high quality lean lamb for today's health conscious consumer. There has never been a case of natural occurring Scrapie in a Scottish Blackface Sheep. In a controlled study in the UK goats and Blackface where infected by researchers but there is not one documented case of spread scrapie in a Blackface raised in the USA or the UK. Scrapie, an invariably fatal disease of sheep and goats, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy; the putative infectious agent is the host-encoded prion protein, PrP. Scottish Blackface wool Scottish Blackface wool is a speciality wool in a class of its own.
There are variations in type of fleece. In general, there are a central Scotland type; the southwest type is the finer, with a Bradford count of forty or so classed as short or medium: ewe's fleece of 3 to 4½ lb, greasy. The central type is a stronger wool classed deep strong; the main markets are the mattress and upholstery trade and heavy cloth trade. Strong Blackface wool undoubtedly makes the best mattress filling there is: the demand for this is good; the carpet trade all over the world uses large quantities of the medium class of Scottish Blackface wool. The finer wools are used for blending into many of the strong wearing clothes, over-coating, working tweeds and heavy blankets, The finest Scottish Blackface wool goes to the famous Harris tweed trade; the American Sheep Industry Association reports an average fibre diameter of 38 to 28 micrometres, staple length of 10 to 14 inches. Artisans have long treasured the horns of the Blackface for the carving of shepherd's crooks and walking sticks.
In the US the fleeces are becoming of interest to fibre artists and hand spinners for use in tapestry and the making of rugs and saddle blankets. UK Registry North American Registry US Breeders Guild
Calista Kay Flockhart is an American actress. She starred as the title character in the legal comedy-drama series Ally McBeal, Kitty Walker in the drama series Brothers & Sisters and Cat Grant in the superhero drama series Supergirl, she has been featured in a number of films, including the comedy film The Birdcage, the romantic comedy film A Midsummer Night's Dream, the drama film Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her. Flockhart has won a Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award, garnered three Emmy Award nominations, she is married to actor Harrison Ford. Calista Kay Flockhart was born in Freeport, the daughter of Kay Calista, an English teacher, Ronald Flockhart, a Kraft Foods executive, her parents live in Morristown, Tennessee. She has Gary, her mother reversed her own middle names in naming her Calista Kay. Because her father's job required the family to move Flockhart and her brother grew up in several places including Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, Norwich, New York; as a child, she wrote a play called Toyland which she performed to a small audience at a dinner party.
Flockhart attended Shawnee High School in New Jersey. Following graduation in 1983, Flockhart attended the Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. While there, she attended a specialized and competitive class, lasting from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. In her sophomore year at Rutgers, Flockhart met aspiring actress Jane Krakowski, the best friend of her roommate, they both would work together on Ally McBeal. People began recognizing Flockhart's acting ability when William Esper made an exception to policy by allowing Flockhart to perform on the main stage. Though this venue is reserved for juniors and seniors, Harold Scott insisted that Flockhart perform there in his production of William Inge's Picnic. Flockhart graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Theatre in 1988 as one of the few students who completed the course. Rutgers inducted her into the Hall of Distinguished Alumni on May 3, 2003. Flockhart moved to New York City in 1989 and began seeking auditions, living with three other women in a two-bedroom apartment and working as a waitress and aerobics instructor.
She would remain in the city until 1997. In spring 1989, Flockhart made her first television appearance in a minor role in an episode of Guiding Light as a babysitter, she played a teenager battling an eating disorder on a one hour Afternoon Special on TV. Flockhart made her professional debut on the New York stage, appearing in Beside Herself alongside Melissa Joan Hart, at the Circle Repertory Theatre. Two years Flockhart appeared in the television movie Darrow. Though she appeared in films Naked in New York and Getting In, her first substantial speaking part in a film was in Quiz Show, directed by Robert Redford. Flockhart debuted on Broadway in 1994, as Laura in The Glass Menagerie. Actress Julie Harris felt Flockhart should be hired without further auditions, claiming that she seemed ideal for the part. Flockhart received a Clarence Derwent Award for her performance. In 1995, Flockhart became acquainted with actors such as Dianne Wiest and Faye Dunaway when she appeared in the movie Drunks.
That year, Flockhart starred in Jane Doe as a drug addict. In 1996, Flockhart appeared as the daughter of Dianne Wiest and Gene Hackman's characters in The Birdcage. Throughout that year, she continued to work on Broadway, playing the role of Natasha in Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters. In 1997, Flockhart was asked to audition for the starring role in David E. Kelley's Fox television series Ally McBeal. Kelley, having heard of Flockhart, wanted her to audition for the contract part. Though Flockhart at first hesitated due to the necessary commitment to the show in a negotiable contract, she was swayed by the script and traveled to Los Angeles to audition for the part, which she won, she earned a Golden Globe Award for the role in 1998. Flockhart appeared on the June 29, 1998, cover of Time magazine, placed as the newest iteration in the evolution of feminism, relating to the ongoing debate about the role depicted by her character. Flockhart performed in a starring role as Kitty Walker, opposite Sally Field, Rachel Griffiths and Matthew Rhys, in the ABC critically acclaimed prime time series Brothers & Sisters, which premiered in September 2006 in the time slot after Desperate Housewives.
The show was cancelled in May 2011 after running for five years. Flockhart's character was significant throughout the series' first four years, but her appearances were reduced for the 2010–2011 season, coinciding with the departure of TV husband Rob Lowe. Flockhart played the role of Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream, a 1999 film version of Shakespeare's play. In 2000, she appeared in Things You Can Tell Just by Looking at Her and Bash: Latter-Day Plays accompanying Eve Ensler to Kenya in order to protest violence against women female genital mutilation. Flockhart starred in the Off-Broadway production of Ensler's The Vagina Monologues. In 2004, Flockhart appeared as Matthew Broderick's deranged girlfriend in The Last Shot. In the same year, Flockhart travelled to Spain for the filming of Fragile, which premiered in September 2005 at the Venice Film Festival, she was offered the role of Susan Mayer on Desperate Housewives but declined, the role went to Teri Hatcher. In 2014, Flockhart landed a role as mob boss Ellen.
It was expected to air in 2015. This had been Flockhart's first acting role in three years, after her hiatus when Brot
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as Socrates, among other political and cultural examples. In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible; the process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers and from the New Testament that witnesses died for their testimonies.
During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, on account of this witness, endures suffering or death. The term, in this sense, entered the English language as a loanword; the death of a martyr or the value attributed. The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion; the early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr. The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms. In the Bahá'í Faith, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God. However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained. Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the Kuomintang party in modern China.
Revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution and throughout the Republic of China period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs. In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness. However, over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, the witnesses put to death, the word martyr developed its present sense. Where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of Jesus in offering up their lives for truth; the concept of Jesus as a martyr has received greater attention. Analyses of the Gospel passion narratives have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style. Several scholars have concluded that Paul the Apostle understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom.
In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the Christians of the first few centuries would have interpreted the crucifixion of Jesus as a martyrdom. In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, it developed that a martyr was one, killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will certainly result in imminent death; this definition of martyr is not restricted to the Christian faith. Though Christianity recognizes certain Old Testament Jewish figures, like Abel and the Maccabees, as holy, the New Testament mentions the imprisonment and beheading of John the Baptist, Jesus's possible cousin and his prophet and forerunner, the first Christian witness, after the establishment of the Christian faith, to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen, those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned." From the time of Constantine, Christianity was decriminalized, under Theodosius I, became the state religion, which diminished persecution.
As some wondered how they could most follow Christ there was a development of desert spirituality, desert monks, self-mortification, following Christ by separation from the world. This was a kind of white martyrdom, dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a red martyrdom, the giving of one's life in a violent death. In Christianity, death in sectarian persecution can be viewed as martyrdom. For example, there were martyrs recognised on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England after 1534, with two hundred and eighty Christians martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I in England leading to the reversion to the Church of England under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559 and three hundred Roman Catholics martyred by the Church authorities in England over the following hundred and fifty years in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. More modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as Jesus Freaks though the numbers are disputed.
There are claims that the numbers of Christians killed for their faith annually are exaggerated. Despite the promotion of ahimsa within Sanatana Dharma
Philip K. Dick
Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. His work explored philosophical and political themes, with stories dominated by monopolistic corporations, alternative universes, authoritarian governments, altered states of consciousness, his writing reflected his interest in metaphysics and theology, drew upon his life experiences in addressing the nature of reality, drug abuse and transcendental experiences. Born in Illinois, he moved to California and began publishing science fiction stories in the 1950s, his stories found little commercial success. His 1962 alternative history novel The Man in the High Castle earned Dick early acclaim, including a Hugo Award for Best Novel, he followed with science fiction novels such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Ubik. His 1974 novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel. Following a series of religious experiences in February 1974, Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology and the nature of reality, as in such novels as A Scanner Darkly and VALIS.
A collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick, he died at age 53, due to complications from a stroke. Dick's writing produced 44 published novels and 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. A variety of popular films based on Dick's works has been produced, including Blade Runner, Total Recall, Minority Report, A Scanner Darkly, The Adjustment Bureau, Blade Runner 2049; the Man in the High Castle, was made into a multi-season television series. In 2005, Time named Ubik one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923. In 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series. Philip Kindred Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks prematurely on December 16, 1928, in Chicago, Illinois, to Dorothy and Joseph Edgar Dick, who worked for the United States Department of Agriculture, his paternal grandparents were Irish.
The death of Philip's twin Jane six weeks after their birth, on January 26, 1929, profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin" in his books. His family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area; when Philip was five, his father was transferred to Nevada. Both parents fought for custody of Philip, awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D. C. and moved there with her son. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School, his lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling". He was educated in Quaker schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, Stirring Science Stories in 1940 at the age of 12. Dick attended Berkeley High School in California, he and fellow science fiction author Ursula K.
Le Guin did not know each other at the time. After graduation, he attended the University of California, with an honorable dismissal granted January 1, 1950. Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology and zoology. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not correspond to external reality. After reading the works of Plato and pondering the possibilities of metaphysical realms, Dick came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not real and there is no way to confirm whether it is there; this question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out according to his third wife Anne's memoir, she says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. At Berkeley, Dick befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and linguist Jack Spicer, who gave Dick ideas for a Martian language. Dick claimed to have hosted a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947. From 1948 to 1952, Dick worked at a record store on Telegraph Avenue.
Dick sold his first story in 1951, about “a dog who imagined that the garbagemen who came every Friday morning were stealing valuable food which the family had stored away in a safe metal container”, from on wrote full-time. During 1952, his first speculative fiction publications appeared in July and September numbers of Planet Stories, edited by Jack O'Sullivan, in If and The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction that year, his debut novel was Solar Lottery, published in 1955 as half of Ace Double #D-103 alongside The Big Jump by Leigh Brackett. The 1950s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't pay the late fees on a library book." He published exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in mainstream fiction. During the 1950s, he produced a series of non-genre conventional novels. In 1960, he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succ
Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human
Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human is a science fiction novel by American writer K. W. Jeter, it is a continuation of both the film Blade Runner and the novel upon which the film was based, Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Several months after the events depicted in Blade Runner, Deckard has retired to an isolated shack outside the city, taking the replicant Rachael with him in a Tyrell transport container, which slows down the replicant aging process, he is approached by a woman who explains she is Sarah Tyrell, niece of Eldon Tyrell, heiress to the Tyrell Corporation and the human template for the Rachael replicant. She asks Deckard to hunt down the "missing" sixth replicant. At the same time, the templant for Roy Batty hires Dave Holden, the blade runner attacked by Leon, to help him hunt down the man he believes is the sixth replicant—Deckard. Deckard and Holden's investigations lead them to re-visit Sebastian and John Isidore, learning more about the nature of the blade runners and the replicants.
When Deckard and Holden clash, Batty's super-human fighting prowess leads Holden to believe he has been duped all along and that Batty is the sixth replicant. He shoots him. Deckard returns to Sarah with his suspicion: there is no sixth replicant. Sarah, speaking via a remote camera, confesses that she invented and maintained the rumor herself in order to deliberately discredit and destroy the Tyrell Corporation because her uncle Eldon had based Rachel on her and abandoned the real Sarah. Sarah brings Rachael back to the Corporation to meet with Deckard, they escape. However, recovering from his injuries during the fight uncovers the truth: Rachael has been killed by Tyrell agents, the "Rachael" who escaped with Deckard was Sarah, she has completed her revenge by both taking back Rachael's place. Rick Deckard: The Tyrell Corporation locates him, residing at a cabin in the woods with the frozen Rachael. In exchange for getting Rachael back, Deckard agrees to hunt the missing sixth replicant. Roy Batty: The man which Tyrell used as the template for his combat replicants is in fact a man of considerable instability, suffering from a brain disorder that prevents him from experiencing fear.
Sarah Tyrell: The niece of Eldon Tyrell, Sarah locates and hires Deckard to eliminate the final replicant in order to retain her corporation's hold over the market. Dave Holden: Starting off bed-ridden after his attack by the replicant Leon, Holden is rescued by Roy who in turn leads him to some startling revelations. J. R. Isidore: A lowly employee of a vet's office, Isidore works as an underground replicant sympathizer, having made modifications to replicants in order to help them escape detection; the book's plot draws from other material related to Blade Runner in a number of ways: Deckard, Sebastian, Leon and Holden all appeared in Blade Runner. Many of the parts of the "conspiracy" are based on errors or plot holes identified by fans of the original movie, such as Leon's ability to bring a gun into the Tyrell building, or the reference to the sixth replicant; the character of John Isidore, his "pet hospital", is taken from Dick's original novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, although that book contained no suggestion that the shop ran a sideline in modifying replicants.
Blade Runner's Sebastian was based on Electric Sheep's Isidore, though Jeter features them as separate characters in The Edge of Human. The idea of replicant models being mass-produced, in particular a woman identical to Rachael existing, is from Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. The etymology of the term "blade runner" is revealed to come from the German phrase bleib ruhig, meaning "remain calm." It was developed by the Tyrell Corporation to prevent news about replicants malfunctioning. However, it contradicts material in some ways: Sebastian was stated as being dead in the movie, yet he is alive in The Edge of Human. Pris was stated as being a replicant in both the movie and the original novel, yet The Edge of Human claims she was human. Pris was destroyed by Deckard in both the movie and the original novel. Sebastian's ability to bring Pris back to life as a replicant introduces numerous problems: the book implies that Sebastian was able to do this without realising that her original body was human.
It is unclear why Deckard would have left her, or any suspected replicant he retired, in a state from which they could be repaired. "The Final Cut" of Blade Runner removed the reference of a surviving sixth replicant, as it was considered a leftover from an early script. Michael Giltz of Entertainment Weekly gave the book a "C-", feeling that "only hardcore fans will be satisfied by this tale" and saying that Jeter's "habit of echoing dialogue and scenes from the film is annoying and begs comparisons he would do well to avoid." Tal Cohen of Tal Cohen's Bookshelf called The Edge of Human "a good book", praising Jeter's "further, deeper, investigation of the questions Philip K. Dick asked", but criticized the book for its "needless grandioseness" and for "rel on Blade Runner too the number of new characters introduced is small..."Ian Kaplan of BearCave.com gave the book three stars out of five, saying that while he was "not satisfied" and felt that the "story tends to be shallow", "Jeter does deal with the moral dilemma of the Blade Runners who hunt down beings that are human in every way."
J. Patton of The Bent Cover praised Jeter for " try[